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Permanent Connection of Two Optical Fibers

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    A splice is a permanent connection of two optical fibers. Once the two optical fibers are joined with a splice, they cannot be taken apart and put back together as they can if you join them using connectors. A splice is typically employed for one of three reasons: to repair a damaged cable, to extend the length of a cable, or to join two different cable types. (Andrew Olivier, 2011, p. 61 7) There are some things that can affect splicing performance. There is Cladding Diameter which occurs when the cladding diameters of the transmit and receive optical fibers are not the same.

    Cladding diameter mismatch loss occurs when the cores of the optical fiber are not aligned because of the cladding diameter mismatch. Cladding diameter mismatch can cause the light exiting the core of the transmitting optical fiber to enter the cladding of the receiving optical fiber. The light entering the cladding is lost, causing attenuation. (Andrew Olivier, 2011 , p. 620) Clad Egocentricity variations can cause the optical fiber cores to misalign causing a loss when the light exiting the core of the transmitting optical fiber enters the core of the receiving optical fiber.

    The illustration in Figure 25. 5 is greatly exaggerated to clearly show how a egocentricity loss may occur. The core and cladding egocentricity differences are typically less than 1 GM. The noncircular of the core will cause a loss when light from the core of the transmitting optical fiber enters the cladding of the receiving optical fiber. Cladding noncircular may cause loss when it causes part of the core of the transmitting optical fiber to align with the cladding of the receiving optical fiber. Any light that enters the cladding of the receiving optical fiber will be lost, causing attenuation. Andrew Olivier, 2011, up. 620-621 ) The variations between two optical fibers that affect splice performance are referred to as intrinsic factors. One of the instructions factors that can affect connection performance is a Numerical Aperture (AN) mismatch occurs when the AN of one optical fiber is different from the AN of the other optical fiber. If the AN of the transmitting fiber is larger than the AN of the receiving optical fiber, a loss may occur. However, a loss will not occur if the AN of the transmitting optical fiber is less than the AN receiving optical fiber.

    AN mismatch loss is typically only a concern with multimode optical fiber. (Andrew Olivier, 2011, p. 61 8) Core diameter mismatch occurs when there is a difference in the core diameters of the two optical fibers. A core diameter mismatch loss results when the core diameter of the transmitting optical fiber is greater than the core diameter of the receiving optical fiber. A loss occurs when light at the outer edge of the transmitting optical fiber core falls outside the diameter of the receiving optical fiber core. This light is lost in the cladding of the receiving optical fiber.

    Core diameter mismatch loss is typically only a concern with multimode optical fiber. (Andrew Olivier, 2011, p. 618) A mode field diameter mismatch occurs when there is a difference in the mode field diameters of two single-mode optical fibers. A mode field diameter mismatch loss results when the mode field diameter of the transmitting optical fiber is greater than the mode field diameter of the receiving optical fiber. A loss occurs when optical fiber with the smaller mode field diameter will not accept all of the light from the optical fiber with the larger mode field diameter. Andrew Olivier, 2011, p. 620) Another variation between two optical fibers that affect splice performance is extrinsic factor. Extrinsic factors that affect optical fiber splice performance are factors related to the condition of the splice itself, external to the optical fiber. In an ideal splice, the optical fibers are identical and they are aligned so that cores are perfectly centered on each other and the core axes are perpendicular to the endurance being joined, as shown in Figure 25. 7. However, there is no such thing as an ideal splice, only a real splice.

    In a real splice, intrinsic and extrinsic factors effect splice performance. (Andrew Olivier, 2011, p. 622) Lateral Misalignment occurs when the two optical fibers are offset. Lateral misalignment loss occurs when light from the core of the transmitting optical fiber enters the cladding of the receiving optical fiber, creating a loss. As the lateral misalignment increases, less light from the core of the transmitting optical fiber makes its way into the core of the receiving optical fiber, increasing the loss of the splice. (Andrew Olivier, 2011 , p. 22) Even if the optical fibers are perfectly aligned, the splice still ay still experience loss from End Separation is simply a gap between the transmitting and receiving optical fibers. Two different types of losses can be generated from end separation. The first is through Freeness reflection, which takes place when light passes from the higher refractive index of the core in the transmitting optical fiber into the lower refractive index of the air, and then back into the core of the receiving optical fiber. Each change in the refractive index causes a certain amount of light to be reflected and therefore lost. Andrew Olivier, 2011 , p. 23) If the optical fibers in a splice meet each other at an angle, a loss from Angular Misalignment may occur. The amount of loss depends the severity of the angular misalignment and the acceptance cones of the transmitting and receiving optical fibers. Because the AN of a multimode optical fiber is greater than the AN of a single-mode optical fiber, multimode splices tolerate angular misalignment better than single-mode splices.

    Permanent Connection of Two Optical Fibers. (2018, Jul 04). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/refractive-index/

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