Psychology Essay - Part 2

In each letter, there are 2 options for example the 1st topic upends on if you are introverted or extroverted - Psychology Essay introduction. An introvert tends to be quiet, shy, and not liking to be the center of attention a lot, while an extrovert tends to be the team leader, the happy go lucky friend, and enjoys their parties from time to time. Then it assess if you are intuitive or observant, if you are intuitive you are imaginative and quick at finding a solution, or you could be observant which means you down to earth and you rely on your senses.

The 3rd letter assesses between a person being thinking and feeling based. A Thinking fellow would be tough and focuses on the mind while a person who the test said was more feeling would be more sensitive and follow your hearts. The final letter depends on if you are a judging or prospecting individual. A Judging personality is decisive and seeks closure while a prospective individual is good at improvising situations and they seek freedom.

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Based on my letters am considered an extrovert, an imaginative person, very in tune with my emotions, and am decisive. Next, the theory of the id, ego, and superego that Sigmund Freud developed s very interesting and has been in media since the mid-1 9505. The theory says that the id is the pleasure drive of your body and it seeks immediate pleasure for things you need like immediate satisfaction if you’re hungry, then the ego lives in reality and it is basically the person.

The ego tries to balance between immediate satisfaction from the id and the conscience of the superego. The superego or better known as the conscience is the part of your personality that is based off morals and values that helps you weigh the pros and cons of the things that the id wants you to do. This topic involves my life because in many forms of media they always use the representation of the devil and the angel on your shoulders that tell you what not to do while the devil keeps on insisting that you should do the bad act. Always have to deal with the id and the superego telling me what to do, but I think my passiveness and acceptance of whatever happens to me has been a partial doing of constantly listening to the angel while although at the time seems bad sometimes may need to listen to the devil. Lastly, an interesting topic to me was Sigmund Fraud’s patient Anna O and he use of psychoanalysis as a psychological method for patients. Anna O was a patient that was paralyzed, partially blind, and was diagnosed with mania at the time.

With the use of free association and dream analysis which are forms of psychoanalysis they were able to slowly remove the symptoms as more traumatic memories were brought more into Anna’s view. She had severely repressed memories that were traumatic of her childhood that caused those symptoms to form. The fact that memories can cause such severe things to happen to the form of paralyzing you is very interesting and proves that your odd will stop accessory things just to stop things that traumatized you to not be in view.

For a while now, I’ve been going to psychologist appointments because of self-esteem issues and a history of self-harming and suicide attempts. These have been going down, and my psychologist used the process of free association to bring out memories of my parent’s divorce and my resentment to my mother that I don’t know how, but after that negative thoughts have just been lessened in my mind and I guess you could say I’ve been getting more optimistic in life.

Psychology 2 Essay - Part 2

Psychology & # 8211 ; Learning Essay, Research Paper

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Learning

There are many different sorts of ways that people and animate beings learn - Psychology 2 Essay introduction. Peoples can set the manner they learn to the different state of affairss in which they are larning and what they have to larn. One signifier of acquisition is known as conditioning. Conditioning emphasises the relationship between stimulations and responses. The two types of conditioning found are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Learning may happen in different ways. Psychologists have distinguished between different types of acquisition, these being Observational Learning and Insight Learning.

Classical conditioning refers to a simple signifier of acquisition, which occurs through the repeated association of two or more different stimulation. Learning is merely said to hold occurred one time a peculiar stimulation ever produces a response which it did non antecedently produce. Classical conditioning involves an innate stimulation and an innate response, aswell as a learned stimulation and a learned response. The innate stimulation is any stimulation, which systematically produces a of course happening, automatic response. The innate response is a automatic and nonvoluntary response, which occurs as a consequence of the innate stimulation. The learned stimulation is the stimulation that is impersonal at the beginning of the conditioning procedure and does non bring forth the innate response. But through repeated association with the learned stimulation, triggers the same response as the innate stimulation. The learned response is the erudite response that is brought away by the learned stimulation. The learned response occurs after the learned stimulation has been associated with the innate stimulation.

An illustration of classical conditioning is when a individual walks past a certain house each twenty-four hours and every clip is attacked by a big Canis familiaris. They so associate that house with the Canis familiaris and avoid walking past there once more.

In this illustration the innate stimulation is the Canis familiaris, the innate response is fear, the learned stimulation is the house, and the conditioned response is turning away of the house.

Operant conditioning is the larning procedure in which the likeliness of a peculiar behavior occurring is determined by the effects of that behavior. It is based on the premise that a individual or animate being will be given to reiterate behavior that brings forth a positive effect such a congratulations, and tend non to reiterate behavior that brings away negative effects such as penalty.

And illustration of operant conditioning is the preparation of rats to press a lever in order to obtain a nutrient wages. The pressure of the lever ( conditioned response ) is associated with the nutrient wages ( innate stimulation ) . After a preparation period, the rat will demo the learned response of pressing the lever even without the presence of the innate stimulation of the nutrient.

Observational acquisition occurs when a individual or an carnal utilizations observation of another s actions and their effects to steer their ain hereafter actions. The individual being observed is referred to as a theoretical account. For this ground experimental acquisition is besides referred to as modeling. Observational larning involves four phases, attending, keeping, reproduction and motivation-reinforcement. Attention is when the scholar observers the actions of the theoretical account ( The higher the position of the theoretical account the more attending the scholar will pay and the closer their imitations will be to the theoretical accounts actions ) . Retention is when the scholar retains in their memory what they have merely observed. Reproduction is when the scholar will reproduce or copy the actions of the theoretical account that they have merely observed. Reproduction is when the scholar rhenium

green goodss or imitates what they have merely observed. Motivation-reinforcement can come in assorted ways. External support, through congratulations for making something good, self-reinforcement, through the scholar puting themselves a end in which they must accomplish, and vicarious self-reinforcement, in which the scholar can see others rejoice in their achieving this end. An illustration of experimental acquisition is when a individual begins to larn a dance. The individual will detect their dance teacher ( attending ) when they are shown the dance moves. They so retain the information that they have merely observed. The individual will so reproduce/imitate the dance moves that they have merely been shown ( reproduction ) . The motive support can come from congratulations from the teacher or fellow terpsichoreans, or seeing others dance good and desiring to be able to make the same.

Insight acquisition is a sort of larning affecting a period of mental use of the information associated with a job prior to the realization of a solution to the job. The acquisition is said to hold occurred when the relationships relevant to the solution are grasped. The acquisition appears to happen in a flash and what has been leaned is normally performed swimmingly and without mistake. Insight larning involves four phases ; readying, incubation, insightful experience and confirmation. Preparation is a acquiring ready period in which the individual gathers as much information as possible about what needs to be done. Incubation is a period of mental clip out in which the information gained is put aside. However the information continues to be reflected upon on a sub-conscious degree. Insightful experience is frequently referred to as the ah hour angle experience because of it s abruptness. This experience seems to happen because of some mental event that out of the blue bridges the spread between the job and it s solution. Confirmation represents the concluding phase of insight acquisition, when the ocular image that flashed into the head during the insightful experience is acted upon and is tested. If the solution proves to be uneffective the scholar with so return back to the phase of incubation.

An illustration of penetration acquisition is that of an experiment performed by psychologist Wolfgang Kohler. Kohler presented a Chimpanzee with a job by puting a banana merely outside of its coop near plenty for the Chimp to clearly see, yet excessively far off for it to make. Inside of the coop were two hollow bamboo sticks, one somewhat shorter and thinner than the other. Each stick was excessively short to enable the Chimp to make the banana nevertheless the shorter stick could be placed inside of the larger one doing it long plenty to make the banana. After many ineffectual efforts to make the banana with his custodies, the Chimp so tried other solutions, which included utilizing each stick independently to make the banana. Failing one time once more the Pan troglodytes sat down with the two sticks in his custodies, looking as though he had given up. But so, seeing that both sticks could be put together to do one long stick ( insightful experience ) , the Chimpanzee placed the little stick a small manner inside of the larger one and was able to make the banana and draw it toward himself.

There are many differences and similarities between each of these learning procedures. For illustration, classical conditioning involves merely nonvoluntary or automatic responses where as operant conditioning involves both nonvoluntary and voluntary physiological reactions. These different acquisition procedures can be used independently in many different state of affairss. Where Classical conditioning may be more effectual in one state of affairs it may be useless in another. For this ground each of these larning procedures, Classical and operant conditioning, and experimental and insight acquisition are each as of import and effectual as the other.

Psychology Essay - Part 2

Discuss the scientific benefits measured against the ethical costs within psychology The ethical issues when working with humans is that participants have the right to withdraw, not to be deceived, confidentiality, protection from physical and psychological harm and the right to be debriefed after the study - Psychology Essay introduction. There are also a number of ethical issues when working with non-human participants within psychology. The first set of ethical issues when working with non-human participants within psychology is the ‘three R’s which is to (Refine the study, Reduce the number of animals used and to replace the use of animal with something else).

The second set of ethical issues for working with non-human participants within psychology is Bateson’s cube; this refers to reducing the degree of suffering for the animal, how effective the quality of the research is and the potential medical benefit that is gained from the research. Aronson argues that all proposals for research should be done on a cost-benefit basis-weighing how much good society will come from the research and how much ‘bad’ will happen for the participants.

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The term ethical cost can mean a cost to an individual taking part in research. Examples of this include Milgrams study on obedience. There was a number of ethical costs within Milgrams research, for instance one major ethical cost within Milgrams research is that he failed to protect his participants from both physical and psychological harm. Milgram failed to do so as the participants that took part within Milgrams study experiences severe amounts of physical and psychological harm; two of which had seizures due to the stress.

The participants experienced great harm as they were made to believe that they were actually giving the confederate within Milgrams study real electric shocks, when in fact the confederate ‘Mr Wallace’ was in fact in on the study. However it can also be argued that there was a number of scientific benefits that were gained from Milgrams study. For instance the main scientific benefit of Milgrams study is that it proved the hypothesis that ‘the Germans are different’ wrong due to the fact that people will obey a powerful leader when under pressure to do so no matter what.

Although a great deal of physical and psychological harm was caused to Milgrams participants, within Milgrams defence it can be argued that Milgram did not anticipant the great deal of stress that was caused and Another example of a study in which a great deal of ethical costs was caused is Zimbardos prison stimulation experiment. Within zimbardos study a great deal of stress was caused to zimbardos participants as zimbardo deceived his participants by not telling them the true aims of the study and also a great deal of physical and psychological harm was caused to zimbardos participants.

Zimbardo deceived his participants as zimbardos participants were unaware that they would be ‘arrested’ during the night which as a result could have been very distressing to the participants and their families. Another ethical issue that was a major concern within zimbardos study was the fact that the participants wanted the study to end due to the fact that they was under so much stress, however zimbardo was so concerned with his role as a prison superintendent that he treated it as if the participants were real prisoners.

In addition to this the participants within Zimbardos study was made to do humiliating and degrading tasks such as cleaning toilets. However there was no major scientific benefit that was gained from zimbardos study which in turn shows that the study should have never taken place within the first place. However although a great deal of ethical issues was experienced from zimbardos study, within zimbardos defence, the study was stopped after 6 days when in turn the study was supposed to last 2 weeks which shows that zimbardo didn’t intentionally mean to cause so much stress to his participants.

Also within zimbardos defence he debriefed each participant after the study to ensure that they were ok and also offered counselling to his participants to ensure that no permanent harm was caused. Another example of a study where a great deal of ethical issues was caused was within Brady’s study on executive monkeys. Brady (1958) conducted a study where he paired 8 rhesus monkeys who he then strapped in chairs, and both of those monkeys receive a 5 milli-amperes electric shock to their feet for half a second unless the conditioned monkey pressed a lever which delayed the shock for 20 seconds.

The experiment lasted 6 to 7 months and each day 6 hours would be when the monkeys were being administered the shocks, the other 6 hours the monkeys would be have off periods where they received no shocks. The conditioned monkeys from all 4 pairs died between the 9 to 48 days of the experiment due to developing ulcers from the stress of having to pull the lever. However the control monkeys who were not in charge of pressing the lever did not die. The research found that high levels of stress are dangerous and that there are possibilities that gastrointestinal problems can develop.

Although the findings were very successful and showing the effects of stress, we must consider the ethical issues associated with this experiment. The ethical guidelines for research with animals all state that harm is allowed if you have enough of a justification, and if it is necessary to finding the goal of the experiment (Batesons cube), however you’re not allowed to keep an animal in great distress and that particular animal should be euthanized immediately to ensure that no long term permanent problems are caused to the monkeys.

Brown argues that researchers sometimes conduct research which appears to be ethical in terms of the costs to the individual, but in fact is harmful to the wider society. An example of this is Jenson’s work into IQ and race. Jenson found that black people were on average scoring 15 points less on IQ tests than white people. From these results Jenson concluded that black people were genetically inferior in comparison to white people. However Jensen ignored various problems with the test material he used when he came to the conclusion that black people had lower IQ’s.

Brown says that the publication of such conclusions was highly damaging to black Americans. Also the costs and benefits of treating people have also been considered. Psychiatrists and psychologist have responsibility to their patients. But therapies such as aversion therapy tend to devalue the patients, as if they were ‘helpless victims’. This also applies to Freudian therapy and drug therapy. It leads to the patient conforming to a stereotype of the ‘mentally ill’. Some have debated whether it is even ethical for the therapist to have any influence at all over their patients.

However, other would argue that patients’ lives are immensely benefitted by the therapies that they receive. In conclusion the relative ethical costs and scientific benefits within psychology will continue to be hotly debated. Current concerns include those about genetic research-how ethical is it to know ones chance of contracting a mental disorder and to what use might such knowledge be put? What is clear however is that Psychologists must be eternally vigilant against the chances of the scales tipping too far towards the ‘cost end’, people whether individuals in research or society at large matter.

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