Introduction Figure 1: Restored Book Restoration can be defines as to return or make as before, to reestablish something, to bring back the material as the original form. In the other word, restoration is the process of improving the condition of every kind of archival and library materials as far as practicable. Restorative Techniques is an innovative supplier of surface cleaning systems and products. Its technical expertise of materials and substrates is based both on professional knowledge and also long experience in the use of safe cleaning.
Restorative Techniques has considerable, technical and practical experience within the surface conservation and restoration fields, yet recognizes that continual improvements can be sought and introduced. There have their own aim of restoration and the aim is to re-establish physical and functional integrity of a work by remedying the alterations which it may have undergone. There are also have many type and differentiate the techniques of restoration. There are fumigation, cleaning, de acidification, and repair. 2. 0 Restoration Techniques . 1 Fumigation Figure 2 Fumigation Section Fungi are the major group of lower plant which cannot be processed food itself. That’s why this kind of species seems interested in a diet of paper or parchment. They includes moulds, mushrooms, and yeast which live on dead organic material and parasitic form on living plants and animals such as mildews and the athlete’s foot fungus, to mention only a few. In general, Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within.
It is utilized for control of pests in buildings, soil, grain, and produce, and is also used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms. Fumigation process is infested incoming collections to kill living thing insects and eggs. Fumigation also is the distribution of a chemical pesticide as a gas through spaces and materials. This is because gas molecules exist separately and independently. They spread widely into small cracks and crevices. They penetrate into tightly packed materials.
The term “space fumigation” designates generally a wide range of treatments in enclosed spaces that either contains infested materials or themselves have residual insect populations. This spreading of individual molecules makes fumigants different from aerosols. On the fumigation process, they have their own objectives. Firstly is this process goes to kill bibliophagons insects such as bookworm, cockroaches, booklice, termites, silverfish and etc. Another objective of fumigation is to prevent the bibliophagons insects from destroying library and the archival material.
This existence on the information materials will make the information material that belongs to more easily and quickly decompose. In the term of principals, fumigation also has principals that in should be recognized that materials, mode of construction, and dimensions are flexible as long as some basic principals are respected. The effective fumigation archived by enclosing objects to treated in the atmosphere of thymol vapour generated by gentle heating of the thymol crystals for a sufficiently long period to assure exposure of all part of the objects.
Next is any volume much greater than the suggestion design should have an additional heater-bulb combination, any volume much smaller should have dish and bulb for about nine cubic feet or 25 cubic meters. Lastly is the openness of internal construction is crucial that’s mean the shelf construction must allow for free vertical circulation of the vapors. Figure 3: example one of the bibliophagon insects This restoration technique using chemicals material to kill and prevent bibliophagons insects which is may destroy library and archival materials. Fumigation techniques mostly use 5 types of chemicals.
There are paradichlorobenzena, thymol, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, and nitrogen. Figure 4: one example of paradichlorobenzena Firstly is about paradichlorobenzena. Paradichlorobenzena is used as a fumigant insecticide to control clothes moths. It is also found in deodorant blocks made for trash cans and toilets. In the fumigation technique, this chemical is action insecticide agents. This shape is as volatile solid that is smelly and easy to vapour when it exposure to the air. In this progress of fumigation, the document should be placed in “V” form on the net inside the cabinet.
The document is placed in “V” form for make the chemical will touch every sheet of the document. In each of this process need 1 kilogram paradichlorobenzene and the document will be fumigate in 14 days. Second chemicals are thymol. This is terminator agent for fungus. The existence of this chemical will be seen as solid and this chemical produce strong smell. The fumigation progress for this kind of chemicals is similar to the progress on paradichlorobenzena but for thymol, the document s will be exposed to the thymol vapour in the area impervious steel cabinet.
In using this kind of chemical, for each process only need 20 grams thymol and the document also will be fumigated in 14 days. Thirdly is formaldehyde. This kind of chemical is act as terminator agent for insect and fungus. This chemical will become a methanol liquid when it combines with water and 40% formaldehyde. This chemical will produce pungent smell. Figure 5: Ethylene Oxide Gas Sterilizers Fourthly is ethylene oxide. This chemical will act as terminator agents for insects and fungus. This chemical will produce gas that will absorb to the atmosphere.
This chemical cannot longer use anymore because this chemical produce very strong toxic. The last chemical is nitrogen. This kind of chemical is act as terminator agent for insects. In the form of heavy gas, this chemical can reduce number of oxygen on the atmosphere and on this situation insects can be killed. This process will fumigate document for 60 hours. 3. 2 Cleaning Beside fumigation, cleaning is also one of the restoration techniques that can be practice by the information agency. Aside from obscuring text, dirt can attract moisture, mold spores and pollutant.
Dirt also has abrasive quality that weakens the structure of leather and paper. In general, cleaning and repair of paper materials should be carried out by a professional conservator. This cleaning process is function as process to remove stain in the paper surface. The method used in the cleaning process is based on the type of dirt or stains. The wrong method used in the cleaning process will causes a serious damage for the paper. The cleaning process will be done through 3 methods. There are mechanical, solvent and washing. For each of method should be done carefully on the cleaning process.
Figure 6: tools that use on Mechanical Cleaning The first method of cleaning on the restoration technique is mechanical cleaning. This objective of mechanical cleaning is to remove dust, mould, and any stain that caused by biological agent. This method only can be done for document which has a strong ink for to maintain the ink not removed from the document. The document should be dry and the physical appearance is strong enough for the treatment. This progress of treatment required in a huge space, which have good atmosphere. The cleaner must wear musk during the process of treatment.
On this kind method of cleaning needed vacuum cleaner, brush, and eraser. For vacuum, it used must in the low rates and start from the middle of the document. Cleaner must make sure the document is vacuum proof. In the using of brush, it uses to remove dust from the paper surface. Brush is used if the vacuum cleaner is not suitable for the document. The brush used must be soft and suitable the document. It also starts brushing from the middle of the document. Last tools on cleaning method are eraser. It used to remove solid stain from the document. Cleaner is scattering the powder eraser on the paper surface.
Cleaner used cotton to clear the stain and brush is needed to clean the paper surface. Second method used on cleaning is solvent cleaning. The solvent used is non-aqueous solvent. Solvent cleaning only involved area of stain. The cleaner that running this progress must avoid using so much solvent and it will be inviting harmful to the document more and easy to destroy. It is alternative method for strong stain as soon as the brush and eraser fail to remove the stain. No. | Types of Stains| Solvent for Treatment| 1. | Ink| Alcohol| 2. | Ballpoint pen ink| Methylated spirit, Diethylene, Alcohol| 3. Chocolate| Hydrogen peroxide| 4. | Grease/ oil| Tricholoroethylene, Perchloroethylene, Turpentine| 5. | Lacquer| Aceton, Alcohol, Toluene| 6. | Mildew| Hydrogen peroxide| 7. | Mud| H2o and Ammonia| 8. | Rust| Exalic acid| 9. | Cellophane| Chloroform, Aceton, Petroleum, dicholomethalene, Alcohol | 10. | Tar| Petroleum ether| 11. | Varnish| Ethyl or Methyl| 12. | Wax| Petroleum ethyle| Table 1: Type of Stain and Solvent used Last method used on cleaning is washing. There have very suitable water that used in washing process. It is called “hardwater” which is contains a lot of calcium.
This is an alternative way to remove and clean stains of others method is fails. 3. 3 De-acidification De-acidification is other way to extend longevity of the information agency collectible is to de-acidify them before storage. It is also applicable for once of the restoration techniques. This way also is available for home use. On information agency, de-acidification processes are used to extend the life of books, manuscripts, and others paper based materials used by neutralizing acids in paper and impregnating it with alkaline reserve that will continue to protect it from acid induced degradation in the future.
The processes of de-acidification mostly have three type of treatment. There is aqueous de-acidification, non-aqueous de-acidification and vapour-phase de-acidification. Figure 7: Progress on Aqueous De-acidification First is about aqueous de-acidification. It can change the acidity paper to become alkaline by using magnesium bicarbonate. It is solutes between magnesium distilled water. The ratio of the mixed material is 40 gram magnesium with 10 liters of distilled water. It used as put the documents into the water for about 35-40 minutes and then the document should be dry with used the direct sunlight.
Figure 8: Progress on Non-Aqueous De-acidification Secondly is non-aqueous de-acidification. This is the mixed chemical between barium hydroxide and methanol. It mixed between 19 grams barium hydroxide and 1 liter methanol. This liquid will spray to the documents that want to be de-acidification. In the sprayed process, barium hydroxide will absorb to the paper structures and it will turn to barium carbonate when exposed to carbon dioxide in the air Lastly is vapor phase de-acidification. It is mix the carbon dioxide with cyclohexylamine carbonate (CHC).
In this progress the document will be exposed to CHC steam. Now days, this method does not recommended to used widely due to the highly poisonous effect. 3. 4 Repair In the repair progress have two type of repair process. First is traditional repair and second is lamination. In the kind of traditional repair is including minor repair, full repair and tissue repair. Second is lamination. On lamination process involves solvent lamination and heat lamination. On repair technique on restoration have principal itself.
Which is no process of repair allows for the removal, diminishing, falsification or making obscure, and any way the document value as evidence. Another is broken seal in arrangement should not be reconstructed because that action will destroyed the validity of the material. Next is writing was vanished. It is no attempt should be made to reinsert it or no replacement of the documentation should be done be rewriting it. Last principal is the document should not be trimmed to remove the decayed edges that can disturb the originality of the document. Figure 9: Book that need tissue repair
On the traditional repair, it suitable for hand written document/ manuscript and unique/ rare material. On this technique need very high skill and patient. With no the characteristic that can invite damage the word and ink of the document. On traditional repair have three types which are minor repair, full repair and tissue repair. About minor repair, it is repair a certain area of the document that have small tear, minor damage or torn of the book. Besides that, full repair that involve major face lift. It is using same type of paper to cover any holes on the paper by using leaf casting machine.
It will increase the stability of the paper structure by using Japanese tissue/ hand makes paper or silk chiffon or lens tissue. This method suitable for one sided document such ad manuscript, map and plan. On the three type of repairing progress needed the own material. There is glue that from starch or oat or rise, Carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), hand makes paper, lens tissue (L2), silk chiffon, acid free, and absorbent papers, release paper. On this progress also used bowl, brush, tracking iron, bone folder, spatula, scoring pen, span and art brush for assist to make the repairing process more clearly.
Figure 10: The type of lamination Besides traditional repair, lamination is also involved on the type of repair. The function of lamination is to avoid brittle and easy broken of paper. It uses supportive materials to corroborate the stability of the paper structure. It suitable in applying on printed material. There have two type of lamination. It is solvent and heat. On solvent lamination, it is acetone mix with acetate foil to become adhesive. Next the document will be paste on the special tissue. Lastly the acetone which contained in the adhesive will make the paper dry and hard.
Second is heat lamination. On lamination, the document will be press for about 340F and it is suitable for book and newspaper. 3. 0 Conclusion In conclusion, the restoration technique needs the very high skill of conservator to restore or preserve or conserve the information material on the information agency. The high skill and long experience on this field will make the material more long lasting and more stable but without the high skill of conservator, it will make the material itself having more damage and easy brittle and broken when the document want to be used.
So on this restoration technique cannot be seen easily and must always be more carefully for use the long time period of the document. References 1Bankole O. M. (2010). A review of biological deterioration of library materials and possible control strategies in the topic. Vol. 59 No. 6, Retrieved on 20 July 2011. Retrieved from <http://www. emeraldinsight. com/researchregister> Ball, P. , Nature. , & -, S. U. (n. d. ). 2A – Colloidal Science and Nanotechnology for Cultural Heritage Conservation. MATSCI Home Page. Retrieved July 12, 2011, from <http://matsci. nipv. it/CSGI/projects/2A-005. html> Fumigation. (n. d. ). bumipest. Retrieved July 15, 2011, from <http://www. bumipest. com/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&id=13&Itemid=15> REYDEN, D. V. (n. d. ). The Preservation Directorate at 40 (May 2007) – Library of Congress Information Bulletin. Library of Congress Home. Retrieved July 17, 2011, from <http://www. loc. gov/loc/lcib/0705/directorate. html> Schechter, Abraham A.. Basic book repair methods . Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 1999. Print. APPENDICES