PROJECT REPORT ON STUDY OF EMPLOYEE’S ABSENTEEISM TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER |TITLE |PAGE NO | | | |LIST OF TABLES | |LIST OF CHARTS | | | | | |I |INTRODUCTION | | | |Profile of Organization |1 | | |Process of manufacture |4 | | |Organization chart |6 | | |Organization structure |7 | |II |REVIEW OF LITERATURE |10 | |III |OBJECTIVES |25 | |IV |RESEARCH METHODOLOGY |26 | |V |DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION |33 | |VI |FINDINGS OF THE STUDY, |71 | | |SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS |73 | |VII |CONCLUSIONS |74 | |VIII |LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY |75 | | |SCOPE FOR THE FUTHER STUDY |76 | | | | | | |APPENDICES |77 | | |ANNEXURE-1 |81 | | |ANNEXURE-2 | | ABSTRACT
The project report entitle “A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE’S ABSENTEEISM IN SPINCO, PUDUCHEERY. ” is intended to determine the employees condition, salary, Facilities, attendance program, training programme, motivation techniques and promotions To achieve this defined objective structured questionnaire based on the preliminary study made is prepared. The prepared questionnaire is used to get the direct responses from the employees of spinco, puducherry. The response given by the employees of spinco, puducherry analyzed and interpreted using different type of statistical tools used are percentage analysis , weighted average method , chi square , correlation .
After analysis and interpretation it reveals the following points are important in improving the working condition ,increasing the salary , transport facilities , introduction of attendance programme , promotion incentives , increasing leave , welfare facilities , the above all conclusion will helpful for management to improve the presenteeism. LIST OF TABLES |S. no |TABLE NAME |Page No | |1 |Table showing respondents age level |33 | |2 |Table showing Educational Qualification of the Respondents 34 | |3 |Table showing respondents experience |35 | |4 |Table showing number of working days |36 | |5 |Table showing leave taken in a month |37 | |6 |Table showing respondents number of working years |38 | |7 |Table showing respondents on their work load |39 | |8 |Table showing respondents working hours |40 | |9 |Table showing respondents management policy |41 | |10 |Table showing respondents working environment |42 | |11 |Table showing respondents relation ship with supervisor |43 | |12 |Table showing respondents their leave will affect company out put |44 | |13 |Table showing respondents employees skill |45 | |14 |Table showing respondents salary |46 | |15 |Table showing respondents compensation provided |47 | |16 |Table showing respondent existing job |48 | |17 |Table showing respondent facilities provided by the company |49 | |18 |Table showing respondent flexibility and independence |50 | |19 |Table showing respondent procedure for taking leave |51 | |20 |Table showing respondent reason for taking leave |52 | |21 |Table showing respondent absent due to transportation roblem |53 | |22 |Table showing respondent infectious diseases |54 | |23 |Table showing respondent get leave whenever you want |55 | |24 |Table showing respondent insufficient rest pause |56 | |25 |Table showing respondent motivation techniques |57 | |26 |Table showing respondent personal problem |58 | |27 |Table showing respondent counseling provided by the company |59 | |28 |Table showing respondent Preference on their shift to reduce |60 | | |absenteeism | | |
29 |Table showing respondent freedom to change shift |61 | |30 | Table showing respondent need additional leave |62 | |31 |Table showing respondent excepted facilities provided |63 | |32 |Table of Respondents Based On The Working Hours - CHI-SQUARE |64 | |33 |Computation of Chi-Square |65 | |33 |Affected By Infectious Diseases Vs Leave Affecting The Company Output- Correlation |66 | |34 |Ranks for correlation data |66 | |35 |Salary Paid Vs Absent Due To Transportation- ANOVA |67 | |36 |ANOVA Table |68 | |37 |Weighted Average for Data |69 | |38 |Point Weightage |69 | LIST OF CHARTS | | | | |S. o |CHART NAME |Page No | |1 |Chart showing respondents age level |33 | |2 |Chart showing Educational Qualification of the Respondents |34 | |3 |Chart showing respondents experience |35 | |4 | Chart showing number of working days |36 | |5 |Chart showing leave taken in a month |37 | |6 |Chart showing respondents number of working years |38 | |7 |Chart showing respondents on their work load |39 | |8 |Chart showing respondents working hours |40 | |9 |Chart showing respondents management policy |41 | |10 |Chart showing respondents working environment |42 | |11 |Chart showing respondents relation ship with supervisor |43 | |12 |Chart showing respondents their leave will affect company out put |44 | |13 |Chart showing respondents employees skill |45 | |14 |Chart showing respondents salary |46 | |15 |Chart showing respondents compensation provided 47 | |16 |Chart showing respondent existing job |48 | |17 |Chart showing respondent facilities provided by the company |49 | |18 |Chart showing respondent flexibility and independence |50 | |19 |Chart showing respondent procedure for taking leave |51 | |20 |Chart showing respondent reason for taking leave |52 | |21 |Chart showing respondent absent due to transportation problem |53 | |22 |Chart showing respondent infectious diseases |54 | |23 |Chart showing respondent get leave whenever you want |55 | |24 |Chart showing respondent insufficient rest pause |56 | |25 |Chart showing respondent motivation techniques |57 | |26 |Chart showing respondent personal problem |58 | |27 |Chart showing respondent counseling provided by the company |59 | |28 |Chart showing respondent Preference on their shift to reduce absenteeism |60 | |29 |Chart showing respondent freedom to change shift |61 | |30 | Chart showing respondent need additional leave |62 | |31 |Chart showing respondent excepted facilities provided |63 | CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION 1. 1. 1 GROWTH OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY The birth of cotton textile industry can be traced back to the year 1818, when for the first time a mill was started in Calcutta.
But its real foundation was laid in Bombay with a mill set up in 1853 under PARSI Management. Early years marked a rapid progress and number of cotton mil1s increased up In Ahemedabad, Sholapur and Nagpur. In 1951 the total number of mills in this Industry was only 378 of which 103 where spinning and 275 were composite Mills. The number of cotton textile mill increased to 1051 in 1990; of this 770 were spinning mills and 281 composite mills. The total investment in the fixed assets is 1300 crores. It contributes for about 25% of total exports. In puducherry, the first spinning mill which started its operation be Desbarsyns de Richement', Governor of French rule at that time in 1827 on the western style.
In 1828 Blin and Delbruck are businessmen of France have stared another spinning mill in PuduCherry with a production capacity ofabout700 Kg per day, and provided employment for 225 workers. Thus the organized mill sector provides employment to more than one million people in the country and about l/5th of the total employed in manufacturing industry. Its contribution of government revenue and to export earnings is substantial. 1. 1. 2 HISTORY OF THE MILL The Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mills was registered as cooperative Society under the Pondicherry co-operative societies Act 1972 during the year 1979. This spinning mill is the first type of its kind in its venture in the union territory of Pondicherry.
The society has been registered on 28-12-1979, the actual functioning commenced in the year 1984. The factory is situated 22 Kms away from Pondicherry in the National Highways 45-A, between Pondicherry and Villupuram in the Village Thirubuvanai. The foundation stone for the Mill was laid on 10. 08. 1981 by the then Chief Minister of Pondicherry and the factory was inaugurated by the then his. Excellency T. P. Twari, Lt. Governor of Pondicherry on 16. 11. 1984. The trial production was made on 12. 2. 1984 and the Commercial production was started on 19. 3. 84. The mills Spindale was 25080 only. The Mill has achieved its full spinning capacity in the year 1987. 1. 1. 3 MEMBERSHIP
The Mill was started with 138. Members with a share capital of Rs. 79, 9001akhs- at the beginning and at Present there are 815 members with a share capital of Rs . 689. 31lakhs comprising as the following. | |Particular |Membership |Share Capital (in lakhs) | |"A" |Handloom weavers co-op | | | | | |Societies |14 | |4. 45 | | | | |. | |"B" |Other Co-operative | | | | | |Societies |69 | |3. 72 | |"C" |Individuals |731 | |6. 64 | |"D" |Government of Pondicherry |1 | |674. 50 | | | |815 | |689. 31 | 1. 1. 4 AWARDS COMPLEMENTED BY THE AIFCOSPIN
Among all the co-operatives in India, the Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mills has been identified as No. 1 Mill for its profitability, Machine productivity, Net profit and Labour productivity. The Position placed by the Mill from 1987-88 to 1990-91 is detailed below: 1. 1. 5 AIFCOSPIN - All India Federation for Co-operative Spinning Mill- Bombay, It has awarded many awards. The position placed by the mill from 1987-88 to 90-91 |Year |Selection Criteria |Position | |1987-88 |Spindle Profit | |I | |1988-89 |Spindle Profit |. I | |1989-90 |Spindle Profit | |I | | | Machine Productivity |II | | |Productivity per Spindle Shift |III | |1990-91 |Spindle Profit | |I | | |Cash gain per spindle |II | | |Machine Productivity |II | | |Labour Productivity |III | 1. 1. 6 EXPANSION PROGRAMME The licensed capacity of the Mill is 39, 192-spindle unit. The installed capacity is 35,160 spindles with an average count of 40's to 6’s. By the year2001, the remaining capacity of 4,032 spindles will be erected. 1. 2 PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING The Pondicherry co-operative spinning mills ltd is processing with its licensed capacity 1. 2. 1 SPINNING The process of spinning starts with ginning. Ginning is process by which Seeds are removed from the raw cotton.
In this mill, the ginned cotton is directly purchased and so that the ginning is not carried on and the remaining . Process is followed as usual. • MIXING AND BLOW ROOM Raw cotton is received at the mill in highly compressed bales. Bales of different varieties are opened at time and layer of cotton from each bale is fed alternatively, into the machine with a view to obtain uniform blend. It is cleaned in blow room line. • CARDING The blow room lap is fed into carding machine. The cotton is subject to the action of sharp wire points of licker cylinder, doffer and flatter resulting in 'the further removal of neps and waste. After processing in, comes out in the cane. • DRAWING
On the drawing frame, a uniform sliver lab is produced- by 6 to 8 card sliver and drafting them proportionately. Here parallelization of fibers is achieved and this process is repeated twice for carded yam and the sliver lab is then fed to the speed frame. • SPEED FRAMES This term' Speed frames' is used to designate a group of machines in which cotton in the form of drawing sliver is reduced to a much smaller size by drafting and a slight twist. • RING FRAMES The final yarn is spun on ring frames by drafting and twisting the rove from the speed frames. The drafts and twist . varies depending on the count and quality of yarn required. • DOUBLING
Generally two yarn threads are sending parallel on single cone on a doublers winding machine. Thereafter such yarn is twisted together on a ring doubling machine to form a double yarn. 1. 2. 2 BUSINESS • The mill shall purchase the cotton required by spinning. • The mill shall produce such kinds of cotton yarn and staple fiber yarn as are required by the weaving units, by the weavers in union territory of Pondicherry and by others. • The yarn required by the Pondicherry state weavers co-operative societies and other primary weavers co-operative societies shall ordinarily be supplied by the mills. • The Board of director may appoint necessary agent brokers etc on such terms and may be agreed upon for canvassing order. 1. 2. FUNCTION OF THE MILL The Pondicherry co-operative spinning mill is running with 3shifts. The production process is non – stop. The first shift timing is from 7 00A. M. to 3. 30 P. M. , The second shift is from 3. 30 P. M . to 12. 00MID NIGHT . And the third shift is from 12 MID NIGHT to 7. 00 A. M. with a half -an- hour break for workers but not for production . Nearly 630 workers are working in the mill. 1. 2. 4 MANAGEMENT Pondicherry co-operative spinning mills ltd is governed by law and it is managed by an Administrator, who is I. A. S. officer and he is appointed by the Government of Pondicherry. 1. 3 ORGANISATION CHART ADMINSTRATOR Managing Director |Administration & Finance | | |Production | | | | | | |Wing | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Labour Officer |Admn. Manager |Controller of Accounts |Asst. Spinning Master |Asst Spinning Master. (Qlty. |Elec.
Engineer | | | | |(Maintenance) |control) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Clerks |Clerks |Supervisor for Prodn & |Quality Control wing |Engineering wing | | | | |Maintenance | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Masteries & Workers | | | 1. 4 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE The organizational functions of the mill is divided into five namely, • Production wing • Quality control wing • Engineering wing Maintenance wing • Accounts and finance wing. • Administration wing 1. 4. 1 PRODUCTION WING The major activity concerned in the mill is production of yarn from raw Cotton. In this mill, the machineries and materials are equipped to produce yarn from the count range 305 to 1005. The Asst. Spinning Master (Maintenance & production) is in charge for the production wing. The supervisors in the production will look after the process of production in different stages. 6 staffs and 540 workers are working in production wing. 1. 4. 2 QUALITY CONTROL WING The main responsibility of this wing is to check the quality of yarn and quality of raw materials. Asst.
Spinning Master (Quality Control) is in charge for this wing. All the incoming raw materials and outgoing yarn are checked in quality point of view. In this wing, nearly 10 staffs are working. 1. 4. 3 ENGINEERING WING This wing takes care of all electrical equipments and fittings in the organization. It also takes all preventive measures. An Electrical Engineer heads this wing. A group of 21 workers are worked in this department under the control of the Electrical Engineer 1. 4. 4 MAINTENANCE WING This wing is functioning under the head of Asst. Spinning Master (maintenance). This wing is taking care of maintenance of all machineries in the mills.
This will take measures to maintain the machinery in good working condition. One staff and 68 workers are functioning in this wing. 1. 4. 5 ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE WING The finance and accounts wing is playing an important role in this organization. This wing maintains a systematic record of the daily events of business. It also maintains records of all financial transactions to find out the profit or loss during the year, and to know the correct financial status of the mill. All payments and receipts are taken care by this wing. The controller of accounts heads this department and three staffs are working in this department 1. 4. 6 ADMINISTARATION WING Administrative manager is in charge for administrative wing.
This department carries on purchases, sales stores and other administrative functions 31 staff are working in the wing All the department (wings)are under the direct control and supervision of the Managing director . the administrative manager and concerned department head shall be consulted by the Managing director in all matters , where ever and when ever deemed necessary and their comment shall be consider while framing a policy decision. NEED FOR THE STUDY • The success of any manufacturing organization depends largely on the workers, the employees are considered as the backbone of The Pondicherry Co- Operative Spinning Mill Ltd, Puducherry • The study is on employee absenteeism in SPINCO The employee absenteeism is booming HR issue in many industries . It helps to know the employee satisfactions level and it help to find cause of employee absenteeism, based on certain factor like working condition, leadership style, work stress, leave days, and salary level. • This study can be helpful to the management to improve its core weaknesses by the suggestions and recommendations prescribed in the project. • The need of this study can be recognized when the result of the related study need suggestions and recommendations to the similar situation. CHAPTER-II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation.
An absence refers to time an employee is not on the job during scheduled working hours, except for a granted leave of absence, holiday, or vacation time. However, employee absenteeism is not just an employee issue it is an organizational problem and therefore becomes everyone's responsibility. 2. 1 Says Frances Davies Absenteeism can have an enormous effect on the productivity of an organization. The average American worker takes six days sick leave a year, and although this is significantly less than in places such as Europe it is still having a big impact on US staffing resources and productivity. The loss of productivity due to short/long-term illness, disability is therefore proving to be a major headache for companies.
Effective absence management programs can be the best remedy for reducing absenteeism. “Every time an employee is absent from work there is a loss of productivity to the organization,” explains Sharon Kaleta, President and CEO of the Disability Management Employers Coalition (DMEC). “One person absent from work may not create a problem, but several people absent for one or more days can have a significant financial impact to the organization. • Impact of absenteeism There are many forms of absenteeism, ranging from short-term illness, long-term illness, unauthorized absence and persistent lateness, to other authorized absences such as annual leave, paternity leave, time off to care for dependents and compassionate leave.
Other causes might also include low morale, stress and poor working conditions, many of which are preventable. The effect absenteeism can have on a business can be wide-ranging, but particularly affects those employees left to pick up the pieces. According to Wayne Wendling, Senior Director of Research at the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans. The workings of a company have changed and employees are now much more interconnected than previously – and, as a result, organizations are much more dependent on their employees. “When someone is absent, the entire web of interaction among employees can be disturbed in terms of workflows and the availability of information,” he explains. Part of that is overcome as more files are now open to people who can fill in and help with the tasks that the individual may have been performing. However, there is a definite ‘ripple effect’ through the organization when someone is unexpectedly ill. The productivity of others is also being impacted. ” • Working well There are many measures that an employer can take to help mitigate the rippling effects of absenteeism on the workforce. Sometimes it really is the little things that make the most difference. Allowing employees to visit doctors and dentists, health surveillance, health education and stress management interventions are all good examples. Once they are measuring absence and then reducing it, they will find that a fitter workforce will perform better and productivity will increase – giving them a competitive edge in any business environment,” enthuses Bawden. One of the most effective ways to combat absenteeism, however, is to maintain a happy working environment where people actually enjoy coming to work. “Have a workplace that people love to come to work in and they feel they are doing something meaningful,” Wendling recommends. Although not always preventable, absenteeism is something that can be mitigated to a certain degree, and absence management programs can definitely help.
Fostering a caring working environment where workers are supported during any illness or disability can only work in the favor of the company – and ensures that work isn’t something for employees to be sick of. Report Author: Anne Coughlan Senior Research Executive, IBEC Research and Information Service • IBEC ‘Workplace Absence Survey 2004 The report contains data from the IBEC ‘Workplace Absence Survey 2004,’ which was based on responses received from 557 private sector companies employing 147,000 employees. Absence affects more than just the person who is absent. The absent employees themselves and their dependants may have a reduced income as a result of absence, besides incurring possible additional medical expenses.
Employers are affected by direct costs such as sick pay, overtime and staff replacement costs, plus the indirect costs associated with the effects of absence on, for example, production and quality, management time and the potential loss of customers. The co-workers of an absent employee may have to work under increased pressure,in order to meet deadlines. Many organizations appear to accept a certain level of absence i. e. where a proportion of their employees are away on any particular day. The recent IBEC study found that over half of the respondents did not consider they had a problem with absence. However, more than four out of ten companies in the survey considered their absence levels to be a cause for concern.
As only a portion of absence days are subject to organization control – it is important to determine what portion of employee absence is avoidable. Employees can feel they have been treated unfairly when they perceive other absent employees as ‘getting away with it’. Absence can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying problem, such as bullying and/or harassment, communication breakdown, stress, etc. , which could, if not investigated, lead to significant costs to the organization, as well as causing long-term damage to the employee. A recent IBEC survey showed that personal problems were cited as a cause of absence in a significant number of companies, for both males and females.
Nowadays, apart from sickness, employees can be absent from work for any one of a number of reasons, either under statutory leave entitlement (such as – annual leave, maternity or adoptive leave, parental leave), or under arrangements agreed at an individual company level (such as compassionate or bereavement leave, study and/or exam leave, marriage leave, training, etc. ). 2. 2 How to Deal with Employee Absenteeism ? For Employees Who Are Absent For Supervisors/Managers: Recently, I was asked by a manager how he should deal with the fact that on any given day 10% of his employees are absent from work. I informed the manager that the problem of employee absenteeism is a problem best resolved by taking the following four positive interventions versus taking a negative or punitive approach. • Change Management Style:
We are all aware of the fact that when employees call in ill, it does not mean they are truly too physically ill to work. One reason, outside of illness, that employees are absent is stress, and the number one reason employees are stressed has to do with their relationship with their manager/supervisor. Management styles that are too authoritarian tend to promote high levels of absenteeism among employees. Authoritarian managers are managers who have poor listening skills, set unreachable goals, have poor communication skills, and are inflexible. In other words, they yell too much, blame others for problems, and make others feel that it must be their way or the "highway. " Authoritarian managers tend to produce high absenteeism rates.
By identifying managers who use an authoritarian style, and providing them with management training, you will be taking a positive step not only toward reducing absenteeism, but also reducing turnover, job burnout, and employee health problems such as backaches and headaches. • Change Working Conditions: The employees in your company probably work in a well-lighted climate controlled building. The working conditions I am referring to relate to coworker relationships. Not only does relationship stress occur between the employee and manager, but it also exists between employees. Frequently I hear employees say they did not go to work because they are fearful of or angry with another employee.
These employees usually report they just could not deal with "so and so" today, so they called in ill. Companies that adopted policies and values that promote employee respect and professionalism, and promote an internal conflict resolution procedure, are companies that reduce employee stress. A reduction in employee stress reduces employee absenteeism. • Provide Incentives: Giving employees incentives for reduced absenteeism is not the same as rewarding or giving employees bonuses for reduced absenteeism. An incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation to avoid unnecessary absenteeism. It simply helps the employee decide to go to work versus staying home and watching Jerry Springer.
The types of incentive programs used by companies are numerous. Some companies allow employees to cash-in unused sick days at the end of every quarter, others give an employee two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance; and still others provide employees with a buffet lunch, a certificate of achievement, or even a scratch-off card concealing prizes. The type of incentive program that your company uses should be one created especially for your company. You can create an incentive program tailored to your unique company by allowing employees to help you develop the incentive program. The duration of the incentive program is also very important.
Some companies find that they can simply reward employees with perfect attendance once a year, while others decide once a month is best, and still others decide once a week works best. • Develop an Attendance Policy: Every company should have an attendance policy. An attendance policy allows a manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Besides stress as a primary reason for employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic violence, and family problems. If you confront an employee about his or her frequent absenteeism, and they inform you it is due to personal problems, consider referring the employee to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
If the employee's absenteeism relates to a medical problem or a family member with a medical problem, you may have to consider allowing the employee to use the benefits allowed to them under the American's with Disability Act (ADA) or the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Early identification of these employees will get them back to work as fast as possible. Lastly, make sure that you have an attorney review your attendance policy to make sure it does not violate any State or Federal labor laws. By incorporating the above four strategies into your company you will not only reduce absenteeism you will reduce employee burnout, turnover, poor morale, and workplace negativism. by Gary Vikesland, MA LP CEAP ? For Employees Who Are Frequently Absent
One of the most important steps you can take if you are frequently absent is to keep your employer informed. Employees who are frequently absent without good cause are generally absent due to numerous frivolous reasons. Employees who are absent for good cause have legitimate reasons, e. g. sickness or family member illness, and the employee needs time off to resolve their personal problems. Most employers generally understand the need to be gone from work due to a legitimate reason; therefore, it is important to communicate clearly and accurately so your employer does not assume you are out for frivolous reasons. As an employee you are allowed to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave under the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).
The 12 weeks of leave may be taken continuous or intermittently, thereby allowing the employee to work on a less than full-time schedule. • FMLA can be used for the care of a child after birth, adoption, or foster care placement. • FMLA is available to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, and parent) who has a serious health condition. • FMLA can be used for your own serious health concerns. It does not cover for the common cold, flu, ear aches, upset stomach, common headache, or routine dental care. In order to be covered by FMLA you must be considered an "eligible" employee. An eligible employee must have 12 months (1,250 hours) of employment, and your employer must employ 50 or more employees within 75 miles of the worksite.
Employees must provide 30 days of advance notice for foreseeable events. There are different exemptions present for both school teachers and state/local government employees. If you are an eligible employee, your employer must maintain your benefits, allow you to return to the same or equivalent position, and not decrease your pay or benefits at the conclusion of 12 weeks. If you believe you are eligible for FMLA, inform your supervisor or HR department that you are requesting FMLA coverage. Your employer is required to provide you with written notice, within two business days, informing you if you are eligible or not. By Gary Vikesland, MA LP CEAP 2. 3 ABSENTEEISM
Information regarding absenteeism among workers in an industrial establishment on account of reasons other than strikes, lockouts, lay-off, weekly rest or suspension, provide a sound database for gauging the employee’s morale, commitment and level of job satisfaction which have a direct bearing on productivity of the establishment. It is one of the indicators to monitor and evaluate various labour welfare programs and labour policies. 2. 3. 1 Instill enthusiasm to curb absenteeism, the Hindu EVERY organization, irrespective of size and composition, is plagued by the problem of absenteeism. Managers know that employees are not always genuinely sick when they fail to turn up for work, yet they cannot stop them from calling in sick or saying that they have to attend to some personal work. There could be a hordes of reasons for absenteeism.
Sometimes an employee may not simply turn up for work because his morale is low or he is just not motivated to work. It is observed that if employees were happy doing their work, they would be less inclined to take even a day off. Many employers think that paying their workers handsomely or providing better working conditions or improving job security can reduce absenteeism. But such benefits do not guarantee a reduction in employee absenteeism. The solution actually lies in understanding and meeting the emotional needs of workers and trying to find out what really motivates them to come to work and give their best. A wise manager would endeavor to understand the needs of workers at the recruiting stage itself.
The manager can try and choose the right person for the right job. Getting to know the applicant well by focusing on the human side rather than on their qualifications and experience can do this. Efforts should be made to find out the kind of work and responsibilities that make an employee happy, the enthusiasm for work and ability to get along with other people. The manager must ascertain that the job suits the candidate. The next step would be to build employee's trust. As an employer if you have taken efforts to choose the right candidates for the job, then it is equally important that you believe in them and trust them to do their job. This trust, though, has to be communicated to the employees.
If the employer believes that the employees cannot do their jobs well, cannot take decisions on their own and do not do a fair day's work then this is what they will actually do. On the contrary, if the manager's perception of employees is that they are efficient workers, independent thinkers and able decision makers, then they will go to any extent to prove it. The most important step to counter absenteeism is for the manager to constantly give the employees feedback and motivate them to perform better. But most are woefully lacking in this ability, they simply are not comfortable telling their staff about their performance. So it is important that managers provide feedback to employees on a regular basis on what they are doing well and the areas of improvement.
If you notice something that requires mention tell the employee about it and tell it immediately lest the significance of the feedback should be lost. If you postpone your feedback on things the employee is not doing rightthen it will be assumed what is being done is right or that you do not notice such things or you do not care. Some more tips on giving the right kind of feedback: • Do it in private, on a one-to one basis • Focus your feedback on one or two things • Do not personally attack the employee • Be honest and prompt with feedback Reducing employee absenteeism is in the employer's hands. If the staff has to be motivated enough to think twice about taking a day off, their work has to be made interesting.
In short, they need regular feedback and be made to feel that they play an important part in the business. This can be done by giving the employees greater responsibility, training and developing their skills and focusing on what they are doing right. Involving employees both formally and informally in the aspects of the business will create a sense of belonging. These measures make employees feel good about what they are doing and thus increase job satisfaction. Organizations would be prudent if they tackle absenteeism before it becomes a contagion. Title: Labour Absenteeism Author(s): Michael J. Peel, Nick Wilson Journal: International Journal of Manpower Year: 1990 Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract: Using a random sample of 49 UK engineering companies, the influence of profit sharing, share-option schemes and the perceived degree of employee participation in decision making on inter-firm lab our absenteeism rates are investigated. After controlling for a number of firm-specific factors, suggested as theoretically appropriate in the extant literature, the key empirical results indicated that firms which had adopted sharing schemes appeared to experience significantly lower absenteeism rates than their non-sharing counterparts.. 2. 4 GUIDE LINES FOR ABSENTEEISM CONTROL There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach. 2. 4. 1 INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless.
In a lab our relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures. 2. 4. 2 CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance , an employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a lab our relations context this means that progressive discipline can be applied. For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism.
Many organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counseling and treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance. 2. 4. 3 IDENTIFYING EXCESSIVE ABSENTEEISM Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee's sick-leave days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor suspects that an employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance records. If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation.
The employees' files should be reviewed and the employee’s immediate supervisor should document all available information on the particular employee's history. 2. 4. 4 INDIVIDUAL COMMUNICATION After all available information has been gathered, the administrator or supervisor should individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than average or questionable (or pattern) absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns regarding attendance to the employee's attention. It is also an opportunity to discuss with the employee, in some depth, the causes of his or her attendance problem and possible steps he or she can take to remedy or control the absences. Listen carefully to the employee's responses. 2. 4. 5 PROOF OF ILLNESS
Sometimes it is helpful in counseling employees with excessive innocent or culpable absenteeism to inquire or verify the nature and reasons of their absence. The extent to which an employer may inquire into the nature of and reasons for an employee's absence from the workplace is a delicate issue. The concepts of an employee's privacy and an employer's need for information affecting the workplace often come into conflict. Seldom is the conflict more difficult to resolve than where personal medical information is involved. Unions will often strongly object to any efforts by management to inquire more deeply into the nature of an employee's illness. You will need to consider the restraints of any language in collective agreements in relation to this issue. 2. 5 COUNSELING INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM
The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows: 1. Initial counseling(s) 2. Written counseling(s) 3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification 4. Discharge 2. 5. 1 Initial Counseling: If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist. ) You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future.
Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary. 2. 5. 2 Written Counseling If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary. 2. 5. Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline. 2. 5. 4 Discharge Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case. 1.
Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work? 2. Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i. e. counselling, support, time off. ) 3. Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their sickness? 4. Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable position (if available) or a reduction of hours? 5. Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery? Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance.
Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the employee as a problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate. The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any way. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counseling memorandum] 1. Initial Warning(s) 2. Written Warning(s) 3.
Suspension(s) 4. Dismissal ? Verbal Warning Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill. Advise the employee that his/her attendance record must improve and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result. Offer any counseling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review the employee's income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should be issued. ? Written Warning Interview the employee again.
Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the counseling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning should identify any noticeable pattern Suspension (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she is to be suspended. The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work performance and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition. ? Dismissal (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have been met.
The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed on the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence CHAPTER-III OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to find the various studies on absenteeism of man hour and suggestion to reduce absenteeism. • To analyze the master attendance and to find the rate of absenteeism. • To improve the production level by reducing absenteeism. • To find the reason for major absenteeism in particular department. • To suggest controlling tools to reduce absenteeism. • To find out the reason for avoidable and unavoidable absenteeism. • To know the types of facilities and welfare activities for the employee’s benefit. CHAPTER – IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4. 1 RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the researcher purpose with economy in procedure”. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do form writing the hypothesis and its operational implication to the final analysis of data. More explicitly, the design decisions happen to be in respect of; ? What is the study about? ? Why is the study being made? ? Where will the study be carried out? ? What type of data is required? ? Where can the data are found? ? What periods of time will the study include? What will be the sample design? ? How will the data be analyzed? ? In what style will the report be prepared? ? What techniques of data collection will be used? The Research Design undertaken for the study is Descriptive one. A study, which wants to portray the characteristics of a group or individuals or situation, is known as Descriptive study. It is mostly qualitative in nature. 4. 2 TYPES OF DATA COLLECTED ? Primary Data Questionnaires are prepared and personal interview was conducted. Most of the questions are consist of multiple choices. The structured interview method was undertaken. The interview was conducted in English as well as in Tamil.
Proper care was taken to frame the interview schedule in such a manner it should be easily understood in view of educational level of the employees. Generally 25 questions are prepared and asked to the employees of the Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mill Public Ltd. , Puducherry. ? Secondary Data Secondary data was collected from Internets, various books, Journals, and Company Records. 4. 3 QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION Questionnaires were constructed based on the following types • Open ended questions • Close ended questions • Multiple choice questions 4. 4 DEFINING THE POPULATIONS The Population or Universe can be Finite or infinite. The population is said to be finite if it consist of a fixed number of elements so that it is possible to enumerate it in its totality.
So In this projects consist of finite population. nearly 630 workers working in the mill 4. 5 SAMPLING PLAN A sampling plan is a definite design for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling units from which inferences about the population is drawn. Sampling design is determined before any data are collected. Convenient Sampling technique was adopted. In this method the researcher select those units of the population in the sample, which appear convenient to him or the management of the organization where he is conducting research. 4. 6 SAMPLE SIZE
Nearly 50 samples are taken in Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mill Public Ltd.. , 4. 7 FIELD WORK The field works is done at Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mill Public Ltd. , Thirubuvanai, Puducherry. 4. 8 PERIOD OF SURVEY The period is from July 2007 to August 2007. 4. 9 DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL TOOLS USED ? Percentage method ? Chi-square test ? Correlation ? Weighted average method ? Analysis of variance (TWO-WAY ANOVA) 4. 9. 1 PERCENTAGE METHOD In this project Percentage method test was used. The percentage method is used to know the accurate percentages of the data we took, it is easy to graph out through the percentages. The following are the formula
No of Respondent Percentage of Respondent = x 100 Total no. of Respondents From the above formula, we can get percentages of the data given by the respondents. 4. 9. 2 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS In this project chi-square test was used. This is an analysis of technique which analyzed the stated data in the project. It analysis the assumed data and calculated in the study. The Chi-square test is an important test amongst the several tests of significant developed by statistical. Chi-square, symbolically written as x2 (Pronounce as Ki-Spare), is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance. Formula (O-E) 2 (2 = E
O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency 4. 9. 3 CORRELATION Correlation analysis deals with the association between two or more variables. It does not tell anything about cause and effect relationship. Correlation is classified in two types as ? Positive and ? Negative correlation. SPEARMAN Correlation method, it also can be said as Rank Correlation. It is defined by the symbol ‘r’ 6 ? di? FORMULA r = 1- ______________ n (n? -1) Correlation value shall always lie between +1 and-1. When r =1, it shows there is perfect positive correlation between variables. When r = 0, There is no correlation. 4. 9. 4 WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of weights. ? One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal importance to all the items of the distribution. ? Certain cases relative importance of all the items in the distribution is not the same. Where the importance of the items varies. It is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Thus weightage is a number standing for the relative importance of the items. 4. 9. 5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is an extremely useful technique concerning research. This is used when multi sample are involved.
Anova is extremely a procedure for testing the difference among different groups of data for homogeneity. “The essence of ANOVA is that the total amount of variation in a set of data is broken down into two types such as • ONE-WAY ANOVA • TWO-WAY ANOVA If we take only one factor and investigate the differences amongst its various categories having numerous possible values one-way anova can be used. When we investigate two factors at the same time then we can use two-way anova. Steps involved in ANOVA are 1. Name of the Row samples as x1, x2, x3, x4…… 2. Name of the Column samples as y1, y2, y3, y4…… 3. Calculate the sum of all items by T = ? x1 + ? x2 + ? x3…. 4. Correction factor CF = T? N 5. Calculate Total sum of squares SST = ? x1? + ? 2? + ? x3? …. 6. Sum of squares between column samples SSC = (? y1) ? + (? y2) ? + (? y3) ? T? n n n N 7. Sum of squares between column samples SSR = (? x1) ? + (? x2) ? + (? x3) ? T? n n n N 8. Calculating Residual or Error SSE = [ SST- (SSC+SSR) ] The basic principle of the Anova is to test for differences amongst the means of the population by examine the amount of variation within the samples, relation to the amount of variation between the samples. TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE | |Sum of Squares |Degrees of Freedom (d. f) Mean Square (MS) | | |SOURCE OF VARIATION | | | |F-ratio | | |SSC |V1 | | | |Between | | |SSC |MSC | |Columns Treatment | | |MSC = |F1 = | | | | |K-1 |MSE | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |MSR | | | | | |F2 = | | | | | |MSE | | |SSR |V2 | | | |Between Rows Treatment| | |SSR | | | | | |MSR = | | | | | |R-1 | | | |SSE |(K-1) (R-1) | | | |Residual or Error | | |SSE | | | | |MSE = | | | | | |(K-1) (R-1) | | • If the calculated value (C. V) of F1 < tabulated value (T. V) of F1 then H0 is ACCEPTED. • If the calculated value (C. V) of F1 > tabulated value (T. V) of F1 then H0 is REJECTED. CHAPTER-V ANALYSIS AND INTREPRETATION 5. 1 ANALYSIS USING PERCENTAGE METHOD TABLE 5. 1. 1 RESPONDENT BASED ON AGELEVEL | | | | | |S. No |Age |No. f Respondents |Percentage | | | | | | |1 |18-25 |04 |08 | | | | | | |2 |26-35 |18 |36 | | | | | | |3 |36-45 |22 |44 | | | | | | |4 |Above 45 |06 |12 | | | | | |Total |50 |100 | Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that, 08 % belongs to the age group of 18-25 years, 36 % belongs to the age group of 26-35 years, 44 % belongs to the age group of 36-45 years and 12 % belongs to the age group of above 45 year CHART-5. 1. 1 [pic] TABLE 5. 1. 2 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EDUCATION | | | | | |S. No |Education |No. f Respondents |Percentage | | | | | | |1 |SSLC |10 |20 | | | | | | |2 |HSC |22 |44 | | | | | | |3 |ITI |18 |36 | | | | | | |4 |Others |00 |00 | | | | | |Total |50 |100 | Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that, 20 %belongs to SSLC, 44 % belongs to HSC, 36 %belongs to ITI and 0 % belongs to other degrees. CHART-5. 1. 2 [pic] TABLE 5. 1. 3 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE | | | | | |S. No |Experience |No. f Respondents |Percentage | | | | | | |1 |Below2years |11 |22 | | | | | | |2 |3-5 years |07 |14 | | | | | | |3 |Above 5 years |32 |64 | | | | | |Total |50 |100 | Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 22 % to below 2 years; 14 % belongs to 3-5years, 64 %belongs to above 5 years CHART-5. 1. 3 [pic] TABLE 5. 1. 4 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NUMBER OF WORKING DAYS | | | | | |S. No |Working Days |No. f Respondents |Percentage | | | | | | |1 |20-22 |10 |20 | | | | | | |2 |23 -25 |15 |30 | | | | | | |3 |25-28 |22 |44 | | | | | | |4 |29-31 |03 |06 | | | | | |Total |50 |100 | Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 20 % belongs to 20-22 days, 30 % belongs to 23-25 days, 44 % belongs to 25- 28days, and 06 % belong to above 29-31 days. CHART-5. 1. 4 [pic] TABLE 5. 1. 5 Respondents Based On Their Leave In A Month | |Taken leave in month | | | |S. No | |No. f Respondents |Percentage | | | | | | |1 |0 |10 |20 | | | | | | |2 |1 -5 |23 |46 | | | | | | |3 |6-10 |04 |08 | | | | | | |4 |10-15 |10 |20 | | | | | | |5 |16-20 |03 |06 | | | | | |Total |50 |100 | Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 0 %belongs to 0 days, 46 % belongs to 1-5days, 08 %belongs to 6-10 days, 20 %belongs to 10-15 days, and 06 %belongs to 16-20 days. CHART-5. 1. 5 [pic] TABLE 5. 1. 6 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NUMBER OF WORKING YEARS IN THE COMPANY | | | | | |S. No |WORKING YEARS |No. of Respondents |Percentage | | | | | | |1 |