Chapter Summary Esposito, John, Todd Lewis, Darrell Fasching, and Paul Bowlby. “Globalization: World Religions in a Multicultural Society. ” In World Religions Today. Canada: Oxford University Press, 2009. 3-33 In the first chapter of World Religions Today, it lays out religion and how, in each division, there is a different understanding of religion and how it evolves as time carries on. In the pre-modern division individuals are considered to be born into a religion and they participate in the religious views (Esposito 13).
There is no separation between society and the religion but it cause a separation world-wide (Esposito 11). The world is divided by the various religion groups leading to conflict because religions were constantly trying to overpower others (Esposito 26). Citizens believe in one religion and must not disobey the rules they are obliged to follow. It is important to carry their religion background through the next generation in order to keep traditional myths and rituals alive (Esposito 11).
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As time moves forward citizens enter into the modern division where citizen’s lives are then divided into public and private life (Esposito 33). They are allowed to practice different religions as long as it stays upon them and is not brought out into public (Esposito 25). Religion no longer plays a role in politics and politics is part of the public life (Esposito 25). As religion became seen as a private matter it began to cause struggle in different nations (Esposito 28).
Many individuals wanted to return to their original ways and it often was seen through violence as different backgrounds fought to save their independence and traditions (Esposito 28). Jerusalem’s Western wall is the main site of prayer for the Jewish and it is part of their religion that they did not want to lose (Esposito 23). The modern division was portrayed as the transition stage as religions began to develop in order to maintain the original traditions while keeping them modern (Esposito 23).
Lastly, we move into the post-modern division. Individuals choose their religion in order to benefit themselves (Esposito 33). Urbanization takes place causing religions to mix together (Esposito 25). It has caused religions to come face to face creating globalization because individuals now look at other religions and not just their own(Esposito 32). Religions begin mixing together as they take rituals or activities from other religions and use their outline, like how Buddhists and Christians use Sundays as their day of worship (Esposito 6).
Canada is known for its multiculturalism and the country has created various ways in which it has mixed religions (Esposito 5). This has allowed individuals a better understand of various religions which has allowed a development of global cultures (Esposito 32). This chapter has given insight as to how the religion and citizens have evolved throughout the years. Through pre-modern, modern, and post-modern the world has become multicultural and a world that was once divided by religious views is now acceptable of other religious views causing mutual respect worldwide.