Psychology and Personality Essay
When people speak of someone having a personality they usually think of out an outgoing person or an abrasive person who can command attention. It is also usually stated in society that a quiet introverted person lacks a personality In psychology personality is defined as being made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. SO with that being said it can be concluded that everyone person has a personality from the most loud and boisterous person to the most quite and meek person. In this paper I will describe the personality perspectives, how personality develops, and finally how personality can be assessed. There are 4 perspectives that can be used to describe how a personality is shaped. Those four perspectives of personality are the psychoanalytic perspective, humanistic perspective, social cognitive perspective, and the trait perspective.
The psychoanalytic perspective speaks too how childhood and early development as well as unconscious thinking shape a person’s personality. Sigmund Freud was that founder of psychoanalysis. Freud felt that humans behaved a certain way based on the preconscious, the conscious and the unconscious mind. He felt not only were the things we were aware of shaping our behavior but that their were inner forces that we weren’t aware of (unconscious mind) that controlled our behaviors even though we didn’t know they were there.
The humanistic perspective is based on the thoughts of human potential that people have freewill, the ability for psychological growth and self-awareness and that is what shapes their personality. (Cain, 2002). Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were some of the most important people when it cam to the humanistic approach. Maslow’s and Rogers emphasized the need humans have to fulfill the goals to the best of their abilities. The humanistic perspective focuses on the theory that people behaved a certain way based on how they perceive their self. This self-concept can become incongruent based conditional positive regard for parents or authority figures. If a child feels they are only cared about when the conform to the authority figures standards and are reject when they don’t they will start to not agree or ignore their emptions because it doesn’t fit the label that has been bestowed upon them by the authority figure. For example if a child is labeled by the parents as an introverted quiet child who always does what they are told. If a time come when the child’s opinion differs from those around it the child will not speak up even though they want to because they have been constantly labeled as not having their own opinion. Rogers pushed for parent to give unconditional positive regards or as it is said in everyday life love your child unconditionally. Rogers’s felt that you could give a child unconditional regards and still discipline them as long as the discipline rejected their negative behavior without rejecting the child.
The social cognitive perspective is similar to the social learning theory. It describes how are personality is based on how a person and their environment interact. Reciprocal determination is a term created by Albert Bandura used to describe how personal is shaped via environmental influences. For example the TV shows a parent allowed their child to watch will in turn affect their preferences for certain TV shows as an adult. Social cognitive perspective boils down to not only are humans the products of their environment but they are also the ones who create their environment. The other major part of this theory is that humans feel there are two types of control. The first is external control that is the belief in things like, karma, fate, luck, chance etc. The second type of control is internal control and that is those who belief the are in control of how their life goes and that they write their own destiny.