Rate and Sequence of Development
1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years.
Physical 0 -3
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When a baby is born they are unable to hold their own head up however they will tilt their head towards light or noise within their first months. When spoken to they will react by looking at or watching you. As they develop they will be able to support their own head and wave their arms around and bring them together, the same with the legs. They will be able to roll from front to back and are able to fully support themselves when hands are flat on the floor. They may also be able to sit unsupported for a period of time with their back straight. At approximately 9 months they will be able to sit unsupported on the floor without toppling over and may have also started to crawl and/or pull themselves up into standing position using the furniture around them. From this they will be able to sit down from standing position and may be able to stand alone and/or take a few brief steps.
They may also start to feed themselves using their fingers or with a spoon. From being able to take brief steps they will then begin to walk independently and sit on a child sized chair. They will also start to turn pages of a book, build towers using two building blocks, make marks on paper and hold their own cup while drinking. At 18 months a child will be able to walk confidently and be making attempts to run, able to balance in squatting position, pushes and pulls toys/child sized furniture and roll and throw a ball, with attempts to kick them. By the age of 2 a child will be able to run confidently, walk up and down stairs with the assistance of a hand rail, ride large wheeled toys but not peddling and kick stationary balls. At the age of 3 children should be able to peddle large wheeled toys while steering, walk up and down stairs confidently, kick moving balls and climb on small apparatus and complete jigsaw puzzles.
Social and Emotional 0 -3
When a child is first born they a totally dependent on others. By the time they reach one month old they will start to smile and respond to sounds heard within the environment by making their own sounds and noises. As babies develop they will show feelings of fear and excitement and will react when their parents/carers leave the room. They will do this by crying as they do not understand that they will return, and will react positively when a parent/carer is caring, soothing, and kind. This links with Piagets stages of development. He believed that children pass through 4 stages of cognitive development, these being stage 1 sensory motor, stage 2 preoperational, stage 3 concrete operations and stage 4 formal operations. Piagets stage 1 states that babies use their sense to learn. They can also see things from their own point of view. They do not know that something they can’t see still exists such as when their parent/carer leaves the room. Soon after this babies will reach out to be held and show a wider range of feeling more vocally. They will start to laugh, screech and coo with delight but may cry easily at the sight of strangers and unfamiliar faces. Increasing mobility will allow them to approach familiar people and they may start to feed themselves with support.
By the age of 1 a child’s sense of self identity increases and so their self esteem and self confidence develop. They will start to play alongside other children for increasing periods of time and will wave goodbye when prompted. Children develop the sense of exploration from a young age but need their parents/carers close by. They will start to show a keen interest in activities that their peers are participating in, however they may start to show jealousy of the attention and toys that carers give to another child. Emotions will alternate between wanting to do things alone, wanting to do things with other children and depending on their parents/carers. Between the ages of 18 months and 3 years old a child will become very curious and more confident to explore. They will begin to understand their own feelings and respond to happy and sad faces. They will also start to tell their parents/carers how they feel and empathise with the feelings of others.
Communication and Intellectual 0 – 3
A baby communicates through sounds and communicates their needs through crying and noises. They begin to coo and gurgle in response to parents/carers and through physical closeness. They also start to recognise and link familiar sounds like the face to the voice of a parent/carer and will imitate high and low sounds that they hear. Sounds are initially used to call for the parents/carers attention and start to babble frequently. Volume is explored vocally and they start to enjoy rhymes and accompanying actions with rhythm. By the age of 1 a baby understands the word “no” and knows their own name and responds to it. They intentionally use volume vocally and the babbling sounds start to sound increasingly like speech and start to lead into single words being spoken.
By 18 months babies understand the concepts of labels such as you, me, mine and yours. The use of single words increase as new words are learnt. Children understand a great deal of what carers say and will start to speak more words and use people’s names. By the age of 3 children can name objects in sight, join words together, start to enquire using what and why, name colours, start to use longer sentences even though some words may be used incorrectly and understand that actions have consequences. Behavioural 0 – 3
At the age of 18 months babies may respond with anger when told off in such a way as throwing toys and/or having a tantrum. Children may become possessive of toys, parents and carers and may become reluctant to share. Children may start to assert their will strongly, showing angry defiance and resistance towards adults and becoming restless, quickly growing irritated or angry. At the age of 2 children may use their language ability to protest verbally and grow angry thus resulting in lashing out on occasions, for example pushing, biting and hitting. By the age of 3 children are increasingly able to understand the consequences of their behaviour and the concept of “getting into trouble” and saying “sorry”.
Physical 3 – 7
As children develop physically they are able to change direction when running, hop safely, confidently climb and slide on apparatus, walk successfully in a straight line. They are able to bounce, catch and take aim with balls, playing ball games that include rules and control a ball well. When they reach the age of five years old they should be able to ride a bike with stabilisers, enjoy dance and movement activities and balance should improve so that they are able to use low stilts. Children will be able to tower ten blocks or more and learn how to use scissors and cut out basic shapes. They should be starting to draw people with heads, bodies and limbs and start to write their name and letters. They should also be starting to control mark making equipment well and letters should appear more legible. Between the ages of 6 and 7 children should be able to hop on one leg, skip and play hopscotch, ride bicycles without stabilisers and confidently climb and slide on larger apparatus that may be available in school or in the park. Children should be able to catch a ball with just one hand, their writing should be legible and they may have started to attempt to tie their own shoe laces.
Social and Emotional 3 – 7
By the age of 4 children will be somewhat socially confident. Their self esteem is apparent and they have an awareness of gender roles. They may have started school and the transition may be unsettling. Friendships with peers are increasingly valued and important, and enjoy playing with groups of children and friends that have been made at school. They are keen to fit in with others and approval from adults and peers is very desirable. Children start to gain control over their emotions and have the patience to wait to have their needs met by their parents/carers. They become increasingly independent, undertaking most of their physical care themselves such as washing and brushing their own teeth and hair.
At the age of 5 children start to increasingly understand rules of social conduct and rules of games however you may find that they have difficulty coming to terms with losing. They will also have an increasing sense of their own personality and gender. Between the ages of 6 and 7 children will now be able to enjoy team games and activities. Their personality is established along with attitudes towards life. More towards to age of 7 children will start to doubt their learning ability and protest they can’t do things. This may make them more reluctant to try or persevere causing them to become frustrated easily. However by this age friendship bonds are strong and the concept of a “best friend” is in place and is most important even though they may be susceptible to peer pressure. Cultural identity may also be established and children will have learnt how to behave in various settings and social situations such as at school, youth club’s and friends houses. Communication and Intellectual 3 – 7
As a child develops so does their memory and language. Children are able to recall many songs and stories, both fantasy and reality however these two may become confused. As a child’s understanding of language improves so does their thinking skills, enjoyment of rhymes, stories and nonsense. At the age of 4 they will start to problem solve wondering what will happen and make their own hypothesis thinking that “this will happen.” They will also gain their own opinions and knowledge of subjects that they will share using language for thinking. Also children should be able to complete puzzles of up to 12 pieces and sort objects into more complex groups and sets, and number correspondence improves.
They will sit and spend longer periods of time taking part in activities and show persistence through learning from new experiences at school. Between 6 and 7 a child’s imagination skills are developed and they enjoy playing fantasy games that are complex and dramatic. Their language will become more refined and adult like and will enjoy jokes and word play. A child’s ability to predict and plan ahead will have developed and they will understand cause and effect well. Also they will be able to conserve number, do simple calculations and understand measurement and weighing. Many children can read and write basis text by the age of 7 however this varies widely with each child.
Behavioural 3 – 7
If a child is exposed to swearing at a young age it is more than likely that they will start to use these words within their own language. At the age of 4 children will be learning how to negotiate and get along with others through experimenting with their behaviour. Through this they may experience being in/out of control, feeling power and having quarrels with their peers, being blamed and blaming. Children may start to feel shame/guilt when a adult disapproves of their behaviour and may seek attention by showing off in front of their peers. They will also have a good understanding of familiar and basic rules and have an increasing understanding of reasoning and method of “time out” to manage behaviour.
Between 6 and 7 children may start to sulk and be miserable at times, maybe when under pressure or when conflict arises such as between friendship groups, however they are more than capable of intentionally choosing their behavioural response to conflict. Children will be increasingly able to settle minor disputes and conflict independently, but maybe with some help from adults if conflict or dispute gets out of hand. They may become over excitable at times which may lead to silly behaviour. Children may rebel and may argue over carrying out tasks which have been set such as tidying up or completing homework, however they will have a strong sense of what is right and wrong and may tell adults when another child has broken a set rule.
Physical 7 – 12
Between the ages of 8 and 12 physical growth slows at first and so fewer physical milestones are reached however between the ages of 11 and 13 puberty generally begins for girls. Muscles and bones develop and so children have more physical strength even though they begin to run around less during play. Children’s speed and coordination of movement develops and they gain a keen interest in television, computers, games consoles and DVD’s which may result in children becoming less active. As a parent/carer a healthy, balanced lifestyle should always be encouraged, however through the interest of computers they may be able to type well and have full control over the mouse. Also children will be able to join up their writing which will become increasingly adult like and may be adept to delicate craft activities.
Social and Emotional 7 – 12
As children reach the age of 10 they start to feel unsettled when making the transition from primary school to secondary school and also puberty approaches. Their friendships are highly relied upon which are generally same sex, although children may play in mixed groups or teams. Children may become reluctant to join a club or an event unless one of their friends will be there also, however they do become more independent and make more decisions for themselves. By the end of the age band they may be allowed to
play unsupervised and travel to and from school alone.
Communication and Intellectual 7 – 12
Child may follow their interests outside of school and read for enjoyment outside of school allowing them to make up stories and tell stories that have been plotted out. Their verbal and written communication is fluent with correct grammar usage and they should be socialising with friends and adults. Children will learn a range of new subjects at secondary school and through these they will follow their own interests both inside and outside of school. Also their sense of logic develops and they should be able to think in abstract by the age of 10, meaning they can consider beliefs, morals and the world’s events.
Behavioural 7 – 12
During these ages of development severe mood swings may be experienced by children who are going through puberty. Conflict with parents may be present due to the children’s desire to be more independent such as wanting to stay at home on their own and expressing that they may find rules to be unfair by saying that their friends are allowed to do so, so why can’t they. Children between this age band may also refuse to go along with decisions that parents/carers make for them such as refusing to wear clothes that have been bought for them.
Physical 12 – 16
Throughout these ages the bodies of both boys and girls change as they reach puberty. There is generally a variation in the age that this occurs. Girls generally enter puberty by the age of 13 physically becoming women by the age of 16. Whereas boys enter puberty by the age of 14 and physically becoming men by the age of 16 or 17. Some children may start to experiment with early promiscuity between the ages of 14 and 16 which can be linked with low self esteem. Some sporting and arts and crafts talent may become apparent at this age and may have learnt or refined new manipulative skills such as drawing, stitching, carpentry, woodwork or playing an instrument.
Social and Emotional 12 – 16
A child’s need to express their individuality becomes apparent at this age, but there is also a strong desire to fit in with their peers. They may start to express self creativity through art, music, dance or creative writing and may express themselves and their identity through starting to experiment with their appearance such as dress sense, hair styles, piercings and tattoos. However children may worry about aspects of their physical appearance and may feel overwhelmed or anxious. A balance of school work and leisure time is important, especially if children have taken on a part time job and are feeling pressure from school as exam curriculum is followed. Children may prefer to spend more time with friends than with family and are likely to communicate innermost feelings and thoughts more frequently with friends than adults. They may also become interested in the opposite and/or same sex and their own sexuality. Some children may have developed a relationship with somebody of the opposite/same sex and starts to spend and increasing amount of time with that person. You may find that they tend to stay in their bedrooms more when they are at home.
Communication and Intellectual 12 – 16
A child’s academic knowledge will increase as exam curriculum is followed and towards the age of 16 decisions are made about their future such as going to college or going to get a job. They may be reluctant to directly ask adults for advice or information which they may need and so they prefer to access it anonymously.
Behavioural 12 – 16
Between these ages children may swing between acting maturely and doing or saying childish things such as they may still watch young children’s television programmes or may sit on the swings in the park. They may start acting on their own values which may cause conflict at home and may start to experiment with smoking, alcohol, drugs and early promiscuity which is linked with low self esteem. The opinions and values of parents may be disregarded as they may conflict with those of their peer group. Children may also experience severe mood swings and tense atmospheres are lightened when adults remain in good humour.
Physical 16 – 19
The body has essentially completed physical maturation. The physical features of both young men and women are shaped and defined. May act upon sexual desires with same/opposite sex.
Social and Emotional 16 – 19
Between these ages young people can find that their relationships with their parents range from friendly to hostile and may feel that their parents are too interested and pry too much into their private life. They usually have many friends and few confidants. They may begin to date actively, this varies greatly in level of maturity as girls are said to mature faster than boys. Some may be uncomfortable or enjoy activities with opposite sex. Young women and some young men may start to talk of marriage. Both sexes may be strongly invested in a single, romantic relationship. Some young people may start to fear failure as pressures from school, college and university are apparent and also from relationships. Some may appear moody, angry, lonely, impulsive, self-centered, confused, and stubborn due to these aspects and have conflicting feelings about dependence/independence.
Communication and Intellectual 16 – 19
Young people will start to have serious concerns about the future. They may lack information or self-assurance about personal skills and abilities which will lead them onto further decisions about the future. They will start to begin to integrate knowledge leading to decisions about future such as whether to go to college and continue onto university or to get a job.
Behavioural 16 – 19
Some young people may be interested in sex as a response to physical-emotional urges and as a way to participate in the adult world (but not necessarily an expression of mature intimacy). Some may become confused and disappointed about discrepancies between stated values and actual behaviours of family and friends.