Production in Airport Security
Abstract The morning on September 11th was like any other morning - Production in Airport Security introduction. People went to work, and went on about their normal routines. In our airports that day people were checking in their bags, walking through metal detectors, and sending carry-ons through the x-ray machines. The day was anything but normal when members of Al-Qaeda had planned to hijack four commercial passenger jet airliners. Since then security has been a common topic of controversy. Numerous changes have taken place at all airports to prevent any attacks from happening again.
In this paper, we focus on innovative technology production in airline security, the federalization of passenger screening operations, changes that are mainly visible to federal regulatory responses to the 9/11 attacks related to improving airline security, we will review airport security procedures, and explain the production in passengers and baggage screening technology, concluding on the TSA role in airport security. Keywords: TSA: Transportation Security Administration.
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Al-Qaeda: A global broad based militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden sometime between August 1988 and late 1989. Airport Security and Passengers Safety in the aviation Industry Each day hundreds of flights depart from other countries en route to and from the United States, so security is important along with working with foreign countries to secure all transportation of airlines. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) protects its passengers by inspecting air carrier operations to the U.
S, assessing the security of airports overseas, and addresses many compliances and reviews of airport security. One of the main goals of every airport and airline is to make sure the passengers experience is safe, easy, and problem free. Airports take a lot of behind the scenes work to handle the thousands of people who use the airport each day as well as their luggage. Airports are constantly running countless systems to make things run smoothly, much of which is never thought about by passengers who uses the airport.
Baggage handling is an important part of the airports job; An airport’s baggage handling system has 4 basic functions: (1) to move the bags quickly and efficiently from the check-in area to the departure gate, (2) to move bags from one gate to another during transfers (connecting flights), (3) to move bags from the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area, (4) and lastly, to provide a step somewhere along the line for Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to scan bags for explosives or other hazardous materials before the bag makes it to the airplane’s cargo hold.
Effective and fast security procedures have always been an important goal for airports and airlines to ensure safe and successful travel for the public and the nation as a whole. After the attacks on September 11th, security measures have been drastically increased, leading to PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 5 more work for the airport, longer waiting times for passengers, and more steps needed to get people and baggage from the street to their airplane.
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act, which created the TSA in 2001, mandated that by the end of 2002, 100% of checked baggage must be electronically screened for explosives or other weapons. This is an enormous task for airports. Most passengers these days know that when they check in a bag, it is required to go though screening before entering the plane, just like they and their carry-on baggage does. However, what most people are unaware of is what goes on behind the scenes.
According to the TSA, there are currently two methods of screening checked baggage, what the TSA refers to as “Stand-alone” inspection systems, and the new more efficient “In-line” inspection systems. The “Stand-alone” inspection systems or the “manual” inspection systems are often found near check-in counters and they are very labor intensive and usually require 2-3 TSA agents to work them. Bags that have already been checked in arrive at the inspection area, usually by the passenger physically carrying it over to them.
Then an agent then physically picks up the bag and places it into an Explosive Detection System or EDS. These machines can quickly determine if the bag contains explosives, or other materials which are potentially threatening. If a weapon or explosive is detected, TSA officers are alerted and appropriate steps are then taken. This step is time consuming and slows down the airports entire baggage handling system. Today, The TSA is pushing for airports to use “In-line” inspection systems which require the integration of TSA’s explosive
detection systems (EDS). These systems are the size of minivans and are put into the airports conveyor belt baggage handling system. In-line systems are completely automated and do not require TSA agent to operate the EDS machine. In-line systems use automated networks of conveyor belts and chutes to obtain the same results, with a fraction of the time and cost to operate compared to stand-alone systems. In-line systems eliminate the EDS machines that would have been in the already congested lobby and baggage check-in areas.
According to the TSA, a typical stand-alone EDS machine can process around 150 – 160 bags per hour, whereas an in-line system using the same EDS machine can process up to 500 bags per hour. The average of 2 million people fly each day, and more than half of them, go though airports that are now using in-line systems for screening their baggage. The only con of in-line systems is that they are very costly and time consuming to construct into an existing baggage handling system and sometimes require the airport’s entire baggage handling system to be redesigned.
According to TSA, there are currently 25 full or partial in-line systems operational, and an additional 26 systems are under construction throughout the U. S. Most airports already have some sort of conveyor belt system to sort baggage and get it from one place to another, and it seems as if it wouldn’t be that hard to install explosive detection system (EDS) machines somewhere in the line to scan all bags in the airports baggage handling system. However, it is much more complicated than it seems.
If a bag does trigger an alarm in one of the EDS machines, an alert is sent to what TSA calls a “resolution room” where the bags image scan can be seen, and trained officers can decide whether or not the alert was a false alarm, or if it needs to have a physical inspection. When a physical inspected is needed, the officer can route the bag to an inspection area, via conveyer, where a TSA officer physically PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 7 screen the contents of the bag. Once the alert is resolved the bag is placed back onto the conveyor system where it is sent back on its way to the plane.
Most new in-line systems are heavily automated and are equipped with laser scanners that can scan a bags barcode tag at almost any angle as the bag passes by on the conveyor system. After bags have finished being screened the in-line system then sorts each bag and drops it off on to a conveyor that will bring it to the correct area. All of this requires many complex automated conveyors, and in most cases requires the airport to re-think their existing baggage handling system to gain the best use of the airports space, and to make the process more streamlined.
According to FederalBusinessOpptunities. gov, the Transportation Security Administration posted a public notice in 2009 requesting information, and seeking vendors for Next-Generation baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) the document invites vendors of EDS machines and other interested parties to provide information on what kinds of systems are out there and what they have in the design phase. The goal of this was to find a company to provide EDS machines for the TSA to use.
The document contains very detailed specifics on what the TSA requires in a EDS machine, and most of the requirements are available to the public, but If a company is interested in participating they can apply and the TSA will send them a DVD of the most sensitive security information, each person with access to this secret information must have signed a non-disclosure agreement. An airports baggage handling system is very important to the daily operations of the airport, if it is a successful system, the travelers will be satisfied, and the airlines will also be happy with the airport.
Baggage handling systems are unique for each airport, and the level of automation varies significantly. With the technology becoming more and more available, airports entire baggage handling systems are becoming more and more automated. Although there are not many fully automated baggage handling systems in use at this time, it has been done before, and many airports have plans or under construction of very highly automated systems.
The Most infamous case of Automated baggage handling systems is the system at Denver International Airport which was originally going to be “the most advanced system in the world” at the time, but ended up being a great failure. In 1995, Denver airport was built an extremely complex, fully automated baggage handling and sorting system that would have served the entire airport. The system never worked as planned and was scraped all together in 2005. The main cause of the failure was the underestimation of complexity, and changes in the airports requirements after it had been opened.
The case in Denver has scared most airports away from automating baggage handling systems, but the technology for automated systems has multiplied since 1995. Shipping companies such as FedEx and UPS currently use highly automated technology to quickly sort packages and get them to the right trucks, and the concept is the same for airports. In the next decade or so we will see much more automation in the baggage handling systems of airports which will increase the productivity of the airport and streamline the process.
There is a lot to learn from what happened in Denver. The most effective way to add automation to a system in an airport is to do certain sections at a time; the first step for most airports is the highly automated in-line security section of the system. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) The Transportation Security Administration is an agency established in 2001 to safeguard United States transportation systems and insure safe air travel. And was formed in response to the attacks of September 11, 2001.
The avoidance and diminution of susceptibility to terrorist attacks in the United States became the job of Homeland Security. They also became in charge of support with the improvement process and to minimize the harm of any terrorist assaults that might happen in the United States the Transportation Security Administration became a part of Homeland Security in March of 2003. “Layers of security used by the TSA“ The transportation security administration applies levels of security also known as layers of security according to the (tsa.
gov) to guarantee the safety measures of the traveling public and the Nation’s transportation system. The TSA is mostly joined together with the airport checkpoints as a result of their visibility to the public. These checkpoints, on the other hand, represent only one security layer of the countless in position to guard the aviation industry. Additional contain intelligence gathering and analysis, moreover federal flight deck officers and extra security evaluates both noticeable and undetectable to the public.
Individually, each one of the layers used by the U. S aviation security alone is competent of stopping or terminate a terrorist attack. In arrangement their protection value is increased, creating a much stronger, formidable system. Overall, a terrorist who has to rise above numerous security layers in order to achieve an attack is more expected to be caught, deterred, or not succeed throughout the effort. The transportation security administration recognizes that threats to aviation security will prolong.
Now a day, they are more refined and more intricate than ever before. The TSA is obliged to utilize every tool necessary at their disposal to deal with those numbers of threats and increase techniques of fighting them. As we all know, the exercise of latest and innovative technology assists them to stay ahead of those that aim to harm our nation. With layered security the air transportation system is sheltered and protected against all types of terrorism. In accordance with (aviationknowledge.
com) there are twenty layers of security for the protection of air security which includes: Intelligence, customs and border protection, joint terrorism task force, no fly list and passenger pre screening, crew vetting, visible intermodal prevention and response, canines, behaviour detection officers, travel document checker, checkpoint transportation security officers, baggage, transportation security inspectors, random employee screening, bomb appraisal officers, federal air marshal service, federal flight deck officers, trained flight crew, law enforcement officers, hardened cockpit door, last and most importantly passengers.
They each play an important role as display below on determining, identifying, and solving threats when it comes to air safety. Intelligence An intelligence officer responsibility is to establish any current and future threats to aviation security. Customs and border protection Also known as CBP is one of the biggest and most difficult departments from Department of Homeland Security. Their purpose is to protect and assist trades and passenger travel against the U. S. immigration and drug regulations to keep terrorists and weapons away from the U. S. nations No fly list and passenger pre screening
People who are being listed in the No Fly List are considered to be higher degree of threat in aviation security. Since 2001The list has grown from 100 to approximately 3000. Bomb appraisal officers BAOs present a highly developed security process in which facilitates other personnel enhance their abilities at the checkpoints. They have operational experience in the military Explosive Ordnance Disposal units or other law enforcement bomb squads. Passengers Passenger is the last line of defense in the system; it is mandatory for every Passengers to go through a number of screening processes once they have entered into the security checkpoint.
These processes include X ray, metal detector, trace explosive detector and maybe even a pat down search if they appear to be mistrustful by the officers. Even though layered security appears like a great system that protects the industry from terrorism, there are reasons which have caused inconvenience and difficulties to airlines, airports and passengers at the same time there are countless advantages to having a strong system of layered security. As mentioned earlier the main reason is to protect all parties involving in the operation away from threats.
Conclusion The numbers of air passengers who pass through airports every day entails the maximum levels of protection. Terrorist menace to airport movements are becoming progressively more universal. Airports are a target of selection mainly because of the financial and social distraction that can be reasoned. As stated previously from the time since the attacks that occurred on September 11, airport and airline protection and securities have become tremendously essential in the United State and globally.
Every major international airport has embarked on motivated course to improve protection and security systems. Premeditated threats share certain characteristics; assailants are impossible to distinguish from the public or approved employees. Based on a networked union, arranged crime and trafficking are difficult distinctive and hierarchical airport security measures. As open public atmospheres are visited by many people, airports are defenseless and vulnerable by nature. Secrecy makes it difficult to recognize illegal and unauthorized activities from lawful ones.
Nonstop flows of people and goods make it uncomplicated for any person to try illegitimate actions or bring out terrorist or criminal acts. As we all know attacks can happen at any time and any place within a large perimeter. It is sometimes difficult to ensure detection in a location where so many activities occur simultaneously. Airport operators have therefore come a long way with those innovative technologies, always looking for new approaches to address global security risks and improves the protection against these evolving threats while facilitating the flow of passengers and goods.
In conclusion, we are moving into a new era of better aviation security. Because of hard lessons learned from previous terrorist and criminal attacks the government and the industry is better prepared in the best position ever with modern technology to confront the current threat. References http://blog. tsa. gov/2008/03/how-we-do-what-we-do-baggage-screening. html http://science. howstuffworks. com/transport/flight/modern/baggage-handling. htm http://blog. tsa. gov/2008/12/in-line-baggage-screening-increased. html http://www. tsa.
gov/press/where_we_stand/inline_baggage. shtm http://calleam. com/WTPF/? page_id=2086 http://www. nytimes. com/2005/08/27/national/27denver. html? pagewanted=all Thomas, A. R. (2003). Aviation Insecurity-The New Challenges of Air Travel. Transportation Security Administration. (2010). Layers of Security. Retrieved from TSA on 23rd february 2012 Transportation Security Administration Blog. (2010) Layered Security. Retrieved from TSA Blog on 23rd february 2012 Tsa layered security. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://aviationknowledge. wikidot. com/aviation:security-layers