Public Opinion Chapter 5

What is wrong with the following poll question: Do you think it was appropriate for President Bush to lie so that he could start a war with Iraq?
push polling
Which kind of polling error arises when a sample of public opinion over represents or underrepresents some opinions?
selection bias
When men and women respond differently to issues of public policy, they are demonstrating an example of the
gender gap.
Which of the following is a core U.S. value?
Individual liberty
Members of a social group often have similar political beliefs because of all of the following except
they feel a sense of individualism.

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Which type of equality is most prominent in the United States?
Equality of opportunity
Recent studies by political scientist’s show that the average American exhibits
little knowledge of political institutions, processes, or leaders
Public-opinion polls are scientific instruments for measuring _________
public opinion
The practice of ____________ involves asking loaded questions to subtly shape the respondent’s opinion
push polling
Above all, a public-opinion sample must be _____________
representative
Which of the following is not important in determining the reliability of a poll?
Size of the population
The term ________ is used to describe the beliefs and attitudes that people have about issues
public opinion
Which of the following is an agent of socialization?
Education, Social groups, the family, all of the above.
True or False: A survey of 1,000 people can be effective for measuring the opinions of all Americans.
true
The fact that Democratic Party leaders have become more liberal and Republican Party leaders more conservative is important because:
partisans in the public tend to rely on party leaders for cues on the appropriate positions to take on major political issues
Which of the following statements about political opinions is NOT true?
The poor are generally less supportive of economic and social programs than the wealthy
The term gender gap refers to:
differences in political opinions between men and women
When George W. Bush supporters called conservative white voters during the 2000 South Carolina Republican primary to ask if they would be more or less likely to vote for John McCain if they knew that he had fathered an illegitimate black child, it was an example of:
a push poll
Liberty is the core political value most highly prized by
American conservatives
What is one of the main differences between those who have gone to college and those who have not?
There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education.
Which of the following statements best describes perceptions of racism among blacks and whites?
Blacks are more likely than whites to believe that racism is very common in the United States today.
A political ideology is best defined as:
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government
Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support:
school prayer
True or False: Cell phones and caller ID have dramatically reduced the problem of selection bias in public opinion surveys
true
The social desirability effect refers to:
the fact that respondents report what they expect the interviewer wishes to hear or whatever they think is socially acceptable rather than what they actually believe or know to be true
Which of the following statements about the political opinions of Democrats and Republicans in the public is most accurate?
Differences between the political opinions of Democrats and Republicans on a wide variety of policy questions are greater today than during any other period in the last forty years.
The various attitudes that citizens possess toward political issues, events, and people are called:
public opinions
The process by which underlying political values are formed is known as
political socialization
True or False: The United States is a nation without political ideologies.
False
True or False: Calling randomly selected phone numbers is a good way for pollsters to reduce sampling errors
True
One recent survey showed that two-thirds of Americans believe the government is spending “too little” money on “assistance for the poor.” Yet, another survey conducted at the same time found that only one-tenth of Americans believe that the government is spending “too little” on “welfare.” This example shows that
small differences in the wording of a question can lead to very different response patterns
The small group selected by pollsters to represent the entire population is called the
sample
True or False: Families, social groups, and schools are important institutions where people are politically socialized.
True
Which of the following is NOT true?
Political elites cannot influence people’s ideas and beliefs
Which of the following statements about the relationship between public opinion and government policy is most accurate?
Although there is no one-to-one correlation between public opinion and government policy, shifts in public opinion on particular issues frequently lead to changes in government policy
True or False: During the formation of an individual’s initial political orientation, the influence of family counts for very little
false
Which of the following best characterizes the Clinton White House’s attempts to influence public opinion?
The Clinton White House used techniques similar to those used in election campaigns to bolster popular enthusiasm for White House initiatives.
True or False: Political ideologies do not always provide us with a clear opinion on particular policies
true.
Which of the following statements about governmental public relations efforts is NOT true
Due to its size and power, the government is always successful at influencing public opinion.
The fact that Americans strongly support the idea that governmental interference in individuals’ lives and property should be kept to a minimum illustrates their commitment to
liberty
Which of following phenomena is NOT an illustration of the gender gap?
Men are more likely to join political parties and other social organizations.
Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is incorrect?
An individual’s religion has no impact on their political views.
The concept of a marketplace of ideas refers to:
the competition between varying opinions and ideas that are aired in public forums
Liberalism and conservatism are good examples of
political ideologies
People’s political party preferences are primarily acquired through the influence of:
their families.
True or False: Levels of education have not been shown to affect one’s political opinions false
false
A liberal would most likely support:
an expansion in governmental social services
Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans is worried about government monitoring of personal information?
56 percent
In 1936, pollsters at the Literary Digest were guilty of _____________ when they mistakenly predicted a presidential victory for Alf Landon over Franklin Roosevelt by polling people whose names came from the telephone book and automobile registration records
selection bias
Which of the following was NOT part of the Bush administration’s effort to maintain support for its war on terror?
Donations to academic institutions.
Conservatives typically favor
smaller government.
Research into public opinion and public policy has shown that:
more-affluent and more-educated citizens have a disproportionate influence over politics and public-policy decision
Which of the following statements about the forces that shape public opinion is NOT true?
Presidents rarely attempt to influence public support for the policies they are promoting.
Why does the marketplace of ideas often have a moderating effect on people’s opinions?
Given constant exposure to other people’s ideas, it is almost impossible for one not to modify one’s own viewpoints.
True or False: A distinguishing feature of the contemporary party system is party polarization
true
The controversial nature of affirmative action reveals that:
different policy preferences can be based on different practical interpretations of the same principle
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