Recognizing Arguments - Logic Essay Example
You discovered an interesting example from Obama - Recognizing Arguments introduction. You have justified your points, providing supportive reasoning behind your thoughts. You were able to link theory with practical application and real-world settings. However, remember that in an inductive argument, you cannot guarantee the conclusion. A deductive argument follows the if “this” than “that” format, so it must be true. Please see my attached comments regarding 1 premise/conclusion issue, 1 strict/loose, and 3 in part IIa. I would suggest the following to improve the professional nature of your work: Please always include a proper title page. In the top half of the page, centered and double-spaced, include: title of the paper, your first and last name, course number and name, instructor name, and date of submission. Please review the rubric and comments, which have been made directly in your attached paper. Keep working hard. I look forward to your next assignment. Best,
M1: Assignment 3
Assignment 3 Grading Criteria | Maximum Points| |
Identified and explained types and component parts of arguments displaying analysis and application of research.| 32| 30| Accurately created diagrams of arguments reflecting comprehension, analysis of information, and critical thinking.| 20| 17| Constructed original arguments demonstrating in-depth understanding of concepts.| 20| 16| Evaluated instances from contemporary media to identify arguments as representative of inductive or deductive reasoning.| 12| 12| Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.| 16| 15| Total:| 100| 90|
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In this assignment, you will apply key concepts covered in the module readings. You will identify the component parts of arguments and differentiate between various types of arguments such as strict, loose, inductive, and deductive. You will then construct specific, original
arguments. There are two parts to the assignment. Complete both parts. Part 1
1a: Identify Components of Arguments
Identify the component parts of the argument, premises and conclusion, for the following passages. Where applicable, highlight key words or phrases that identify a claim as a premise or a conclusion. Refer to the following example:
“All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.” All men are mortal.Premise
Socrates is a man.Premise
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.Conclusion
“Therefore” is a key word indicating the claim is the conclusion.
1. Sue is pregnant and will give birth to one child. We know already this child has no genetic anomalies. If Sue’s baby is a boy, he will be named Mark. If Sue’s baby is a girl, she will be named Margaret. Sue will have either a boy or a girl. So we know Sue’s baby will be named Mark or Margaret.
PREMISE: Sue is pregnant and will give birth to one child.
PREMISE: We know already this child has no genetic anomalies. CONCLUSION: If Sue’s baby is a boy, he will be named Mark. CONCLUSION: If Sue’s baby is a girl, she will be named Margaret. PREMISE: Sue will have either a boy or a girl.
CONCLUSION: So we know Sue’s baby will be named Mark or Margaret. “So” is a key word indicating the claim is the conclusion.
2. If the library has The Lord of the Rings, you won’t find it on the first floor. This is because all fantasy novels are fiction and all works of fiction are housed on the second floor of the library. Of course, I am assuming that all the books are properly shelved at this time.
PREMISE: If the library has The Lord of the Rings, you won’t find it on the first floor. PREMISE: This is because all fantasy novels are fiction and all works of fiction are housed on the second floor of the library. CONCLUSION: Of course, I am assuming that all the books are properly shelved at this time. “Of course” is a key word indicating the claim is the conclusion.
3. “After a year, brain scans showed that among the walkers, the hippocampus had increased in volume by about 2 percent on average; in the others, it had declined by about 1.4 percent. Since such a decline is normal in older adults, ’a 2 percent increase is fairly significant,’ said the lead author, Kirk Erickson, a psychologist at the University of Pittsburgh. Both groups also improved on a test of spatial memory, but the walkers improved more. While it is hard to generalize from this study to other populations, the researchers were delighted to learn that the hippocampus might expand with exercise” (Span, 2011).
PREMISE: “After a year, brain scans showed that among the walkers, the hippocampus had increased in volume by about 2 percent on average; in the others, it had declined by about 1.4 percent. CONCLUSION: Since such a decline is normal in older adults, ’a 2 percent increase is fairly significant,’ said the lead author, Kirk Erickson, a psychologist at the University of Pittsburgh. PREMISE: Both groups also improved on a test of spatial memory, but the walkers improved more. CONCLUSION: While it is hard to generalize from this study to other populations, the researchers were delighted to learn that the hippocampus might expand with exercise” (Span, 2011). Reference
Span, P. (2011, February 7). Fitness: A walk to remember? Study says yes. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/08/health/research/08fitness.html?src=me&ref=general
1b: Identify Arguments as Strict or Loose
Identify the arguments as strict or loose for the following passages: 1. I was late for class because my car ran out of gas and I could not find a gas
station. Strict 2. It’s a good idea to drink more cranberry juice. It’s a good source of vitamin C and they say it helps keep the kidneys healthy. Strict 3. “Researchers from the National Institutes of Health have found that less than an hour of cell phone use can speed up brain activity in the area closest to the phone antenna, raising new questions about the health effects of low levels of radiation emitted from cell phones” (Parker-Pope, 2011). Loose 4. She argued that despite my wealth of personal experience and knowledge, I should not attempt to help my cousin with preparing her divorce paper. “That would constitute impersonating a lawyer,” she said, “which is a crime.” Strict
Parker-Pope, T. (2011, February 22). Cellphone use tied to changes in brain activity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/22/cellphone-use-tied-to-changes-in-brain-activity/?src=me&ref=general
1c: Identify Arguments as Inductive or Deductive
Identify the arguments as inductive or deductive for the following passages: 1. Because Una has circles under her eyes, is yawning, and looks tired, I’m certain she didn’t get much sleep last night. Inductive 2. Grace concluded that psychotherapists caused indigestion, because every time she had a session, she left with a horrible stomachache. Inductive 3. If a bug is a spider, it must have eight legs. A daddy-long-legs has six legs, consequently, a daddy-long-legs is not a spider. Deductive Part 2
2a: Argument Analysis and Diagram
Research the list and diagram structure using your textbook readings for the module. Apply the method to (a) outline and (b) diagram the arguments in the following longer text passages. Model your answers on the examples of diagramed arguments in the textbook and the sample diagrams provided.
Refer to the following argument outline components:
The issue here is: __________________________________________ The author concludes that: __________________________________ The reasons for making the argument are: _____________________
Refer to the following argument diagram structure:
1. “You say many women at the most elite colleges intend to ‘put aside their careers in favor of raising children.’ But why shouldn’t the raising of children be considered a career as well? Few would deny that being a stay-at-home parent is a terrifically demanding job, requiring unlimited ‘people skills’ and a total commitment to a workweek that recognizes no concept of overtime, not to mention a paycheck. The term ‘working mother’ is a redundancy. No woman need feel any guilt for opting to fill her days with whichever activities give her the greatest joy and fulfillment” (English, 2005).
The issue here is: Putting aside their careers in favor of raising children. The author concludes that: No woman need feel guilty for opting to fill her days with whichever activities give her great joy and fulfillment. The reasons for making the argument are: Why shouldn’t raising children be considered a career as well. Conclusion:
2. “The attorney general does not merely head up the Justice Department. He is responsible for ensuring that America is a nation in which justice prevails. Mr. Gonzales’s record makes him unqualified to take on this role or to represent the American justice system to the rest of the world. The Senate should reject his nomination” (The New York Times, Editorial, 2005).
The issue here is: Mr. Gonzales’s record makes him unqualified to take this role or represent the American justice system. The author concludes that: The senate should reject his nomination. The reasons for making the argument are: The attorney general does not head up the justice department. Conclusion:
Editorial: The wrong Attorney General [Editorial]. (2005, January 26). The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/sgst/fullpage.html?res=9D0DE7DE163BF935A15752C0A9639C8B63 English, D. (2005, September 20). A revived debate: Babies, careers, ‘Having it all.’ [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/22/opinion/l22women.html?pagewanted=print
2b: Constructing Original Arguments
Complete the following:
Construct one original inductive argument and address the following: * Identify the conclusion and the supporting reasons within the argument. * Offer a brief explanation or justification for why the argument is an inductive argument. All the tigers observed in a particular region have yellow and black stripes, therefore all the tigers native to this region have yellow and black stripes. The conclusion is in the native region tigers have yellow strips, and the supporting reason is a tiger observation that was conducted. It is an inductive argument because it is based on detailed facts and general principles. The observation in a particular region makes it a fact.
Construct one original deductive argument and address the following: * Identify the conclusion and the supporting reasons within the argument. * Offer a brief explanation or justification for why the argument is a deductive argument. Every day I go to work, this journey from my home to my office takes one hour. My office starts at eight o’ clock in the morning. So, if I leave my home at seven o’ clock in the morning, I will reach the office in time. The conclusion is if I leave at 7am I will get to work on by 8am when the office opens, the supporting reason is calculating the travel time with results of one hour. 2c: Finding Alternative Argument Examples or Finding Inductive or Deductive Argument Examples Find one example of either an inductive or a deductive argument \from contemporary media. Complete all the following tasks: * Identify the type of argument (inductive or deductive). * Include/reproduce the original passage of the argument and provide a complete citation for the source. * Identify/paraphrase the conclusion(s).
* Identify/explain how you know or why you think the argument is an inductive/deductive one. Barack Obama celebrated Father’s Day by calling on black fathers, who he said are “missing from too many lives and too many homes,” to become active in raising their children. (http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25176204/ns/politics-decision_08/t/obama-tells-black-fathers-engage-their-kids/) I believe that this statement is an inductive argument because it is a fact that many black fathers are not involved in their child(s) life or don’t play a major role. President Obama is saying it is time to be men and not continue to act like little boys. Obama speaks from experience because his father left he was two years old, he wants to the cycle of dead beat fathers to end. The conclusion is black fathers should be better parents to their children.