Republic Act 1425 - Economics Essay Example
REPUBLIC ACT NO - Republic Act 1425 introduction. 1425 – AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS OF JOSE RIZAL, PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO, AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
HEREAS, today, more than any other period of our history, there is a need for a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died;
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WHEREAS, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero and patriot, Jose Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have shaped the national character;
WHEREAS, the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds of the youth, especially during their formative and decisive years in school, should be suffused;
WHEREAS, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and to teach the duties of citizenship; Now, therefore,
Section 1. Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novel Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities, public or private: Provided, That in the collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo of their English translation shall be used as basic texts.cralaw
The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to adopt forthwith measures to implement and carry out the provisions of this Section, including the writing and printing of appropriate primers, readers and textbooks. The Board shall, within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act, promulgate rules and regulations, including those of disciplinary nature, to carry out and enforce the provisions of this Act. The Board shall promulgate rules and regulations providing for the exemption of students for reasons of religious belief stated in a sworn written statement, from the requirement of the provision contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section; but not from taking the course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. Said rules and regulations shall take effect thirty (30) days after their publication in the Official Gazette.
Sec. 2. It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as of Rizal’s other works and biography. The said unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in English as well as other writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required reading in all public or private schools, colleges and universities.cralaw
The Board of National Education shall determine the adequacy of the number of books, depending upon the enrollment of the school, college or university.cralaw Sec. 3. The Board of National Education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English, Tagalog and the principal Philippine dialects; cause them to be printed in cheap, popular editions; and cause them to be distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them, through the Purok organizations and Barrio Councils throughout the country.
Sec. 4. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amendment or repealing section nine hundred twenty-seven of the Administrative Code, prohibiting the discussion of religious doctrines by public school teachers and other person engaged in any public school.cralaw Sec. 5. The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any fund not otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury to carry out the purposes of this Act.cralaw Sec. 6. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.cralaw Approved: June 12, 1956 Senate bill 438 known as Rizal Bill which was first authored by Senator Claro M. Recto – requiring the inclusion in the curricula of all private and public schools, colleges and universities the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo – is considered as one of the most controversial bills in the Philippines. Normally, before the bill was approved and implemented in all schools and was signed into a law known as Republic Act 1425, it had been brought to the Upper and Lower House of the Congress for deliberations. But what made it controversial is that the bill was not just fiercely opposed by people from Legislative Arm but also by the Catholic Church due to the inclusion of compulsory reading of Rizal’s novels in which according to them, catholic dogmas are humiliated. As stated in the preamble of Republic Act 1425 or the Rizal Law, “Whereas, today, more than other period of our history, there is a need for a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died” “Whereas, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and to teach the duties of citizenship;” The law states and requires all schools, colleges, universities, private or public to include in their curricula courses on the life works ofRizal. It also states that all schools are required to have an adequate number of copies of the original and unexpurgated editions of El Filibusterismo and Noli me Tangere, as well as other works and biographies of Rizal. The purpose of Batas Rizal is to rekindle the flame of nationalism in the hearts of Filipinos, particularly the youth. We are forgetting what our patriots have done and given to fight for our freedom. Ang pinakalayunin ng batas na ito ay upang maipanatiling buhay sa bawat Pilipino ang ating damdaming makabayan.the way only people can lean.
The Rizal Law and Its Significance Today – Today, nationalism seems to be an alienated word to Filipinos. It is not often heard nor spoken by people and many would not consider it an essential part of the world that they live in. In reality, nationalism is a huge part of being a Filipino. It compels people to their country and without it, nothing would become of any nation and unity will never be accomplished. Since most Filipinos are unaware about nationalism, a bill was created of requiring the youth to indulge themselves with Rizal’s famous novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, which clearly showed nationalism among its readers. This bill was soon revised and made into a law which is known today as, Republic Act 1425. Republic Act 1425 is an act, written by Senator Jose P. Laurel, that was comprised version of House Bill no. 5561 and Senate Bill no. 428. It was approved on June 12, 1965 and was meant for the general public for them to gain knowledge about the newly passed bill. Provisions for this law are as follows. First is to include all of Rizal’s works and writings especially his novels, “Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibusterismo”, to the curriculum of all public and private schools, colleges, and university courses.
Second, all schools, colleges and universities are obligated to have adequate number of copies of Rizal’s two novels and his other literacy pieces. Lastly, the National Board of Education is assigned to translate Rizal’s writings into English, Tagalog and other principal Philippine dialects. A fine of three hundred pesos is issued if the act was violated. The bill that was used as basis in order to create this act was written by Claro M. Recto and was called the Noli-Fili Bill. Unlike the RA 1425, this bill required only Rizal’s novels, “Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibusterismo”, to be made compulsory for private, college and universities. The novels must be original and unexpurgated and the Department of Education will be responsible for the implementation of this bill. This bill will not also limit the study of other Filipino heroes. Violators are still going to be punished but instead of a fine like in RA 1425, the head of any public or university will be dismissed or disqualified. The proponents were then given several readings related to the RA 1425 and the Noli-Fili Bill to be examined and analysed. First, they used the two levels of historical criticism in order to identify of the documents were primary or secondary sources. They looked into the content and the condition of each source.
Second, they started extracting data from each source and they were able to conduct a document analysis which was later presented in front of an audience. Lastly, the proponents created a historical essay using the documents that were given to them. As the proponents analysed the documents, they were able to uncover how the bill came to be. The Republic Act No. 1425 started out as the Senate Bill No. 438 that was filed on April 3, 1956 by the Committee on Education. An identical copy called the House Bill No. 5561 was introduced on April 19, 1956 in the House of Representatives. The RA No. 1425 went through several trials, from being assailed as an attempt to discredit Catholicism to getting a substitute bill so that the act can pass with its sole objective having Rizal’s written works be read by Filipinos in unexpurgated form. After the bill was issued, the Church wrote a pastoral letter saying that if the bill was passed, unity can never be formed from within the country. This became a huge controversy for both sides argued regarding the passage of the bill. People who were in favour of this bill were Claro Recto and Senator Laurel while those people against it were Mariano Cuenco, Francisco Rodrigo and Decoroso Rosales. Claro M. Recto claimed that without Rizal’s works, there would not be a Filipino bishop today. His novels showed the people’s desire for political freedom and social order. Rizal’s aim was to encourage Filipino nationalism and his means of doing it was writing the actual situation of the Philippines. Also, Senator Laurel stated that Rizal’s novels contain strengths and weakness, virtues and vices of Filipinos and by understanding these novels, they can learn more about these traits and prepare themselves for what is about to happen.
On the opposition, Rodrigo, Cueno and Rosales claimed that unity will never be established and it would only result to a crisis. They suspect that the bill was filed not because of Rizal’s sake but for the sake of political expediency and that it would lead to a huge commotion between the people and the Church. The opposition described it as “an instrument of vengeance” against the Catholic community. According to Rogrigo, Rizal didn’t become the Philippines’ national hero because of his works. He became a hero because of the suffering he endured and thus, he implied that it is unnecessary to read his novels. Apart from what was mentioned above, the opposition also commented that people who will read the novel were said to lose religious faith since the novel implies the cruelty of the church and it contained errors of the church doctrine. The novel reveals a false idea of the country’s condition towards the reader.The
arguments of the two sides are both understandable but Claro Recto’s claims were more believable. The novel was not intentionally created to attack religion or the church for that matter. Its soul purpose was to open the eyes of the Filipino about their situation before and it is possible to have no relation to the present. After knowing that Rizal’s works and writings showed nationalism among Filipinos, the proponents ponder about other forms of nationalism that can be used to encourage today’s youth. One is the Philippine national anthem.
The youth should be taught not just to read and sing this but also to understand and appreciate the beauty of the Philippines. Another is to have the museums and exhibitions of Filipino culture also become a source of nationalism. They would be able to understand the history of Filipino culture and how the country turned out to be what it is now. Lastly, looking into Filipino history books, Filipino myths and legends and fables can also be considered a possible way of showing nationalism towards the youth. They give the opportunity to visualize the past and create an image of Filipino pride. Indeed Rizal’s work showed Filipino nationalism and the proponents believed that it is still considered significant as it was before. Rizal’s work especially his novels showed a part of history that people can reflect back into. It has once changed society in the past and the proponents believe that it could still have a similar impact now because Filipino traits and culture were evidently seen in those works. It is a symbol of nationalism. They can also serve as guidance for the Filipino youth. The primary purpose of Jose Rizal’s works, namely the Noli Me Tangere and the El Filibusterismo, was to arouse Filipino nationalism so that the Filipinos will not forget who they are and that they have their own identity as a nation.
When Claro M. Recto wrote this bill, oppositional forces which mostly came from the Church became obstacles to the passing of the bill. Their main argument was that the works of Rizal was not really meant for arousing nationalism, but rather it was an attack to the Church and to the Catholic faith. It will only weaken unity among Filipinos and their faith will be lost. Although both sides have made their own points, Recto’s argument prevailed as it was said to be more believable. Today, no student in the Philippines passes through their school life without ever having a glimpse of Rizal’s famous works. Whether we admit it or not, these works of Rizal and his life has somehow become a catalyst of Filipino nationalism within our hearts.
Scarcity, Choice and Opportunity Costs Insatiable human wants and needs
Scarcity can be defined as a situation in which human wants are greater than the capacity of available resources to provide for those wants. In other words, it means that people want more than is available. Economic resources are limited, but human needs and wants are infinite. Indeed the development of society can be described as the uncovering of new wants and needs – which producers attempt to supply by using the available factors of production. Making choices Because of scarcity, choices have to be made on a daily basis by all consumers, firms and governments. For a moment, just have a think about the hundreds of millions of decisions that are made by people in your own country every single day. Trade-offs when making choices Making a choice normally involves a trade-off – in simple terms, choosing more of one thing means giving up something else in exchange. Because wants are unlimited but resources are finite, choice is an unavoidable issue in economics. For example: 1. Housing: Choices about whether to rent or buy a home. There are costs and benefits to renting a property or choosing to buy a home with a mortgage. Both decisions involve a degree of risk. 2. Working: Choosing between full-time or part-time work, or to take a course in higher education lasting three years – how have these choices and commitments been affected by the introduction of higher university tuition fees? 3. Transport and travel: Your choices about which modes of transport to use to get to and from work or school each day. When unlimited wants meet limited resources, it is known as Scarcity.
There is a well known saying in economics that “there is no such thing as a free lunch!” Even if we are not asked to pay a price for consuming a good or a service, scarce resources are used up in the production of it and there must be an opportunity cost involved. Opportunity cost measures the cost of any choice in terms of the next best alternative foregone. In other words, though we have alternative uses for resources, we have to select the best way to use these resources. When we choose best alternative, the next best alternative which is left out is known as the Opportunity cost of making a choice. In other words, the benefits we lost and could have achieved from the next best alternative. Many examples exist for individuals, firms and the government.
Work-leisure choices: The opportunity cost of deciding not to work an extra ten hours a week is the lost wages foregone. If you are being paid $6 per hour to work at the local supermarket, if you choose to take a day off from work you might lose $48 from having sacrificed eight hours of paid work. Government spending priorities: The opportunity cost of the government spending nearly
Though we have alternative uses, we have to select the best way to use these resources. When we choose best alternative, the next best alternative which is left out is known as the Opportunity cost of making a choice. In other words, the benefits we lost and could have achieved from the next best alternative. Positive and normative economics
Positive economics is objective and fact based, while normative economics is subjective and value based. Positive economic statements do not have to be correct, but they must be able to be tested and proved or disproved. Normative economic statements are opinion based, so they cannot be proved or disproved.
While this distinction seems simple, it is not always easy to differentiate between the positive and the normative. Many widely-accepted statements that people hold as fact are actually value based.
For example, the statement, “government should provide basic healthcare to all citizens” is a normative economic statement. There is no way to prove whether government “should” provide healthcare; this statement is based on opinions about the role of government in individuals’ lives, the importance of healthcare and who should pay for it.
The statement, “government-provided healthcare increases public expenditures” is a positive economic statement, because it can be proved or disproved by examining healthcare spending data in countries like Canada and Britain where the government provides healthcare.
Disagreements over public policies typically revolve around normative economic statements, and the disagreements persist because neither side can prove that it is correct or that its opponent is incorrect. A clear understanding of the difference between positive and normative economics should lead to better policy making, if policies are made based on facts (positive economics), not opinions (normative economics). Nonetheless, numerous policies on issues ranging from international trade to welfare are at least partially based on normative economics.
An economic system is the system of producing and distributing of goods and services and allocating resources in a society. It includes the combination of the various institutions, agencies, entities (or even sectors as described by some authors) and consumers that comprise the economic structure of a given community. A related concept is the mode of production. The study of economic systems includes how these various agencies and institutions are linked to one another, how information flows between them, and the social relations within the system (including property rights and the structure of management). Among existing economic systems, distinctive methods of analysis have developed, such as socialist economics and Islamic economic jurisprudence. Today the dominant form of economic organization at the global level is based on capitalist market-oriented mixed economies. Economic systems is the category in the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes that includes the study of such systems. One field that cuts across them iscomparative economic systems. Subcategories of different systems there include: planning, coordination, and reform productive enterprises; factor and product markets; prices; population public economics; financial economics national income, product, and expenditure; money; inflation international trade, finance, investment, and aid consumer economics; welfare and poverty performance and prospects natural resources; energy; environment; regional studies political economy; legal institutions; property rights
Definition of ‘Production Possibility Frontier – PPF’
A curve depicting all maximum output possibilities for two or more goods given a set of inputs (resources, labor, etc.). The PPF assumes that all inputs are used efficiently. Investopedia explains ‘Production Possibility Frontier – PPF’ Among others, factors such as labor, capital and technology will affect where the production possibility frontier lies. The PPF is also known as the production possibility or transformation curve.~~~~~~~ Circular flow of economic Activity
PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS: Circular Flow of Economic Activities THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY There are two basic activities undertaken in any economy: production and consumption. The firms perform the production and consumption while households undertake consumption. To be able to produce, firms need the economic resources 1
consisting of land, labor, andcapital
– it is one of the factors of production which include land used for agriculture or industrialpurposes as well as natural resources taken for above or below the soil. Natural resources consistof energy resources like fossil fuel and geothermal emissions, non-energy resources like gold,diamond, and limestone, air and water and many others. LABOR
– refers to that basic factor of production which are productive services embodied inhuman physical effort, skill, and intellectual powers, and others. It consist of human time spent inproduction like driving buses, feeding cattle, singing in night clubs, acting in movies,
or repairinghousehold appliances. CAPITAL
– durable goods produced in order to produce other goods. It consists of buildings,plant and machinery, roads, computers, ships, electric guitars, table tennis, tennis balls, etc. STOCK AND FLOW OF CONCEPTS
Stock – refers to the measure of quantity at a point of time e.g. wealth as of December 31, 2001Flow – refers to the measure of movement of quantity of over a period of time e.g. savings(P1000/year) or consumption at P100,000/yearWhen economic resources are used in the production of goods and services, employmentof these resources occurs. A price
is paid to resource owners whenever these resources are usedin production. Rent
is paid to the landowner,
to the capitalist, and
to labor. Thegoods and services produced by these firms are consumed by households. The interaction between households and firms regarding production, consumption,employment and income generation results to the circular flow of goods and services in theeconomy. THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF GOODS, SERVICES AND INCOME The basic aspects of economy which include production and consumption are subject tothe stock and flow concepts which are circular in nature. THE PRODUCTION PROCESS The process of producing goods and services involves households and firms in a circular flow. Asshown again, the economic rsources of land, labor, and capital are provided by the householdsand used by the producing firms. These firms, in turn, produce goods and services which aredelivered to households for consumption. THE FLOW OF GOODS AMONG PRODUCING FIRMSWithin the circular flow of the production process is another flow which happens among differenttypes of business firms. This flow involves raw materials, intermediate goods and final goods.RAW MATERIALS – unprocessed goods like wood, sand and ironINTERMEDIATE GOODS – partially processed goods and still needsprocessing before it can be finally consumed likesteel bars, flour and microchips 1