Psychology- Chapter 1

Mrs. Lewis participated in a study in which she was given no treatment for her condition. Mrs. Lewis was in the ________ group.
a. observed
b. hazard
c. experimental
d. control
Control
Dr. Edwards wants to show a causal relationship between tobacco smoking and cancer. Dr. Edwards should:
a. conduct an experiment using animal participants.
b. observe people smoking.
c. find a correlation between smoking and the rates of cancer.
d. conduct a telephone survey asking smokers about their health.
Conduct an experiment using animal participants
A drug company is determining the effects of a treatment for depression. Neither the researcher nor the participants know who is getting the treatment and who is given a sugar pill. This type of study is:
a. single-blind.
b. double-blind.
c. quasi-experimental.
d. an institutional review.
Double-Blind
When Mary took the survey in the mall, she noticed that the interviewer was wearing an Obama button. She answered the questions more favorably toward Obama than she might otherwise have, probably because:
a. of observer bias.
b. of courtesy bias.
c. she misunderstand the purpose of the survey.
d. the survey questions were biased.
Of courtesy bias
A researcher wants to describe children’s normal behavior on the playground. The best method for this research is to use
a. an experiment.
b. a survey.
c. a case study.
d. naturalistic observation.
naturalistic observation
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Dr. Jonas wanted to determine what would happen if rats were given food every time they completed a maze. He believed they would learn to complete the maze faster. This belief is called
a. a prediction.
b. a description.
c. control.
d. an explanation.
A prediction
Anna is 45 years old and is suffering from hot flashes and extreme moodiness. From a(n) _____ perspective, Anna’s symptoms can be attributed to menopause.
a. biopsychological
b. analytical
c. psychodynamic
d. cognitive
Biopsychological
Sasha sat in the preschool classroom and watched the children play, writing down how well they interacted with each other. The children could see that Sasha was watching them, so they made an attempt to be extra well-behaved for her. Sasha’s research will be impacted by:
a. the observer effect.
b. participant observation.
c. observer bias.
d. an inability to replicate the results.
The observer effect
Mrs. O’Connor participated in a study in which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the group that received a sugar pill, but she believed that the pill did indeed help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as:
a. the experimenter effect.
b. the mind-over-matter effect.
c. the placebo effect.
d. a successful experiment.
The placebo effect
Which of the following illustrates psychology’s goal of control?
a. giving psychological tests to a new therapy client to determine the client’s symptoms.
b. observing the behavior of children in preschool.
c. predicting students’ university grades based on their high school grades.
d. using rewards to help a smoker give up cigarettes.
Using rewards to help a smoker give up cigarettes
Because psychologists want to be precise and measure as carefully as they can, they use ________ to study psychology.
a. introspection
b. functionalism and structuralism
c. the scientific method
d. mental processes
The scientific method
________ focuses on how people think, remember, store, and use information.
a. Objective introspection
b. Cognitive psychology
c. Behaviorism
d. Structuralism
Cognitive psychology
Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis:
a. has been completely rejected by modern psychologists.
b. is still in use by professionals today, with less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations.
c. has no place in modern scientific study.
d. is as commonly used today as it was a few decades ago.
Is still in use by professionals today, with less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations.
14. Mary is a psychologist who focuses on the role of the conscious and unconscious minds. To which perspective does Mary ascribe?
a. behavioral
b. humanistic
c. cognitive
d. psychodynamic
Psychodynamic
Researchers who allow their expectations about what they will see to affect the results of their observation studies are suffering from:
a. the observer effect.
b. controlled observation.
c. observer bias.
d. participation observation.
Observer bias
If a correlation coefficient is positive:
a. only one of the variables goes up.
b. the number is represented by the letter p.
c. the two variables have an inverse relationship.
d. the two variables increase in the same direction.
The two variables will increase in the same direction
Researchers use ________ for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.
a. naturalistic observation
b. case studies
c. the scientific method
d. the descriptive methods
The scientific method
Experimenters control the effects of extraneous or confounding variables upon members of experimental and control groups by using:
a. placebos.
b. random assignment.
c. independent observers.
d. double-blind studies.
Random assignment
Correlation will tell researchers all of the following EXCEPT ________ between variables.
a. if there is a relationship
b. in what direction the relationship goes
c. how strong the relationship is
d. if there is causation
If there is causation
A ________ has a medical degree and is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
a. psychologist
b. psychiatric social worker
c. psychoanalyst
d. psychiatrist
Psychiatrist
Freud believed that personality was formed:
a. in the first 6 years of life.
b. after a traumatizing event.
c. around puberty when the sex organs develop.
d. in the first 2 years of life.
In the first 6 years of life
What did Watson believe about behavior?
a. that it is learned
b. that it and personality form in the first 6 years of life
c. that it stems from unconscious motivation
d. that it is related to repressed conflict
That it is learned
The psychological perspective that is associated with William James is:
a. conflict.
b. functionalism.
c. structuralism.
d. psychoanalysis.
Functionalism
John Watson believed that phobias:
a. are an indication of a deeper mental problem.
b. are the result of a traumatic event.
c. are learned through the process of conditioning.
d. cannot be eliminated entirely.
Are learned through the process of conditioning
Which of the following is a guideline for doing research with people?
a. Deception is never justified.
b. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation.
c. Participants cannot just quit without a valid, logical reason.
d. Participants must understand that confidentiality is not guaranteed.
Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation
_____ is the rule of thumb stating that if there are two explanations for a phenomenon, the simplest explanation is more often the best one.
a. positive correlation
b. cognitive perspective-taking
c. counter conditioning
d. the law of parsimony
The law of parsimony
A drug company conducts a study in which the experimenter gives half of the participants the drug being tested and the other half a placebo. This is an example of:
a. an unethical experiment.
b. the experimenter effect.
c. a double-blind study.
d. a single-blind study.
A single-blind study
Which research method will allow researchers to determine the cause of a behavior?
a. laboratory observation
b. naturalistic observation
c. conducting a survey
d. conducting an experiment
Conduction an experiment
If deception is necessary, participants must then be _________ after the study.
a. escorted from the facility
b. paid
c. apologized to
d. debriefed
Debriefed
An institutional review board reviews:
a. a study’s safety and consideration for the research participants.
b. double-blind studies only.
c. a study’s proper use of the scientific method.
d. a study’s hypothesis for feasibility.
A study’s safety and consideration for the research participants
All of the following statements about surveys are true EXCEPT:
a. it is difficult to word survey questions so they will be understood the same way by all who read them.
b. answers to survey questions are resistant to courtesy bias.
c. the order of the questions in the survey can affect its outcome.
d. survey questions can be written in such a way that the desired answer becomes obvious.
Answers to survey questions are resistant to courtesy bias
In a negative correlation:
a. the two variables have an inverse relationship.
b. there is no relationship between the variables.
c. a strong correlation is close to +1.00.
d. the variables increase in the same direction.
The two variables have an inverse relationship
In an experiment, it is best to divide participants into the control or experimental group by:
a. using random assignment.
b. determining the participants’ familiarity with the study.
c. studying each participant’s personality.
d. surveying the participants first.
using random assignment
What is the main advantage of laboratory observation?
a. the degree of control it gives the researcher
b. it is most cost effective
c. the researcher gets to know the subject in great detail
d. reactions of people and animals in the laboratory are the same as in the real world
The degree of control it gives the researcher
Which early perspective in psychology, associated with William James, focused on how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play?
a. functionalism
b. structuralism
c. conflict
d. psychoanalysis
Functionalism
By making a loud noise when “Little Albert” was presented with a rat, John Watson taught the baby to fear rats. This proved that:
a. rats can easily frighten young children.
b. phobias could be learned through conditioning.
c. loud noises always elicit a fear response in humans.
d. children are inherently afraid of rats.
Phobias could be learned through conditioning
Who was the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
a. Margaret F. Washburn
b. Mamie Clark
c. Francis Cecil Sumner
d. Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
What did Watson believe about behavior?
a. that it stems from unconscious motivation
b. that it and personality form in the first 6 years of life
c. that it is learned
d. that it is related to repressed conflict
That it is learned
Talking, facial expressions, and movements are elements of:
a. behavior.
b. mental processes.
c. biopsychology.
d. humanism.
Behavior
________ is known as the “father of psychology.”
a. William James
b. Wilhelm Wundt
c. Edward Titchener
d. Sigmund Freud
Wilhelm Wundt
Hispanic psychologist Jorge Sanchez is known for his research on:
a. intelligence tests and their cultural biases.
b. the effect of school segregation on African American children.
c. human memory.
d. phobias.
Intelligence tests and their cultural biases
Which of the following is TRUE about Gestalt psychology?
a. It applied the introspection method to thoughts as well as physical sensations.
b. It was influenced by Darwin’s ideas about natural selection.
c. It focused on perception of patterns and whole figures and events.
d. It stressed the importance of early life experiences.
It focused on perception of patterns and whole figures and events
Freud proposed that there is a(n) ________ mind into which we repress all of our threatening urges and desires.
a. conscious
b. unconscious
c. subconscious
d. dark
Unconcious
Pavlov’s work with learning in dogs focused on the concept of:
a. conditioning.
b. shaping.
c. framing.
d. functionalism.
Conditioning
Watson’s work with “Little Albert” supported the idea that:
a. phobias are symptoms of repressed conflict.
b. phobias can be learned through the process of conditioning.
c. children are scared of loud noises.
d. phobias, once established, cannot be cured.
Phobias can be learned through the process of conditioning
________ suggests that behavioral responses are reinforced when rewarded with pleasurable consequences.
a. Self-actualization
b. Operant conditioning
c. Cognitive psychology
d. The psychodynamic perspective
Operant conditioning
Which perspective focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics that all humans share?
a. the evolutionary perspective
b. the biopsychosocial perspective
c. the Gestalt approach
d. the sociocultural approach
The evolutionary perspective
11. The case of Phineas Gage is an often-cited example of:
a. a double-blind study.
b. an experiment.
c. a laboratory observation.
d. a case study.
Case study
If it is shown that students’ grades go down the more hours they spend watching TV, then grades and hours spent watching TV have a __________ correlation.
a. positive
b. negative
c. mild
d. parametric
Negative
Which of the following is the strongest correlation?
a. -.02
b. +.66
c. -.93
d. +.11
-.93
The best method to use to determine the cause of a behavior is the:
a. survey.
b. hypothesis.
c. observation process.
d. experiment.
Experiment
Which of the following examples is an accurate representation of mental processes as applied to the definition of psychology?
a. Darren asks his teacher a question about a psychological concept.
b. Uma paints an abstract picture while listening to music.
c. Tyler reads a book with his little sister.
d. Kaleb feels depressed after receiving a poor grade on his homework.
Kaleb feels depressed after receiving a poor grade on his homework- Psychology is the study of mental and behavior processes
Dr. Mason observes that the students in her class who read both the text and visual aid presentations tend to perform better on her exams than the students who simply read the text or visual aids alone. Dr. Mason’s observation best depicts which goal of psychology?
a. description
b. control
c. explanation
d. prediction
Description
Doreena is seeing a psychologist because of her intense fear of closed-in spaces. Doreena’s therapist believes that her fear is the result of unresolved conflicts regarding her parents, as well as childhood experiences she had with them. To which school of psychology does Doreena’s therapist most likely belong?
a. Gestalt
b. psychoanalysis
c. behaviorism
d. functionalism
Psychoanalysis
Ms. Glass tells her students everyday how much she wants everyone to succeed, but that they each must choose to attend class and study effectively in order to be successful. She reminds them that the individual choices they make will dramatically affect their outcomes for success. To which perspective of psychology does Ms. Glass’s philosophy on academic performance best relate?
a. humanism
b. cognitive
c. psychodynamic
d. behavioral
Humanism – freedom to choose their own destiny
Pia believes that she is an undercover CIA agent working for the President of the United States. Her delusions disappear, however, whenever she takes her psychotropic medication. Pia is most likely being treated by which of the following?
a. a psychiatric social worker
b. a clinical psychologist
c. a counseling psychologist
d. a psychiatrist
Psychiatrist
Dr. Eckler is looking for new ideas to examine and is interested in testing the notion that students who prepare for their exams by cramming will perform more poorly than students who study regularly throughout the semester. The notion being tested best depicts which of the following research concepts?
a. a result
b. a hypothesis
c. a conclusion
d. a fact
Hypothesis
In an effort to learn more about religious cults, Asma attends the meeting of a religious group well known for their cult-like practices and pretends to be interested in joining the group. Which of the following techniques best describes Asma’s approach to gathering research information?
a. case study
b. survey
c. participant observation
d. double-blind procedure
Participant observation – becomes participant in the group observed
A case study would be the most effective method of research to investigate which of these topics?
a. self-esteem differences in males and females
b. effects of poverty on inner-city youth
c. physiological changes in people who experience pleasure
d. dissociative identity disorder in adolescent transsexuals
Dissociative identity disorder in adolescent transsexuals
A researcher is studying the effects of alcohol consumption on driving ability. In this experiment, alcohol consumption is the _________.
a. independent variable
b. placebo
c. dependent variable
d. uncontrolled treatment
Independent variable
Professor Robinson is interested in examining how study breaks influence memory. She allows one group of psychology students to take a single 15-minute break while another group of psychology students takes three 5-minute breaks. What is the dependent variable in this example?
a. the topic introduced in the lecture
b. the major of the students
c. the students’ memory of the material
d. the number of study breaks allowed
The students’ memory of the material
Which of the following examples best illustrates the placebo effect?
a. You vomit after eating bad meat.
b. You hear strange noises in the house after watching a scary movie.
c. You drink a non-alcoholic beverage that tastes like beer and begin to feel intoxicated.
d. You become sleepy just after you begin studying.
You drink a non-alcoholic beverage that tastes like beer and begin to feel intoxicated
The Four Goals of Psychology
Description
Explanation
Prediction
Control
First of Psychology’s Four Goals?
Description
What is happening?
– Observe behavior and noting everything about it
– Provides observations
– No interpretation, just raw data
Second of Psychology’s Four Goals?
Explanation
Why is it happening?
– Helps build the theory
– Theory: General explanation of a set of observations or facts
Third of Psychology’s Four Goals?
Prediction
Will it happen again in the future?
– Experiment: Change environment
Fourth of Psychology’s Four Goals
Control
How can it be changed?
Changing or modifying behavior
-Change from undesirable one to a desirable one
Psychologist
– professional with a doctorate degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology
– Can do counseling/clinical, teaching and research
– NO MEDICAL
-Areas of Specialization: Clinical, counseling, developmental, school, human factors, personality
– Clinical the largest subfield
Psychologist: Basic Vs. Applied research?
Basic: Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Applied: Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Psychiatrist
– Medical School
-Specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
– Can prescribe meds
Psychiatric Social Worker
– Training in therapy methods
– Focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders
– Poverty, overcrowding, stress, drug
When a psychologist notes that children who watch violent cartoons tend to act more aggressively toward their peers, the psychologist is:
Explanation
Mary Cover Jones’ research with a white rabbit focused on?
Counter-conditioning
Wundt referred to the process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities as
Objective Introspection
In testing whether children are influenced by violence on TV, the best method would be
Experiment
When you make an educated guess about the explanation for your observations you are
Forming a hypothesis
Behaviorism influenced the field of
Cognitive Psychology
According to B.F. Skinner , behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are
Strengthened or Reinforced
If a researcher finds that people’s shoe sizes increaseas their height increases then shoe size and height have a
Positive correlation
Anna is 45-years-old and is suffering from hot flashes and extreme moodiness. From a _____ perspective, Anna’s symptoms can be attributed to menopause.
Biopsychological
Gestalt psychology is best described by the slogan
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
How does humanism differ from psychodynamic theory and behaviorism?
Humanism focuses on people’s ability to direct their own lives
Behaviorism science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only- seen and measured
In an experiment in which half of the participants are given a caffeinated product and half are given a decaffeinated product to determine if caffeine will make them more talkative, the independent variable is
The presence or absence of caffeine
A doctor informs the parents of a 14-year-old that without hospitalization her anorexia will worsen and cause grave medical conditions. The doctor is making a?
Prediction
Researchers use ________ for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data
Scientific Method
Functionalism is heavily influenced by the work of
Charles Darwin

– If physical traits could aid in survival, why couldn’t behavioral traits do the same

Harboring a belief that all male motorcyclists wear beards then only noticing bearded motorcyclists is an example of?
confirmation bias
Step four of the scientific method drawing conclusions,is related to psychology’s goal of
Prediction
Researchers who allow their expectations about what they will see to affect the results of their observation studies are suffering from
Observer bias
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychology
Outward or overt actions and reactions
– Talking, facial expressions, movement
Behavior
Internal, covert activity of our minds
– Thinking, feeling, remembering
Mental Processes
Personal judgments based on beliefs instead of facts
Bias
Process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing and synthesizing information
Critical Thinking
A view that emphasizes the manner in which the environment and the learning experiences it provides shape and control behaviour. Objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner were leaders)
Behavioral Perspective
Unifying theme of modern psychology which incorporates biological, psychological, and social processes.
Biopsychosocial model
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, thinking and information processing
Cognitive Perspective
Perspective that focuses natural selection, on the biological bases on universal mental characteristics that all humans share; assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions
Evolutionary Perspective
The psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices, School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and capacity for personal growth.
Humanistic Perspective
perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share, actions are caused by inherited traits, hormones, neurotransmitters
Evolutionary/Biopsychology Perspective
Unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts Freud was the founder
Psychoanalytic
Psychodymanic Perspective
In psychology, the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes
Sociocultural Persepective
Structuralism
– Focused on the structure or basic elements of the mind
NOT THE BRAIN
– Sought to identifiy the basic building blocks or structures of the mind through introspection
– “Consciousness can be broken down into elements of sensation”
– Willheim Wund’t and Titchener Key Leaders
Leaders of Structuralism
– Willheim Wund’t
– Margaret F. Washbum
Willheim Wund’t
Father of Psychology and Structuralism
Margaret Washburn
First woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology studied animal behavior
Functionalism
– How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work and play
– Studied how the mind functions to adapt organism to their environment
– William James key leader
Learders of Functionalism
– William James
– Mary Whiton Calkins
– George Sanchez
George Sanchez
-Hispanic psychology
– Biases in IQ tests
– Situational decisions
Gestalt
– Wholes
– Wertheimer key leader
– Applies to sensation and perception – must combine elements
– They could not be broken down into small elements and still be properly understood
Gestalt ideas now apart of the study of?
Cognitive psychology
– Takes things as whole and elaborates on perception
– Sensation and perception as important components of cognition
Cognitive Psychology
– Perception + learning, memory, though processes and problem solving
Psychoanalysis
Theory and therapy based on work of Sigmund Freud
– Basis of modern psychology
Psychoanalysis Unconscious or conscious?
Freud proposed the existence of an unconscious mind into which we push our threatening sexual urges and desires
Freud’s patients sufffered form nervous disorders with no apparent physical cause. He believed
That nervous disorders were created when repressed memories/urges tried to resurface
– Stressed the importance of early childhood experiences and sexual issues
Beliefs of Freud vs. Watson
Freud: All behavior stem from unconscious motivation
– Phobia symptom of underlying repressed conflict and cannot be cured without psychoanalysis to uncover and understand repressed material
Watson: All behavior is learned
– Phobias learned through process of conditioning
Behaviorism
Science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
– Must be directly seen and measured
Behaviorism Leaders
– John Watson
– Ian Pavlov
– Mary Cover Jones
– B.F Skinner
Ivan Pavlov
– Behaviorism
– Demonstrated that a reflex/behaivior could be conditioned –> learned
– Developed Classical Conditioning
Conditioning
Stimulus-response behaivior
– Automatic
– Dog –> mouth water with food. Replace food with bell. Same response occurs
John Watson
Father of Behaviorism
– Bleived that phobias were learned/aquired and not born with -Due to experience
– “Little Albert” – Rat and bell
Mary Cover Jones
Early pioner in behavior therapy
– Little Peter
– Counterconditioning
Counterconditioning
Unconditioning
– Conditioned to fear white rabbit, unconditioned to fear white rabbit through food presentation
Psychodynamic perspective/psychotherapy
Therapist helps you gain insight into changes in your behavior
Focus:
– Development of a sense of self
– Discovery of motivation behind your behavior other than sexual motivations
Behavioral Perspective
B.F Skinner
– Studying operant conditioning of voluntary behavior
-Introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism
Humanistic Perspective
Philosphy oriented sub-type of psychoanalysis
Free Will: Freedom to choose their own destiny
Self-Actualizaiton
Self- Actualization
Your choice to achieve full potential
Founders of Humanistic Perspective
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers
Cognitive Perspective
Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
-Developed out of Gestalt thory
Sociocultural Perspective
Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
-Effect that people have on each other or as individuals

The way people behave depends on who they are around

Biospychological perspective
Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body
– Genetic influences
– Hormones
– Activity of the nervous system
– Neuroscience, brain imaging

– Schizophrenia
– Sexual orientation

Evolutionary Perspective
Focuses on biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
-Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does
-Behavior seen as having an adaptive or survival value
Examples:
– Not eating bitter foods – Poisoness
– Survival of the fittest
– Color perception men/women
Steps in the Scientific Method
Perceive the Question
Form a hypothesis
Test Hypothesis
Draw Conclusions
Report Your Results
1) Perceive the Question
Step derived from goal – Description
Have a question you want to answer
2) Form a Hypothesis
Tentative Explanation of a phenomenon based on observations

Goals: Description and Explanation
Based on observations you form an educative guess about the observation

3) Test Hypothesis
People have tendency to notice only things that agree with their view of the world

Conformation Bias: Selective Perception
Goal of getting an explanation

4) Draw Conclusions
Supported or Not
Data analyzed

Related to Goal of Prediction
If hypothesis supported, make educated guess about future

5) Results
Report results so that others can try to replicate or repeat the study or experiment to see whether the same results will be obtained in a effort to demonstrate reliability of results
Naturalistic Observation
Watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment
Advantage: Realistic picture of behavior
Problem of Naturalistic Observation
Observer Effect
Observer Effect
Tendency of people or animals to behave differently when they know they are being observed
Solution to Observer Effect
Participant Observation
Participant Observation
Naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
Observer Bias
Person observing might have opinion about what he/she expects to see
Laboratory Observation
Watching animals/humans behave in laboratory setting

Advantages:
– Control over environment
– Allows use of specialized equipment

Disadvantage:
-Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior

Case Study
Study of one individual in great detail
– Usually very specific problem with very specific population

Advantage: a lot of detail, study things that are rare
Disadvantage: Cannot apply to others

Surveys
Researchers ask a series of questions about the topic under study
Advantages/Disadvantages of Survey
Advantage:
Data from large number of people
Study covert behaviors

Disadvantage:
Researchers have to ensure representative sample or the results are not meaningful
People are not always accurate –> Courtesy bias

Courtesy Bias
Give answer they think is more socially appropriate than their opinion
Correlation
Measure of the relationship between two variables
– Measures of two variables go into a mathematical formula and produce a correlation coefficient
Variable
Anything that can change or vary
– Something you are manipulating or measuring
Correlation Coefficient represents two things
– Direction of the relationship
– Strength of the relationship

– ranges from -1 to +1

Knowing the value of one variable allows researches to predict value of the other

Strength of correlation
How close all of the scores are to the mean average score
– The closer to +1 or -1 the stronger the relationship between the variables

0 = no correlation
-1 or +1 = perfect correlation

Direction of correlation
Positive: Variables are related in the same direction
both increase or decrease

Negative: Variables are related in opposite direction
As one increases the other decreases

**Correlation does not mean causation

Experiment
Deliberate manipulation of a variable to see whether corresponding changes in behavior result
– Allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships
Independent Variable
Variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
– What you are controlling
– Goes on the X axis
Dependent variable
Variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of subjects in the experiment
– Goes on the Y axis
Placebo Effect
Phenomenon: Expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
Solution to Placebo Effect
Single Blind Study
Subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental or control group
Experimenter Effect
Tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
– Interpret behavior in the way they want to on accident
Solution to Experimenter Effect
– Neither the experimenter nor the subjects know which subjects are in the experimental or control group

– reduces placebo and experimenter effect

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