PSYC 2301 Ch. 1 chappa

behaviorism
view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
humanistic psychology
emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
cognitive psychology
interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activity
psychology
science of behavior and mental processes
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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biopsychosoical approach
integrated approach that incorporates different but complementary views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural perspectives
culture
enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
dual processing
principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
positive psychology
scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
hindsight bias
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it (aka I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
theory
explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
descriptive technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
survey
descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of a population
random sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation
correlation
measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other
correlation coefficient
mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
illusory correlation
perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
method in which researchers vary one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing any differences between the groups
experimental group
the group in an experiment that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control group
the group in an experiment that is not exposed to the treatment and therefore serves as a comparison with the experimental group for evaluating the effect of the treatment
placebo
an inactive substance or condition that is sometimes given to control group members in place of the treatment given to the experimental group
double-blind procedure
a procedure in which participants and research staff are ignorant (blind) about who has received the treatment or a placebo
placebo effect
results caused by expectations alone
independent variable
the experimented factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Wilhelm Wundt performed experiments to study
mental processes
To personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian
physician
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
behaviorism
Which major pioneer in psychology emphasized unconscious sexual conflicts?
Freudian psychology
Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people’s
potential for healthy growth
In the early 1960’s, the cognitive revolution in psychology renewed interest in the scientific study of
mental processes
Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between
thought processes and brain functions
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes
Which perspective studies the relative contributions of our genes and our environment on our individual differences?
behavior genetics
The main feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
unconscious conflicts
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
behavioral
The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how
people encode, process, store and retrieve information
Dr. Wong investigates the relationship between brain chemistry and intelligence. Dr. Wong is working in which psychological subfield?
biological psychology
Dr. Santaniello studies how children’s moral thinking changes as they grow older. Dr. Santaniello is most likely a(n) ___________ psychologist.
developmental
Dr. Caleigh researches people’s ability to solve problems. Dr. Caleigh is most likely a(n) __________ psychologist.
cognitive
Dr. Vazquez helps people make career choices by assisting them in identifying their strengths and interests. Dr. Vazquez is most likely a
counseling psychologist
Clinical psychologists specialize in
providing therapy to troubled people
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
psychiatrist
If you assess whether conclusions are based on the existing evidence, you are using
critical thinking
Different views of the same behavior that together can give us a complete description represent different
levels of analysis
Efforts to discover whether intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their genes or by their home environment are most directly related to the debate regarding the issue of
nature vs. nurture
The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called
dual processing
The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to
believe that they would have foreseen the outcome of past events
Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates
overconfidence
The three key elements of the scientific attitudes are
curiosity, skepticism, and humility
A scientific theory is most useful if it produces testable
predictions
A hypothesis is a(n)
prediction that allows us to test a theory
In a written report of their research, psychologists state exactly how anxiety is measured, this providing their readers with a(n)
operational definition
The case study is a research method in which
a single individual is studied in great depth
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it
may be atypical
Which research method would be best for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion?
the survey
Surveys indicate that people are much less approving of “welfare” than to “aid to the needy.” These survey results best illustrate the importance of
wording effects
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants to ensure that
the participants are representative of the larger population they are interested in studying
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee families in their jungle habitats are using a research method known as
naturalistic observation
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
prediction
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