Preparing to Conduct Business Research: Part 3 Angela Lopez, Brittney Krause, Barbara Lee, Brandi Weiler, Cherie Greene RES/351 September 3, 2012 Dean Gualco Preparing to Conduct Business Research: Part 3 INTRODUCTION With many of the organizations around problems, dilemmas, and opportunities will rise that will bring up questions, research and conclusions. First identifying the problem and planning to work towards resolving the organizations predicament.
After the problem has been identified then the leaders need to design a research study that will facilitate collecting, measuring, and the analyzing of the data that is relevant to the organization, its staff and its productivity. Now that the company has designed the research study they need to start the research study. By doing this it will answer many questions that lead toward identifying the appropriate solution. The organizations will follow all the guidelines which include any rules or steps towards making sure the right conclusion to the problem is found. They will also ensure that ethical conduct is also followed.
After looking at the Danya International and even with many other organizations is the need to increase their productivity. First researching the issue and possible solutions will help the organizations problem to the best of the organizations ability. The problem that we picked brings in many people from the company. The business leaders need to start researching what is going to help productivity. This could either be to hire more staff or even increase the wages. When an organization uses effective research it will lead their business leaders to good actions and decisions that also lead them to finding and creating the solution.
The guide lines are put into place to ensure that the organization follows and uses the tools properly to effectively conduct business research. POSSIBILITY OF FINDING A SOLUTION When looking at the possibility of finding a solution to our issue of increasing productivity is going to be high. When looking at research it has showed that employees are motivated and motivated employees are more productive. When looking at motivation it also works differently with all employees. When motivating employees it lets them show what they can do and that their voice matters or them as a person matters.
We can motivate employees by increasing their wages. The other side of our research question is increasing our staff to increase productivity. There can be different affects to this. When doing surveys the employees could be biased because they don’t want to lose or hours or not get a raise because or more employees. This means the employees could act biased when they are giving their answers to the survey. Making sure that we have a nice balance when sampling our people that we are surveying. When looking at the probability of finding a solution to either of our research questions is high when the research is done correctly.
This includes doing the sampling correctly. The research questions by adding additional staff or using affect motivation. RESEARCH QUESTION Concerning research questions, they are important components of a research project. Research questions can bring up questions which provoke interest in finding out more. When coming up with questions what are we solving like management problems who is involved. The researchers and mangers must formulate questions that when answered, represent solutions. Research questions best state the objectives of business research study (Cooper & Schindler, 2011).
A research question identifies the phenomenon of the specific study. An example, “What resources are helpful to new and minority drug abuse researchers? ” (Danya International, 2003) When bringing a strong research idea it is necessary to pass the “so what” test (Danya International, 2003). What is the potential impact of the research that is being proposed? What are the benefits when answering a research question? Whom is it going to help, and how will it help them. If a definitive statement of a research cannot be made then it is unlikely to be funded. The relationship between) Research focus should be narrow and not broad-based. (The relationship between) A good example is “What can be done to prevent substance abuse? ” or is it too large of a question to be answered. (Danya International, 2003) A good focused question consists of “What is the relationship between specific early childhood experiences and subsequent substance-abusing behaviors? ” (Danya International, 2003) * Will motivated workers be more productive? * Will additional staff increase the organizations productivity? * Will wage increases motivate the workers? HYPOTHESES
A hypothesis is a statement of prediction. A proposition is a statement about certain concepts that can be judged true or false. When a proposition begins to be tested, it is known as a hypothesis. (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). A hypotheses act as a tentative and conjectural nature between two or more variables within a research. There are many types of hypotheses. Descriptive hypotheses are one of the most common hypotheses. The existence, the size, the form, or the distribution of some variable is stated in descriptive hypotheses (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). There are many important functions of the hypotheses.
For starters, it acts as a path for the study. It also differentiates the facts relevant and those that are not. There are three qualifications that make hypotheses strong. These qualifications consist of the hypotheses being adequate for its purpose, testable, and better than its rivals. When discussing management problems within an organization, hypotheses can be used for research purposes. Based on the variables given, some examples of hypotheses are” Expanding organizations among new territories will prevent further issues. When an organization moves into a new territory it will affect the legal aspect of the business.
Moving the company into a new territory will benefit the financial growth of the organization. These hypotheses show purpose and can be tested for results. VARIABLES TO BE CONSIDERED Within any organization there are consistently new and changing issues that the organization must face. In an attempt to overcome these issues and learn from them for future knowledge many organizations have turned to business research methods. “Casual studies seek to discover the effect that a variable(s) has on another (or others) or why certain outcomes are obtained” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011).
With any issue there will be many variables to take into consideration. “The relationships that occur between two variables may be symmetrical, reciprocal, or asymmetrical. Of the greatest interest to the research analyst are asymmetrical relationships” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). If for example, the issue at hand was how best to go about expanding an organization into new territories, one variables would be the competition in the new territory. The organization would need to conduct research to see if this would be a beneficial move for the company.
Another essential variable to consider would be if the proposed move would take the company over state or even national borders, the differing laws, and how they will affect the organization. “With these we postulate that changes in one variable (the independent variable, or IV) are responsible for changes in another variable (the dependent variable, or DV)” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). RESEARCH DESIGN “Research design expresses both the structure of the research problem- the frame-work and the plan of investigation used to obtain empirical evidence on those relationships” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011).
Exploratory studies are useful when the researchers lack a clear idea of the problems they are going to meet in a study. In our research we don’t know why the company is not meeting their production needs to be successful. The lack of productivity from the current employees is known as part of the issue and the company needs to achieve higher their goal of productivity levels. The organization needs to know the problems so they can fix them. It could be the lack of motivation of the employees or even not enough pay. Exploratory study research can be looked at in all angles.
The surveys from current employees will help to determine what or how they will be motivated. Also the organizations surveys that are performed internally and externally. Motivation is in the eye of the beholder. Some employees will be motivated to work harder for more pay but when that isn’t enough they may want more money. Some of the employees might just want a few incentives that make them feel good about work. Exploratory research design will give our study more choices that may be needed to get the information that is needed to determine that factors that will increase productivity the most.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS When looking at increasing productivity it is essential to afford rising costs, while staying competitive, and to avoid future downsizing. If the organization wants to be successful it will need to institute the measures by the end of the year. If the organization does not do this it will force them to eliminate jobs in the upcoming year. We are going to use the three-prong approach to test the hypotheses and the research questions. Using surveys within the company that are computer generated, experimentation, and administered interviews.
The organization leaders will invite the employees by encouraging them to participate in the survey. There will be time constraints because the surveys will need to be done during already schedule shifts. The organization will need to start the automated computer surveys within the next two days. The employees that participate in the survey will receive a $10 gift card at time of completion. When collecting surveys computer generated is the fastest why of collecting the data. It is also the quickest way to get the employees on and off the computer.
When employees complete the survey, it will inform researchers that gift card was sufficient to motivate them for greater productivity. This survey will also solicit the employees for their input for improving the quality of life and productivity in the workplace. With an improved quality of life it will make the employees more comfortable in the workplace which will help motivate them to increase productivity. The next prong of the research approach is the experimentation. This consists of two control groups. There will be a control group 1 that will include all of the employees that already work at the organization.
The second control group 2 will be a group of temporary employees that are hired for the purpose of increasing productivity. Group 1 is going to have a temporary wage increase based on the information that is obtained during the computer automated survey. This will be a 60 day period. At the end of this 60 day period the researchers will measure and compare the additional productivity of the group 2 to group 1 increase in productivity. Based on the comparison that we get it will lead the business leaders to the answer to our hypotheses. The business leaders then will make a decision accordingly to the findings.
There then is the third prong which is going to consist of the interviews. As was stated in the reading, “The interview is the primary data collection technique for gathering data in qualitative methodologies” (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, n. p. ). With our initial research it is quantitative the interview information of a qualitative nature will assist in the triangulation with the quantitative research of answering the described hypotheses. We will do the interviews at the end of the 60 day period which is going to serve as our follow up to the computer generated surveys.
This interview will allow the researchers and the business leaders to gauge the level of employee motivation that is relative to the change in productivity. SAMPLING The sampling method for chi square statistics is very similar to that of T and F tests. They assume certain parameters of the population from which the samples are drawn. (Module s7 -) Nonparametric statistical procedures test hypothesis involving different assumptions that the populations are normally distributed. (Module s7 -) There is also an assumption that there is homogeneity of variance.
Chi Square is employed to test the difference between an actual sample and another hypothetical or previously established distribution such as that which may be expected due to chance or probability. (Module s7 -) Chi Square can also be used to test differences between two or more actual samples. (Module s7 -) If a single sample is used the test would see the number of responses from the sample fall into different categories. This is known as a one way classification. If Danya International were compiling a survey to gather research on issues using the Chi Square statistics there would be several questions referring to company issues.
The answers from the sample which would be employees would then be categorized. The most numerous answers would be categorized as most pressing issues. These would be brainstormed and addressed after reviewing information from the survey. The sampling frame for this survey would come from the population needed. This is a company survey so addressing company issues. The sampling frame would be employees that currently work for the company. When making the decision of which direction to go for statistical testing it is important to fully review all of the options available.
There are two general classes of significance tests. The choice is between nonparametric and parametric testing. With parametric testing the results “are more powerful because their data are derived from interval and ratio measurements. Nonparametric tests are used to test hypotheses with nominal and ordinal data. ”(Cooper & Schindler, 2011) As researchers it is essential to determine which direction the testing should go. For this study this was done by considering many questions such as, “does the test involve one sample, two samples, or k (more than two) samples? (Cooper & Schindler, 2011) or “If two samples or k samples are involved, are the individual cases independent or related? ”(Cooper & Schindler, 2011) After all the considerations were applied this particular situation it was decided that the statistical testing that was to be used was the chi-square test. As the mostly widely used this testing approach best fits the situation as “ typical” are cases where persons, events, or objects are grouped in two or more nominal categories such as “yes-no,” “favor-undecided-against,” or class “A, B, C, or D. (Cooper & Schindler, 2011) This is the most obvious choice for the survey system that was chosen for testing. HOW THE RESULTS WILL BE DISPLAYED For the Chi-square testing approach the results will need to be displayed in a table format. This will provide the best possible visual of all the results collected during the survey process. It is here in these results tables where anyone wanting to view the results will be capable to quickly retrieve the information they desire. According to Cooper and Schindler when choosing the sample size the organization needs to have complete information to have accurate results.
For example if organization wanted to do a sample size base on its population of customers and what item was most purchase items. The organization has to follow the following to achieve it is objective such as: “The precision desired and how to quantify it: a. The confidence level we want with our estimate. b. The size of the interval estimate. 2. The expected dispersion in the population for the investigative question used. Whether a finite population adjustment is needed” (Cooper and Schindler, pg. 394). With every research such as trying to achieve the sample size it has comes with dilemmas.
Some of those dilemmas can consist of ethical issues consist of “data can also be misleading, inaccurate, or unethically applied thereby eroding the goodwill and credibility previously established by the presenter” (Cooper and Schindler, pg. 601). ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS In these days they are so many ethical issues that arose in some organizations. Few of them will be done by the employee’s fort their personal purpose as well as by the CEO for the organization. In this case the organization that we are using is Danya International.
This organization has several unethical and ethical issues. On ethical issue that Danya International has is in reference to drug abuse cases in the Southeast Asia. The Danya International with the collaboration of the United States State Department’s Bureau for International Narcotics and the Law Enforcement Affairs as formed a group to help with the reduction of the overseas rising consumption of illicit drugs. (2005) Danya International with the United States created a project with the name Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia.
This project as helped the countries of Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand with the drug addiction that is facing they are facing. Basing on the researches that has been done by the Danya International team research in 2002, as proven that the project as accomplish its objective, which is to control the drug abuse by their communities. Options to increase wages to entice employees to work harder or freeze wages and hire new employees are both great options to increase productivity. The reasoning for this is both offer the same goal and can result in the same action.
There are many different ethical considerations that must be accounted for. The wage increases can raise ethical issues for the organization if it is not done ethically. This means giving each employee the same amount of a pay raise. The wage increase must be done fair and consistent between the workers and departments. Bias can’t be shown between departments or employees that have friendships, preference, or any other kind of relationship. It needs to be ethical and professional and not bribery that make an agreement for the employees to worker harder but it is more of an understanding.
A wage increase doesn’t give the company the right to give the employees more hours that is over the amount for the week or even more days. Adding more staff is another good way to increase the productivity. More people means more work is getting done. With adding more staff this could bring up ethical issues. This could be discriminating against prospective an employee which is unethical. Hiring can’t be based sex, color, race, age, and the person’s views. The employees that are hired are entitled to minimum wage and employers should not force them to work for less.
The ethical consideration taking in account in this case is that in spite of some of the unethical issues that Danya International have in other areas, they have done a great job by supporting these different countries with their intense drug addiction. CONCLUSION In order for organizations such as Danya International to handle issues, opportunities, or problems many steps need to address. First Danya International will have to research questions, such questions are important because it lead to good brainstorming. These types of research questions lead up to hypotheses.
With any issue, opportunities, and/or problem many variables need to be address. Regardless of the situation organizations need to be aware of the ethics behind every action and decision. Danya International has taken in consideration of unethical practices with other companies. Danya International’s priority is to keep an ethical company by accomplishing it is objective. Works Citied Cooper, D. & Schindler, P. (2011). Business Research Methods (11th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Danya International, I. (2003, August 12). The research assistant. Retrieved from http://www. theresearchassistant. om/tutorial/2-1. asp The relationship between the research question, hypotheses, specific aims, and long-term goals of project. The Research Assistant. Retrieved from http://theresearchassistant. com/tutorial/2-1. asp? &lang=en_us&output=json&session-id=ba9215fa380e22e41b854c09fa09d9db Module s7 - chi square. Research Design in Occupational Education. Retrieved from http://www. okstate. edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage28. htm? &lang=en_us&output=json&session-id=ba9215fa380e22e41b854c09fa09d9db (2005). GAO: United States Government Accountability Office.