We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

See Pricing

What's Your Topic?

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

What's Your Deadline?

Choose 3 Hours or More.
2/4 steps

How Many Pages?

3/4 steps

Sign Up and See Pricing

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Get Offer

Project on Growth of Retail Sector in India

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

Deadline:2 days left
"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

Growth of Retail Sector in India Submitted by Robin Tayal Course: MPE 2008-10 Section : B, Semester 3rd Roll No :- 168 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Industry Overview 02 – 06 2. Organized Retail Sector 07 – 09 3. Origin of retail 10 – 14 4. Indian Retail Industry 15 – 19 5. Retailing Formats in India 20 – 21 6. Specialty stores 22 – 26 . Organized Retail Sector 27 – 29 8. Major Industry Players 30 – 40 9. The growth Drivers 41 – 47 10. Swot of the Market 48 – 51 11. Challenges 52 – 54 12. Location Planning 55 – 61 13. Competitor Analysis 62 – 64 4. Future Outlook 65 – 66 15. Technology in retail 67 – 73 16. Government initiatives and regulation 74 – 77 17. Research methodology 78 – 80 18. Research analysis 81 – 83 19. Conclusion 84 20. Consumer survey questionnaire 85 – 88 21. References 89

Industry Overview Industry analysis of the Indian retail sector: Modern retailing has entered India in form of malls and huge complexes offering shopping, entertainment, leisure to the consumer as the retailers experiment with a variety of formats, from discount stores to supermarkets to hypermarkets to specialty chains.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Project on Growth of Retail Sector in India
Just from $13,9/Page
Get custom paper

However, kiranas still continue to score over modern formats mostly due to the convenience factor i. e. near to their house. This organized segment typically comprises of a large number of retailers, greater enforcement of taxation mechanisms and better labour law monitoring system.

It’s no longer about just stocking and selling but about efficient supply chain management, developing vendor relationship quality customer service, efficient merchandising and even the labour class is also in the working process timely promotional campaigns. The modern retail formats are encouraging development of well-established and efficient supply chains in each segment ensuring efficient movement of goods from farms to kitchens, which will result in huge savings for the farmers as well as for the nation. The government also stands to gain through more efficient collection of tax revenues.

Network marketing has been growing quite fast and has a few large players today. Gas stations are seeing action in the form of convenience stores, ATMs, food courts and pharmacies appearing in many outlets. In the coming years it can be said that the hypermarket route will emerge as the most preferred format for international retailers stepping into the country. Estimates indicate that this sector will have the potential to absorb many more hypermarkets in the next four to five years List of retailers that have come with new formats:

Retailer Current Format New Formats Shoppers’ Stop Department Store Quasi-mall Crossword Large Bookstore Corner shop Piramyd Departmental Store Quasi-mall, Food retail Pantaloon Own brand store Hypermarket Subhiksha Supermarket considering moving to self service Globus Department Store Small fashion stores

Traditionally, the kirana retailing has been one of the easiest ways to generate self-employment, as it required minimum investment in terms of land, labour and capital. These store are not affected by the modern format of retailing. In order to keep pace with the modern formats, kiranas have now started providing more value-added services like stocking ready to cook vegetables and other fresh produce. They also provide services like credit, phone service, home delivery etc.

The organized retailing has helped in promoting several niche categories such as packaged fruit juices, hair creams, fabric bleaches, shower gels, depilatory products and convenience and health foods, which are generally not found in the local kirana stores. Looking at the vast opportunity in this sector, big players like Reliance has announced its plans to become the country’s largest modern retainers by establishing a chain of stores across all major cities. Apart from metro cities, several small towns like Nagpur, Nasik, Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Sholapur, Kolhapur and Amravati has seen the expansion of modern retails.

Small towns in Maharashtra are emerging as retail hubs for large chain stores like Pantaloon Retail because many small cities like Nagpur have a student population, lower real estate costs, fewer power cuts and lower levels of attrition. However, retailers need to adjust their product mix for smaller cities, as they tend to be more conservative than the metros. In order for the market to grow in modern retail, it is necessary that steps are taken for rewriting laws, restructuring the tax regime, accessing and developing new skills and investing significantly in India. India is rated as the most attractive retail markets pic] Socio demographic factors will lead to faster growth of Organized retail in India: [pic] ORGANIZED RETAIL Emerging Retail Markets: The study based its results on four variables: ‘country risk’, measuring political risk, debt and credit ratings; ‘market attractiveness’, encompassing retail sales per capita, population, infrastructure and regulations; ‘market saturation’; and ‘time pressure’. The higher the ranking, the more urgency for retailers to enter the market, according to the study, which ranks the top 30 emerging countries for retail development and focuses on mass-merchant and food retailers. If you want to be an international player in retail, these are the markets that demonstrate the characteristics (where) you can be successful,” said Laura Gurski, a co-author of the study and partner in A. T. Kearney’s consumer and retail practice. India has already attracted the attention of global retailers like Wal-Mart Stores Inc. , which is working with India’s Bharti Enterprises to set up a joint venture for a cash-and-carry business. In India, foreign multiple-brand retailers, which sell diverse brands under one roof, are limited to cash-and-carry and franchise or license operations. India’s window of opportunity continues to be wide for retail investment and development,” the report said. “Once India’s window closes for grocery retailers, there will be little opportunity for market domination in the main cities. ” The country’s growing population of young urban professionals with disposable incomes and the nouveau riche has also made India attractive for luxury retailers. India has attracted “the low end and the high end because of the breadth of the consumer segments that are available,” said Gurski.

When variables stay constant, Gurski said, do-it-yourself, apparel and electronics retailers usually enter emerging markets some two years after international grocers establish themselves. Middle Eastern countries are also represented on the list, with Saudi Arabia ranking No. 10 India has emerged as the world’s most attractive destination for mass merchant and food retailing, maintaining its 2008 position in an annual study of retail investment attractiveness among 30 emerging markets. India was given the top ranking in management consulting company AT Kearney’s Global Retail Development Index (GRDI). The Indian retail market is gradually but surely opening up, while China’s market becomes increasingly saturated,” said Fadi Farra, a principal in AT Kearney’s Consumer Industries and Retail Practice and leader of the GRDI study. Much to the surprise of market observers, China was ranked fifth in this year’s tally, declining one more place since . While China remains very attractive, the market is becoming increasingly saturate as and United Arab Emirates No. 18. Gap Inc announced last week it had struck a deal with two franchisees to open Gap stores in Saudi Arabia starting at the end of this year.

Dubai has capitalized on consumer desire for a more Western lifestyle and has established itself as a retail mecca, Gurski said. Despite its focus on luxury, Dubai is “just beginning to be populated by the bread-and-butter retailers of the United States and the Western world,” she said. Retailers that have already established a presence in major Chinese cities like Shanghai and Beijing, or those that have been slow to gain a foothold there, are now looking at less developed markets in second-tier cities, the study found. “If the markets are saturated, they’re looking to make profits in the second-tier cities,” Gurski said.

But she cautioned that a separate strategy is needed for the smaller markets since consumer tastes, ability to spend and willingness to embrace new formats may be different than in larger urban areas. International retailers rush to establish a presence and build market share, the study reveals. According to the study, Asia with a large 40 per cent of the top 20 markets has surpassed Eastern Europe as the ‘dominant region for global retail expansion. ‘ “The learning is that timing is the most important source of competitive advantage for global and regional retailers in the globalization race.

Knowing when to enter emerging retail markets is the key to success,” said Farra. Powering Asia’s charge are Vietnam, which has risen five places to third place, and countries like Thailand, South Korea and Malaysia, all of which are in the top 15, After topping the ranking for two consecutive years , Russia slipped to second place behind India last year and remained there in 2009 Origin of Retail Sector Early Trade: When man started to cultivate and harvest the land, he would occasionally find himself with a surplus of goods.

Once the needs of his family and local community were met, he would attempt to trade his goods for different goods produced elsewhere. Thus markets were formed. These early efforts to swap goods developed into more formal gatherings. When a producer who had a surplus could not find another producer with suitable products to swap, he may have allowed others to owe him goods. Thus early credit terms would have been developed. This would have led to symbolic representations of such debts in the form of valuable items (such as gemstones or beads), and eventually money. HOW RETAIL DEVELOPED:

Peddlers and Producers: The Retail Trade is rooted in two groups, the peddlers and producers. Peddlers tended to be opportunistic in their choice of stock and customer. They would purchase any goods that they thought they could sell for a profit. Producers were interested in selling goods that they had produced. General Store: This division continues to this day with some shops specializing in specific areas, reflecting their origins as outlets for producers (such as Pacific Concord of Hong Kong), and others providing a broad mix, known as General Store (such as Casey’s in the Midwest of the U.

S. A. ). Although specialist shops are still with us, over time, the general store has increasingly taken on specialist products. Customers have found this to be more convenient than having to visit many shops – thus the term “Convenience Store” has also been applied to these shops. As the popularity of general stores has grown, so has their size. This combined with the advent of Self-Service has lead to the Supermarket, or Superstore. Early Markets: Over time, producers would have seen value in deliberately over-producing in order to profit from selling these goods.

Merchants would also have begun to appear. They would travel from village to village, purchasing these goods and selling them for a profit. Over time, both producers and merchants, would regularly take their goods to one selling place in the centre of the community. Thus, regular markets appeared. The First Shop : Eventually, markets would become permanent fixtures i. e. shops. These shops along with the logistics required to get the goods to them were, the start of the Retail Trade. The Birth of Distance Retailing:

Defined as sales of goods between two distant parties where the deliverer has no direct interest in the transaction, the earliest instances of distance retailing probably coincided with the first regular delivery or postal services. Such services would have started in earnest once man had learned how to ride a camel, horse etc. When individuals or groups left their community and settled elsewhere, some missed foodstuffs and other goods that were only available in their birthplace. They arranged for some of these goods to be sent to them.

Others in their newly adopted community enjoyed these goods and demand grew. Similarly, new settlers discovered goods in their new surroundings that they dispatched back to their birthplace, and once again, demand grew. This soon turned into a regular trade. Although such trading routes expanded mainly through the growth of traveling salesmen and then wholesalers, there were still instances where individuals purchased goods at long distance for their own use. A second reason that distance selling increased was through war.

As armies marched through territories, they laid down communication lines stretching from their home base to the front. As well as garnering goods from whichever locality they found themselves in, they would have also taken advantage of the lines of communication to order goods from home. Origins of Retail It is likely that, as markets became more permanent fixtures they evolved into shops. Although advantageous in many respects, this removed the mobility that a peddler or traveling merchant may still have enjoyed.

For some shopkeepers, it made sense to obtain extra stock and open up another shop, most probably operated by another family member. This would recover business from peddlers and create new business and the greater volume would allow the shopkeeper to strike a better deal with suppliers. Thus the retail chain would have started. Its thought that this process would have started in china over 2200 years ago with a chain of shops owned by a trader called Lo Kass. The First Self-Service Store: This all changed in 1915 when Albert Gerrard opened the Groceteria in Los

Angeles, the first documented self-service store. This was soon followed a year later by the Piggly Wiggly® self-service store, founded by Clarence Saunders in Tennessee in the U. S. Growth: This new type of shopping was more efficient and many customers preferred it. Although personal service stores remain to this day, this new concept started a rapid growth of self-service stores in the United States. Other countries were slow to take up the idea, but there has been a steady rise in the global amount of self-service stores ever since. Efficiency

These entrepreneurs noticed that their staff had to spend a great deal of time taking grocery orders from customers. The groceries were stacked on shelves allowing customers to walk around and browse, collecting their shopping in a basket that was supplied. The shopkeeper would only need to tot up the final bill at the end of the process and transfer the goods from the basket to the customer and receive payment. From Family Business to Formal Structure: Although retail chains would have been mostly run by families, as some chains grew, they would have needed to employ people from outside of their family.

This was a limiting factor as there would have been a limit to the amount of trusted non family members available to help run the chain. Another, even more definite limiting factor was the distance the furthest shop would have been from the original shop. The greater the distance, the more time and effort would have been needed to effectively manage outpost shops and to service them with goods. There was, therefore, a natural barrier to expansion. That was the case until transport and communications became faster and more reliable. When this happened towards the end of the 19th century, chains became much bigger and more widespread.

Many of these businesses became more structured and formalized, leading to the retail chain that we see today. [pic] [pic] Indian Retail Industry UNORGANISED RETAIL SECTOR: Today, retailing doesn’t involve just dealing or marketing from shops, it includes analyzing the market in an effort to provide reasonable prices together with an array of options and experience to customers. The sole purpose of all this is retaining the brand loyalty of customers. Indian retail is currently a US$ 245 billion market and is anticipated to extend to almost US$ 385 billion mark by the next five years.

The Indian retail sector is currently sporting a brand new look and together with a 46. 64 per cent three-year Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR), Conventional marketplaces are paving way for new shopping malls, the likes of superstores, shopping plazas, supermarkets and brand label stores. International style shopping centers have started dotting the skyline of cities and smaller towns, acquainting the Indian customer to a unique shopping experience. The retail industry in India is split up into the unorganized and organized retail segments.

The unorganized retail sector includes the big, average and modest grocery stores and the chemist shops. A changeover is taking place from the conventional retail sector to organized retailing. But the unorganized segment still dominates and leads the industry. By 2011, the Indian retailing sector is anticipated to become an Rs12. 5 trillion market. The share of organized retailing is supposed to jump to about 10 per cent from the existing three per cent. The anticipated staggering growth in organized retailing provides an opportunity to expand the market for both established and new players.

According to the latest report India Retail Sector Analysis (2006n07)I by RNCOS, the total retail market is primarily focused in rural regions, which makes up 55 per cent or US$ 165 billion of the overall retail market as opposed to urban segment, which represents 45 per cent or US$ 135 billion of the gross retail market. The rural market is spread over 627,000 villages, even though its centre of attention is focused around a core group of 100,000 villages that makes up 50 per cent of the rural population.

India represents the most compelling international investment opportunity for mass merchant and food retailers looking to expand overseas, according to management consulting firm AT Kearney’s Global Retail Development Index (GRDI), an annual study of retail investment attractiveness among 30 emerging markets. India is rated as the fifth largest emerging retail market and is seen as a potential goldmine. Driving global brands into India is the greatly improved investment climate due to the recent relaxation of direct ownership restrictions on foreign retailers.

The country’s retail market totals $330 billion, is vastly underserved and has grown by 10 per cent on an average over the past five years. The message for retailers on India is clear – move now or forego prime locations and market positions that will soon become saturated. Global retailers that missed opportunities to capture first-mover advantage in China will make up for it in India. Though India has more than five million retail outlets, they are greatly unorganized. There is no supply chain management perspective.

In fact, out of the entire retail sector in India, the organized sector is only 25 per cent and the rest is unorganized. 96 per cent of the retail outlets are smaller in area than the standard norms. The retail industry is divided into organized and unorganized sectors. Organized retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers who are registered for sales tax and income tax. These include corporate backed hypermarket and retail chains and so on. Unorganized retailing is the traditional low-cost shops, handcarts and pavements and is by far the prevalent form of trade in India.

The efficiency of organized sector in retailing is manifested in some of the newer supermarkets in urban/metropolitan India – the produce is cleaner, fresher, well packed and often cheaper than the local shopkeeper. This is possible because of the far more efficient distribution system, which organized retail chains are employing, by cutting the layers of middlemen involved. There are other benefits too, of transforming the unorganized retail sector into an organized sector. Firstly, a number of new jobs will be created, far better paid than the underage labor working in the local shops.

Secondly, the benefits to the producer and consumer through better prices and lesser wastage; throwing up exportable surpluses, which will also benefit the economy as a whole. Thus one can see that allowing FDI in retailing is beneficial to all the stakeholders involved The Big Bazaars and Spencer’s, the huge unorganized retail sector is finally beginning to see the merit of logging on, even if at a model scale. Taxation policies also push you to automate and the push is even harder for those looking to expand beyond their single store existence.

Though it’s early days yet to measure it penetration in the unorganized retail industry, interest levels are surely raising fast. “It’s good to at least answer their questions. Though the interest is more with retailers who register good sales and volumes. Software available to the retailers is ShawMan’s RetailMagiK, which takes care of the front-end store needs, as well as the back-end warehouse requirements. “It would surely help the unorganized sector to get into technologies like bar-coding, which will make their operations more efficient.

Some other features are a user-defined billing screen and discount with control mechanism from the head-office, delivery order management, batch control and quick information search, among others. The product is a simple to use. The screen design and the functionality are designed in such a way that the user need not press too many keys to get things done,” says Khushroo Bagwadia, business development manager, Shawman Software. To begin with, most retailers look at decent entry-level solutions starting at Rs 25,000. However, there are cheaper quick-fix solutions available too.

One can even deploy a computer and start with financial accounting programmers like Microsoft Excel, FoxPro and Tally. Small retailers seem next in line and vendors are also warming up to the opportunity. At the low-end however, smart inexpensive solutions are the need of the hour. And solutions providers like Microsoft, Polaris and Shawman are now working on developing smart tools for the retail enthusiasts. For small players with just one store, the investment on retail solutions go really low, anywhere between Rs 10,000 to Rs 25,000.

Most of the time these solutions are developed by local firms, who at times compete with the big names in the industry. According to Oberoi of Polaris, generally the mom-and-pop stores like to go for technology, which will get their work done at a reasonable cost. They avoid the high-end technology, and consider these as frills. “They are not even bothered about upgrading, so the cheap systems are more than welcome. These solutions might not work for the mid-sized retailers with five stores, as then one need to scale it up and take care of inventory and supply chain management,” he says.

Comparing the case with China, Vedamani suggests India is on the right track. “In China, we find the organized sector to be 20-23% of the total industry. Here, the technology has advanced in phases, and so is the case in India. |Format |Description |The Value Proposition | |Branded Stores |Exclusive showrooms either owned or franchised out by a |Complete range available for a given | | |manufacturer. brand, certified product quality | |Specialty Stores |Focus on a specific consumer need, carry most of the brands |Greater choice to the consumer, comparison| | |available |between brands is possible | |Department Stores |Large stores having a wide variety of products, organized into |One stop shop catering to varied/ consumer| | |different departments such as clothing, house wares, furniture,|needs. | | |appliances, toys, etc. | |Supermarkets |Extremely large self-service retail outlets |One stop shop catering to varied consumer | | | |needs | |Discount Stores |Stores offering discounts on the retail price through selling |Low Prices | | |high volumes and reaping economies of scale | | |Hyper- mart |Larger than a supermarket, sometimes with a warehouse |Low prices, vast choice available | | |appearance, generally located in quieter parts of the city |including services such as cafeterias. | |Convenience stores |Small self-service formats located in crowded urban areas. |Convenient location and extended operating| | | |hours. | |Shopping Malls | Enclosure having different formats of in-store retailers, all |Variety of shops available to each other. | | |under one roof. | | Formats adopted by the Retail Players in INDIA. Retailer |Original formats |Later Formats | |RPG Retail |Supermarket (Foodworld) |Hypermarket (Spencer’s)Specialty Store (Health and Glow) | |Piramal’s |Department Store (Piramyd |Discount Store (TruMart) | | |Megastore) | | |Pantaloon Retail |Small format outlets (Shoppe) |Supermarket(FoodBAZAR) | | |Department Store (Pantaloon) |Hypermarket (Big Bazaar) Mall (Central) | |K Raheja Group |Department Store (shopper’s stop) |Supermarket | | |Specialty Store (Crossword) |Hypermarket (TBA) | |Tata/ Trent |Department Store (Westside) |Hypermarket (Star India Bazaar) | |Landmark Group |Department Store (Lifestyle) |Hypermarket (TBA) | |Others |Discount Store (Subhiksha, Margin Free, Apna Bazaar), Supermarket (Nilgiri’s), Specialty Electronics | Retailing formats in India 1. Malls: The largest form of organized retailing today. Located mainly in metro cities, in proximity to urban outskirts. Ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7,00,000 sq ft and above. They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof. Examples include Shoppers Stop, Pyramid, Pantaloon. 2.

Specialty Stores: Chains such as the Bangalore based Kids Kemp, the Mumbai books retailer Crossword, RPG’s Music World and the Times Group’s music chain Planet M, are focusing on specific market segments and have established themselves strongly in their sectors. 3. Discount Stores: As the name suggests, discount stores or factory outlets, offer discounts on the MRP through selling in bulk reaching economies of scale or excess stock left over at the season. The product category can range from a variety of perishable/ non perishable goods. 4. Department Stores: Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety of consumer needs.

Further classified into localized departments such as clothing, toys, home, groceries, etc 5. Department Stores: Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel business from exclusive brand showrooms. Among these, the biggest success is K Raheja’s Shoppers Stop, which started in Mumbai and now has more than seven large stores (over 30,000 sq. ft) across India and even has its own in store brand for clothes called Stop!. 6. Hypermarts/Supermarkets: Large self service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today contribute to 30% of all food & grocery organized retail sales.

Super Markets can further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. having a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales. 7. Convenience Stores: These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near residential areas. They stock a limited range of high-turnover convenience products and are usually open for extended periods during the day, seven days a week. Prices are slightly higher due to the convenience premium. 8. MBO’s : Multi Brand outlets, also known as Category Killers, offer several brands across a single product category.

These usually do well in busy market places and Metros. SPECIALITY STORES Food retail : Food dominates the shopping basket in India. The US$ 6. 1 billion Indian foods industry, which forms 44 per cent of the entire FMCG sales, is growing at 9 per cent and has set the growth agenda for modern trade formats. Since nearly 60 per cent of the average Indian grocery basket comprises non-branded items, the branded food industry is homing in on converting Indian consumers to branded food. The mobile revolution: The retail market for mobile phones — handset, airtime and accessories — is already a US$ 16. 7 billion business, growing at over 20 per cent per year.

In comparison, the consumer electronics and appliance market is worth US$ 5. 6 billion, with a growth rate that is half of the mobile market. Kids retail: When it comes to Indian children, retailers are busy bonding–and branding: ? Monalisa, the Versace of kids is coming to India. ? Global lifestyle brand Nautica is bringing Nautica Kids. ? International brand Zapp tied up with Raymond to foray into kids’ apparel. ? Disney launched exclusive chains which stock character-based stationery. ? Pantaloon’s joint venture with Gini & Jony will set up a retail chain to market kids’ apparel. ? Swiss kidswear brand Milou is collaborating with Tirupur-based Sreeja Hosieries. ? Turner International India Pvt Ltd. ill launch Cartoon Network Townsville and Planet POGO–two theme parks designed around its channels–in the National Capital Region. ? Sahara One Television has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding to source content from Spacetoon Media Group, Middle East’s largest kids’ entertainment brand for animation and live action content. Leading the kids’ retail revolution is the apparel business, which accounts for almost 80 per cent of the revenue, with kids’ clothing in India following international fashion trends. According to research firm KSA Technopak, the branded segment comprises US$ 701. 7 million of the total kids’ apparel market-size of over US$ 3 billion. Industry experts say kids’ retailing will touch annual growth of 30-35 per cent.

Toys, stationary, sportswear, outerwear, tailored clothing, eyewear, watches, fragrance, footwear, theme parks, TV channels… the segment is growing rapidly at 10 per cent per annum. Margins are in the range of 20-25 per cent (for dealers and distributors), while companies enjoy an average gross margin of about 10 per cent. Agricultural retail: Agriculture across India is heralding the country’s second Green Revolution. 14 states, including Maharashtra, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan amended the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) act this year, along the lines of the Model APMC Act, ’02, which allows farmers to sell their produce directly to buyers offering them the best price.

Agricultural sectors such as horticulture, floriculture, development of seeds, animal husbandry, pisciculture, aqua culture, cultivation of vegetables, mushroom under cultivated conditions and services related to agro and allied sectors are open to 100 per cent FDI through the automatic route. For its e-Choupal scheme, ITC built internet kiosks in rural villages so farmers can access latest information on weather, current market prices, foods-in-demand, etc. With a US$ 5. 6 billion, multi-year investment in agriculture and retail, Reliance Retail will establish links with farms on several thousand acres in Punjab, West Bengal and Maharashtra.

FieldFresh, planning to become India’s first large-scale exporter of produce, will annually pay farmers over US$ 30,000 to lease land for vegetables, to hire tractors and to pay their workers. Besides a five-year program with the Punjab government to provide several hundred farmers with four million sweet-orange trees for its Tropicana juices by , PepsiCo–with agriculture exports worth US$ 40 million–also introduced farmers to high-yielding basmati rice, mangoes, potatoes, chilies, peanuts, and barley for its Frito-Lay snacks. Export potential and a rapidly growing domestic demand for reliable produce from new supermarket chains is driving change.

With 77 per cent of India’s population relying on agriculture for a living, improved efficiency and new markets can benefit a large number of people. International retailers : The Australian government’s National Food Industry Strategy and Austrade initiated a test marketing food retail in India wherein 12 major Australian food producers have tied up with India-based distributor AB Mauri to sell their products directly at retail outlets. The largest-ever 150-member British business delegation in India committed investments in the areas of food processing, agri retail and manufacturing. It is also likely to press for the liberalization of sectors like financial & legal services and retail.

US-based home delivery and logistics company, Specialized Transportation Inc, will enter the Indian market through a strategic alliance with Patel Retail, a subsidiary of Patel Integrated Logistics. Among other big international players, Wal-Mart has announced its plans for India in partnership with Bharti, Tesco is sure to try again, and Carrefour too might finally find the right partner. [pic] Supermarkets: Large self service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today contribute to 30% of all food & grocery organized retail sales. Super Markets can further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. aving a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales. Supermarkets are relatively new entrants in the market. They are so called pioneers in organized food retailing and go by the western model in look and feel and format. This is what everybody means when they say organized food retailing. Franchise outlets: Like Tommy Hilfiger and Wal Mart, other US retailers are firming up their India entry strategies and if they are already in, they are undergoing rapid expansion. Fashion brands DKNY is also al set to foray into the Indian fashion Industry through a franchisee agreement with Indian company, S. Kumar Starbucks recently expressed their interest in entering Indian company

Like Tommy Hilfiger and Wal-Mart, other US retailers are firming up their India entry strategies and if they are already in, they are undergoing rapid expansion. Fashion brand DKNY is also all set to foray into the Indian fashion Industry through a franchisee agreement with Indian company, S Kumar’s. Starbucks recently expressed their interest in entering India through the franchise route, like their AmericanF&B counterparts Pizza Hut, Subway, and the very successful McDonald’s. McDonald’s has major expansion plans lined up; in the next 3 years, it plans to open another 100 outlets in cities across India. Hypermarket: A very large commercial establishment that is a combination of departmental store and a supermarket.

The specific features of a hypermarket are the wide range of goods offered, quality service, quality display of goods on the shelves and complex systems providing for customers loyalty. Hypermarket is known for a wide range of goods offered. It consist of dozens of thousands of items, while similar goods can be offered in several forms. In order to work with such an assortment it is necessary to group it into categories and sub categories that would unite goods according to this or that criteria. Shopping Malls: The new shopping malls that have been expanding their footprint across Indian cities are well designed, built on international formats of retailing and integrated with entertainment and restaurants to provide a complete family experience. Over 300 malls are expected to be built over the next two years nd most Indian cities with over a million populations will be exposed to this modern method of retailing. Shopping malls have existed in India since several decades but were designed and built to house several shops in a single facility. These malls also known as Shopping Arcades offered only rows of shops, most of which were small stores that promised bargains for their various wares. These Shopping Arcades tried to maximize on their store space and did not offer any areas for recreation and entertainment. The present day malls are a creation of the past few years post 2000. They are designed professionally using a lot of international experience and combine shopping with a lot of brand building, recreation, food and entertainment.

Malls also have a large format store that serves as their anchor for shopping and a prominent restaurant that anchors the food needs of visitors. Most malls also feature a multiplex cinema that offers entertainment to the visitors of the mall. Finally the mall has large atria and open spaces to allow visitors and families to hang-out. Organized Retail Sector Product Segments: The organized retail business in India is very small. This is despite the fact that India is one of the biggest markets. Retail business contributes around 10-11 per cent of GDP. India also has the largest number of retailers, about 12 million, though they are mostly small. Most of the organized retailing in the country has just started recently, and has been concentrated mainly in the metro cities.

Organized retailing in India has a huge scope because of the vast market and the growing consciousness of the consumer about product quality and services. Organized retail only accounts for 3% of the total retail industry as yet and is estimated to grow to $64 billion by the year 2015. As a result, the retailing space in the country will also rise by 15-20% by 2010. 50 million sq ft of quality space under development 7 major cities to account for 41 million sq ft development 300 malls, shopping centre and multiplexes under construction To open 35 hypermarkets, 325 large department stores, 1500 supermarkets and over 10,000 new outlets To add US $ 10 billion of business to organized retail.

ASSOCHAM president, Anil K Agarwal says:” The organized sector retailing is all set to grow at much faster speed than unorganized sector and the higher growth speed will alone be responsible for its higher market share which has been projected for $17 billion by 2010-11. Cities and metropolis in which retailing will show booming prospects include Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore and Kanpur, said Agarwal adding that the popular mode adopted for building shopping malls in these cities will be based on build, operate, lease and sell basis”. The 4 major organized retail sectors are Food & Grocery, Clothing, Consumer Durables and Books & Music.

In 2008 – 2009 private consumption expenditure in India amounted to Rs 1,690,000 crores (USD 375 billion) of which, retail sales constitute about 61% (USD 230 billion). In terms of penetration by the organized retail sector, footwear is the highest category, followed by clothing. Footwear is driven by the dominance of home –grown players like Liberty as well as the 15% market share that MNC retailer Bata Commands. Foreign Presence, especially through the franchisee route, e. g. Adidas, Reebok, Nike etc. adds to this slice of the pie. Franchisee activity in this category, especially in Tier II Cities, is pegged to rise. Estimated Growth in Organized Retail |2009 |2014 |CAGR (%) | |Large Segments |1,924 |5,024 |21% | |Other Segments |1,315 |2,645 |15% | |Non-store Retailing |239 |422 |12% | |Total Organized retail|3,478 |8,091 |18% | |The Four Large Segments: | |Food |391 |1,624 |33% | |-Chain Stores |326 |1,462 |35% | |-Single Large Stores |65 |162 |20% | Clothing |1,075 |2,266 |16% | |-Manufacturer |293 |590 |15% | |retailers |315 |852 |22% | |-Chain stores |467 |824 |12% | |-Single Large Stores | | | | |Consumer durables |359 |822 |18% | |- Manufacturer |141 |284 |15% | |retailers |98 |298 |25% | |-Chain stores |120 |240 |15% | |-Single Large Stores | | | | |Book and Music |97 |310 |26% | |-Chain Stores |54 |202 |30% | |-Single Large Stores |43 |108 |20% | Retail is amongst the fastest growing sectors in the country. Indiaranks First, ahead of Russia, in terms of emerging markets potential in retail and is deemed a ‘Priority’ market for International retail. Major Industry Players Nanz in North India, Nilgiris in the South, Pantaloon in the East and Crossroad in the West were the pioneers of the retail revolution in India. Nanz faced several obstacles in their business and had to finally down their shutters. Nilgiris, due to some strange reason, did not see any logic to expand beyond the southern frontiers.

Pantaloon went to scale up and become bigger and bigger to form the Future Group, that is now omnipresent in almost all formats right from small groceries to e-tailing. Crossroads in Mumbai imparted some valuable lessons to their parent, the Piramyd Group, who has since then gone on an expansion drive with other formats of retailing in different cities. The big players in Indian retail landscape now are the Future Group, Shoppers Stop, Westside, Subiksha and RPG Spencer. The newcomers who are knocking at the gates are Reliance Retail, Bharti Walmart and Aditya Birla Trinethra. Here, we intend to do a brief profiling of the major players in order to understand the retail business in a better manner. 1 The Future Group

The Future Group, which was earlier known as PRIL (Pantaloon Retail India Limited) began as a trouser manufacturer in the mid 1980s. The Future Group is divided into six verticals – Future Retail, Future Capital, Future Brands, Future Space, Future Media and Future Logistics. The Future Group started operations in the mid 1987s by incorporating the company as Manz Wear Private Limited. The company went on to manufacture ready made trousers under the “Pantaloons” brand name. It came out with a public issue in 1991 and later changed their name to Pantaloon Fashions (India) Limited (PFIL). The first exclusive men’s store called Pantaloon Shoppe was inaugurated in 1992.

Pantaloons went for a franchisee route to expand the number of retail outlets and by 1995, it had reached to a crucial number of 70. The first departmental store called Pantaloons was opened in Kolkata in 1997 with an investment of Rs 0. 7 million. The store was a success and recorded revenues of Rs 100 million within the first year of operations. In 1999, the company’s name was changed to Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited (PRIL). The success of Pantaloons departmental stores encouraged PRIL to come up with other retailing formats such as “Big Bazaar” to retail low cost general merchandising, and “Food Bazaar” to retail food products. As of 2009, the Future Group has 5. 5 million sq ft of retail space and over 250 stores across 25 cities in India.

It employs more than 20,000 people and has a customer base of more than 200 million. Kishore Biyani, the promoter of the group who likes to address himself as “Chief Knowledge Officer” has plans to launch 18 formats and over 3,340 stores, thereby turning the Future Group into a US$7 billion company with over US$1 billion in profits by the year 2011. [pic] 2 Shoppers Stop Shoppers’ Stop, promoted by the real estate group K Raheja, was one of the first movers to have set up a large retail outlet in New Delhi with international ambience. Shopper’s Stop Ltd now has a considerable presence all over the country with overr 7 lakh square feet of retail space and stocks over 200 brands of garments and accessories.

The stores are spread all over India with presence in Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Pune , Kolkata, Gurgaon, Chennai & Ghaziabad. Shoppers’ Stop is also very well known for having pioneered several quality retailing concepts in India like CROSSWORD, HyperCITY and Mothercare. They are the only retailer from India to become a member of the prestigious Intercontinental Group of Departmental Stores (IGDS). Shoppers’ Stop is positioned as a family store delivering a complete shopping experience. With its wide range of merchandise, exclusive shop-in-shop counters of international brands and world-class customer service, Shoppers’ Stop brought international standards of shopping to the Indian consumer providing them with a world class shopping experience.

Shoppers’ Stop’s core customers represent a strong SEC A skew. They fall between the age group of 16 years to 35 years, the majority of them being families and young couples with a monthly household income above Rs. 20,000/- and an annual spend of Rs. 1,50,000/-. A large number of Non – Resident Indians visit the shop for ethnic clothes in the international environment they are accustomed to. [pic] The stores offer a complete range of apparel and lifestyle accessories for the entire family. From apparel brands like Provogue, Color Plus, Arrow, Levi’s, Scullers, Zodiac to cosmetic brands like Lakme, Chambor, Le Teint Ricci etc. , Shoppers’ Stop caters to almost every lifestyle need.

Shoppers’ Stop also retails its own line of clothing namely Stop, Life , Kashish, Vettorio Fratini and DIY. The merchandise at Shoppers’ Stop is sold at a quality and price assurance backed by its guarantee stamp on every bill. Shoppers’ Stop’s customer loyalty program is called “The First Citizen”. The program offers its members an opportunity to collect points and avail of innumerable special benefits. Currently, Shoppers’ Stop has a database of over 2. 5 lakh members who contribute to nearly 50% of the total sales of Shoppers’ Stop. The Organisation, in 2000, along with ICICI ventures also acquired the reputed bookstore, “Crossword”, which offers the widest range of books along with CD-ROM, music, stationery and toys.

Services like Dial-a-book, Fax-a-book and Email-a-book enable customers to shop from their homes. Crossword currently has 18 Stores. Realising the role of IT way back in 1991, Shoppers’ Stop was among the first few retailers to use scanners and barcodes and completely computerise its operations. Today it is one of the few stores in India to have retail ERP in place, which is now being integrated with Oracle Financials and the Arthur Planning System, the best retail planning system in the world. With the help of the ERP, they are able to replicate stores, open new stores faster and get information about merchandise and customers online, which reduces the turnaround time in taking quick decision.

Shoppers Stop has been very keen to understand the importance of distribution and logistics in ensuring that merchandise is available on the shop floors. This has led the retail chain o streamline its supply chain. The company has developed process manuals for each part of the logistics chain. These modules include vendor management, purchase order management, stock receiving systems, purchase verification and inventory build up, generation and fixing of price and store tags, dispatch of stocks to the retail floor and forwarding of bills for payment. Shoppers’ Stop has a grand ambition to position itself as a global retailer. The company intends to bring the world’s best retail technology, retail practices and sales to India. Currently, they are adding 4 to 5 new stores very year. 3. Trent – Westside Established in 1998, Trent operates some of the nation’s largest and fastest growing retail store chains. A beginning was made in 1998 with Westside, a lifestyle retail chain, which was followed up in 2004 with Star India Bazaar, a hypermarket with a large assortment of products at the lowest prices. In 2005, it acquired Landmark, India’s largest book and music retailer. In a recently signed deal, Trent has agreed to anchor 12 malls set up by DLF Universal Ltd across the country, at its Westside, Landmark and Star India Bazaar outlets. This amounts to about 27 locations, totaling to about a million square feet of space.

Trent retails garments and household accessories for men, women and children, cosmetics and perfumes at Westside, food, beverages, health and beauty products, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, consumer electronics and household items at Star India Bazaar and books, music and stationery at Landmark. Westside has 25 outlets across 17 cities in India offering a variety of designs and styles in garments, footwear and accessories, as table linens, artifacts, home accessories and furnishings. Well-designed interiors, sprawling space, prime locations and coffee shops enhance the customers’ shopping experience. Trent also runs another chain of retail stores called Star India Bazaar.

Launched in 2004, Star India Bazaar provides a large assortment of high quality products made available at the lowest prices coupled with a unique shopping experience. Star India Bazaar is located in Ahmedabad and offers a wide choice of staple food, beverages, health and beauty products, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, consumer electronics and household items at the most affordable prices. Trent has also recently acquired a 76 per cent stake in Landmark, one of the largest books and music retail chains in India. Landmark commenced its operations in 1987 with its first store in Chennai, and now has nine stores in the major metros of the country. Earlier Landmark was focused on books, stationery and greeting cards.

In 1996 it added music to its product portfolio and also started the trend of stocking curios, toys, music, CDs and other gift items. [pic] 4. Piramyd Piramyd Retail is part of the Piramal Group, which has presence in diverse sectors spanning Pharmaceuticals, Textiles, Real Estate, Engineering, Family Entertainment and Retail with manufacturing operations in 19 locations across five states and employing over 18,000 people. The promoters launched the apparel business in 1999 under Piramyd Retail and Merchandising Pvt. Ltd. (PRMPL) while its food; home & personal care businesses (FHPC) were housed under Crossroads Shoppertainment Pvt. Ltd. (CSPL).

As the apparel and food businesses individually reached a critical mass the management merged the two companies into Piramyd Retail Ltd. due to distant synergies in two businesses in March 2005. Pyramid also has a smaller format of stores called TruMart that caters to Food and Personal Care products. Piramyd Retail currently has 5 Mega stores and 8 TruMart stores mainly in Maharashtra . The company plans to increase these numbers to 17 Mega stores and 69 TruMarts by 2008. The floor space is expected to be 5 times on successful expansion. The FHPC (Food & Personal Care) business is volume driven while the Lifestyle store is a margin driven business.

Piramyd Retail plans to increase the contribution of private labels from existing 7% to 18-20% of the revenues by 2011. Gross margins from private labels are over 40% and hence the company is planning to increase this business. Most of the stores are on the lease format and the company is prone to higher lease rentals due to the overall increase in real estate prices. This may bring the profit levels down substantially. Piramyd Retail did have a first mover advantage in many locations but it has actually failed to capitalise over this advantage. Its competitors like Pantaloon, Shoppers Stop and Trent gained larger benefits of their far more aggressive business & marketing strategy in the retail space. [pic] 5. Subiksha

The Chennai based Subiksha grocery chain runs around 200 outlets all over the country and it’s current turnover stands at Rs 224 crores. Their target customer is the middle income value conscious buyers. The main aim of Subiksha is to offer a functional and transactional shopping experience. This retail chain has no qualms and spends almost no money on creating a pleasant shopping experience, and all stores are non-air conditioned. There is no false roofing or sparkling vitrified tiles on the floor. A few years ago, Subiksha did not even offer shoppers self service. The customer had to place an order at a computerized teller and the goods were billed and delivered after cash is collected. Customers had to bring their own carrybags or pay to buy them from the store.

Subiksha even attempted to charge the customers for home delivery. However, now Subiksha has slightly tweaked their business model in order to create a better appeal to customers who were defecting to the competitors. The store formats are still small and non-airconditioned. But customers have the option to pick from shelf spaces. They also get shopping bags and free home delivery. But the selling USP(unique selling proposition) remains the same — Subiksha tries to be as close to the customer as possible and offers the lowest price and huge savings in comparison to competitors. It’s slogan happens to be — bachat mera adhikar hain (saving is my fundamental right). 6. RPG Spencer

RPG’s Spencer presently has 125 stores across 25 cities covering a retail trading area of half a million square feet and with a clientele of 3 million customers a month. Spencer’s has a national footprint with seven hypermarkets, three supermarkets and 70 daily use outlets, called Dailies. All the newly opened Spencer’s stores stock every conceivable product that is required by a household on a daily basis. At Spencer’s Daily shoppers can get fresh fruits, vegetables, fast-moving consumer goods, household items, groceries, with regular offers and discounts. Spencer’s outlets are divided in to three retail formats. These are, Spencer’s Hyper, the over 25,000-sq ft hypermarkets stocking over 25,000 items.

The 8,000sq ft to 15,000-sq ft mini hyper stores, branded as Spencer’s Super and the daily purchase 4,000-sq ft to 7,000-sq ft Spencer’s Daily for groceries, fresh food, chilled and frozen products, bakery and weekly top up shopping. 7. Reliance Retail [pic] On June 26, 2006, Mukesh Ambani, Chairman and Managing Director, Reliance Industries Limited, announced a Rs 25,000-crore investment in the retail sector. Reliance Retail started it’s retail operation with “Reliance Fresh”, a grocery store that sells vegetables, fruits, personal care items and other food products. Soon, these retail outlets will also be selling apparel and footwear, lifestyle and home improvement products, electronic goods and farm implements and inputs. They will also offer products and services in energy, travel, health and entertainment.

In addition to this, partnerships would be developed to bring the best of global luxury brands to India as well. Reliance Retail plans to extend it’s footprint to cover 1,500 Indian cities and towns with outlets of a varied format, a mix of neighborhood convenience stores, supermarkets, specialty stores and hypermarkets. Reliance also plans to open restaurant outlets, financial services marts and tourism counters within it’s stores. Mukesh Ambani’s ultimate ambition seems to be to create the Indian equivalent of Wal-Mart by scaling up the business to unprecedented heights to reach every nook and corner of the country. With it’s retailing venture, Reliance expected a revenue target of US $20 billion through it’s retail operations by 2012.

Over a span of five years, RRL expects a 20% return-on-investment. The first store christened “Reliance Fresh” opened in November 2006 at Hyderabad. Within a few months they have now opened stores in Mumbai, Pune and Ahmedabad and plans foray into other cities on a rapid scale. 8. Bharti Wal-Mart [pic] Bharti Retail (Pvt. ) Ltd. unveiled the roadmap for its retail venture on 19th February, 2007 envisaging an investment of $2. 5 billion with expectation of revenue of $4. 5 billion (about Rs. 20,000 crore) from this business by 2015. The first retail outlet is expected to open somewhere in the month of August . Bharti’s plan is to invest $2. 5 billion by 2015 and open stores across all major cities.

This investment would be only for setting up front-end stores. The modalities for its back-end linkage, including its joint venture with the world’s largest retailer Wal-Mart, are in the process of being worked out. A high-level team from Wal-Mart was visited India in the later part of February to work out the details of the back-end chain. While Bharti would manage front-end of the retail venture, Wal-Mart would be involved in the back-end, including logistics, supply chain and cash-and-carry, he added. The JV was presently scouting for 10 million sq. ft. of retail space, which would include hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores and would provide employment to about 60,000 people.

The company would open multi-format retail outlets in all cities with a population of about one million. Bharti is now conducting a massive consumer survey to take a final decision on branding and promotional campaign. However, Bharti and Wal-Mart have been facing stiff opposition from the left parties and other political outfits who fear that the entry of the Bentonville giant will make life difficult for the small grocers and create massive unemployment. They also expect Wal-Mart to take a tough stance on lowering prices and force farmers to sell their produce at lower rates. A lurking fear of monopolistic regime in the retail sector is also enhancing their fears.

Both Bharti and Walmart are presently having a tough time in convincing the ministers, politicians, agriculturists, the NGOs and other pressure groups that their business model would serve to work in the best interests of all the stakeholders. 9. Aditya Birla – MORE [pic] The Aditya Birla Group is India’s first truly multinational corporation. Global in vision, rooted in values, the Group is driven by a performance ethic pegged on value creation for its multiple stakeholders. A US$ 24 billion conglomerate, with a market capitalization of US$ 23 billion and in the League of Fortune 500, it is anchored by an extraordinary force of 100,000 employees belonging to over 25 different nationalities.

Over 50 per cent of its revenues flow from its operations across the world. ” Our mission is to change the way people shop. We will give them more. ” says Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla, Chairman, Aditya Birla Group. The more. for you advantage: more. promises a world-class pleasurable shopping experience to Indian consumers in their very own neighborhood. more. Quality, more. variety, more. convenience and more. value are the four delivery cornerstones of the more. chain of supermarket stores. more. MORE. Value MORE. promises best in market pricing. Linking up directly with farmers to source fresh fruits, vegetables and staples ensure great quality as well as great price. Add to this, the membership program Club more. hich provides convenience, customized shopping solutions and savings, and the more. value promise becomes all the more evident. More. Is an inspirational brand for an inspirational country. We have a bright and committed, enthusiastic team that represents the best experience from India and globally. MORE. also has a range of products from its own stable available across value, premium and select ranges. The products have been quality-checked and are available in attractive packaging at competitive prices. To avail additional benefits, at no extra charge, customers can also enroll for the membership program Club more. 10. VISHAL RETAIL : Vishal is one of fastest growing retailing groups in India.

Its outlets cater to almost all price ranges. The showrooms have over 70,00 products range which fulfills all your household needs, and can be catered to under one roof. It is covering about 1282000 sq. ft. in 18 state across India. Each store gives you international quality goods and prices hard to match. The cost benefits that is derived from the large central purchase of goods and services is passed on to the consumer. What started as a humble one store enterprise in 1986 in Kolkata(erstwhile, Calcutta) is today a conglomerate encompassing 51 showrooms in 39 cities. India’s first hyper-market has also been opened for the Indian consumer by Vishal.

Situated in the national capital Delhi this store boasts of the singe largest collection of goods and commodities sold under one roof in India. The group’s prime focus is on retailing. [pic] The Vishal stores offer affordable family fashion at prices to suit every pocket. The group’s philosophy is integration and towards this end has initiated backward integration in the field of high fashion by setting up a state of the art manufacturing facility to support its retail endeavors. Company has already tied up for 5-lakh sq ft space and is looking for more. Company will come up with 32 new stores this year. Company is doing research on more formats. Company is looking for opportunities of expansion in the South. Contribution of apparels business at 53% may slightly come down to 50%.

India is a big country and there is huge space for four-five big retail players. Vishal can always sustain growth in this big market. Company can sustain margins as it is going for backward integration. Currently manufacturing contributes 10% of the business, which in the next two to three years, will go up to 25%. Company is increasing its focus on the non-apparel and FMCG segment. The current share o

Cite this Project on Growth of Retail Sector in India

Project on Growth of Retail Sector in India. (2018, Jul 25). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/project-on-growth-of-retail-sector-in-india/

Show less
  • Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay
  • Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself
  • Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay
  • Do not copy and paste free to download essays
Get plagiarism free essay

Search for essay samples now

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get my paper now

For Only $13.90/page