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Research design and methods module.

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Research Design and Methods Module

Written study: Research undertaking and grant application

Purposes

This is an single piece of work that forms a cardinal portion of the appraisal for the faculty Research Design and Methods. It has two chief purposes:

  • It aims to give you experience of finishing an application signifier for academic support ( in this instance from a fictional geographical research institute ) .
  • It aims to associate to your MSc thesis by inquiring you to supply a elaborate lineation of your proposed research.
    Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
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    You should therefore do certain that the research undertaking that you propose in this papers is the same undertaking that you intend to set about for your MSc thesis.

This signifier is besides available in electronic format on the faculty blackboard site.

Institute of Happy Geographers ( IHG )

RESEARCH PROJECT PROPOSAL

TO BE COMPLETED BY THE STUDENT.

FONT SIZE SHOULD BE NO SMALLER THAN 10

The Institute of Happy Geographers provides awards of free bars and biscuits* for bookmans set abouting an outstanding research undertaking to be completed by the 2nd of September 2010.

Applicants for this award should finish the undermentioned application signifier and submit it through TurnItIn and a difficult transcript, by the deadline on 23rd March 2010.

  • Availability depends on what other Institute members may hold already consumed.

Title

Meter

Roentgen

Initials

Bacillus

Bacillus

Surname

Phosphorus

A

Nitrogen

Thymine

Hydrogen

I

( Use BLOCK CAPITALS )

Email Address: bbp3 @ le.ac.uk

a ) Title of Research subject:

Prospect of cut downing emanations through community forestry and its hereafter in Nepal

B ) Research Question/Statement:

( Entire Markss for subdivision a and B: 5 % )

Community Forestry Practices play a important function in stabilising atmospheric concentration of C dioxide. It provides chances non merely to cut down the current or jutting emanations but besides to take CO2 accumulated from past emanations in the ambiance, and sequesters it in dirt, flora and wood merchandises. Estimates of emanations from planetary deforestations range from more than 18 % of planetary GHG emanations to about 25 % ( Stern Review, 2007 ) and the huge bulk of these emanations are coming from developing states in the Torrid Zones. Carbon Sequestration is one of the environmental services which community-managed woods in Nepal extend globally as a by merchandise of protecting and keeping the forest. However, part CF to cut down GHG emanations is non recognized or rewarded ( Karky, 2006 ) . There are really limited researches about the potency of community forest to sequester C dioxide. The first intent of the survey is to gauge C pool, a instance survey of Buddha community forestry in mid hill part of Nepal. The chief end is to gauge biomass and dirt C and rate of segregation. This survey will give you an thought about that C payments could move as an of import inducement in the decrease of forest debasement over a big portion of the state and decrease of planetary C emanations, where as base for sustainable support for many marginalized people.

degree Celsius ) Please supply a description of your proposed research subject including the inquiries or hypotheses to be addressed, the methodological analysis to be used and the beginnings to be consulted. Please guarantee that any ethical considerations or issues of confidentiality raised by your research are addressed explicitly in this description. Your response to this inquiry must non transcend 1500 words and should include cardinal mentions, where appropriate.

( Entire Markss for this subdivision: 65 % )

Global heating of the clime system is now univocal, and most of the ascertained addition in mean temperatures since mid-20th century is due to the ascertained addition in anthropogenetic nursery gas concentrations. The primary beginning of the increased atmospheric concentration of C dioxide consequences from fossil fuel usage, with land usage alteration ( IPCC 2007 ) . Deforestation plays an of import function in the planetary heating procedure, as it accounts for up to 25 % of the planetary nursery gas emanations ( IPCC 2000 ) . In Nepal, forestry and land usage alteration entirely contributed about 85 % of national history of nursery gases emanation. Entire CO2 emanation from land usage alteration and forestry sector in 1994 was about 8.1 million metric tons ( Sharma 2007 ) . Forest play a important function in stabilising atmospheric concentration of CO2 as it can exchange between being sinks and beginnings depending on their sequence phase, and on specific perturbations or management-interventions ( Masera et al. , 2003 ) besides on mean 50 % of the dry weight of tree biomass is C, irrespective of the species ( IPCC, 2003 ) .

Community forestry plan was officially launched in 1978 and is extremely successful illustration of participatory forest direction by local people. A survey by Kanel ( 2004 ) identified community forestry have corporate accomplishments ; better forest status, income coevals for rural development, societal mobilisation and administration. Forests can supply environmental services including C segregation, H2O protection, biodiversity protection and scenic beauty for which payments or compensation can be received. Ecosystem attack ( EA ) is a model to accomplish ends of sustainable development as mentioned by Haines-Young and Potschin ( 2007 ) and Payments for Ecosystem Services ( PES ) become increasingly more popular market-based instrument to interpret external, non-market environmental services into fiscal inducements for landholders to continue the ecosystems that provide services ( W & A ; uuml ; nscher et.al.2008 ) .

Without a uncertainty, forestry plays an of import function in direct benefits ( such as lumber, fresh fish, fuel wood etc ) and indirect benefits ( such as eroding control, inundation control and CO2 segregation etc ) . IUCN ( 2004 ) province EA is adopted as & A ; lsquo ; primary model ‘ for action after the influence of Convention for Biological Diversity. It signifies as a footing for sing all the goods and services provided to the people from biodiversity and ecosystems. In Nepal, 97 % of this country lies in the cragged and cragged part and estimated 90 % of the population engaged in Community Forest Management ( Springate-Baginski et al.,2007: 47 ) . So, Buddha community forestry will be selected for instance survey, lies in the mid hill part of Nepal. This survey will uncover about the appraisal of entire C content in the biomass and dirt in the community managed forest.

Hypothesis1: Community Forestry patterns has important function in cut downing planetary C emanations.

Hypothesis 2: There is a positive nexus between community forest direction and sustainable development.

To prove the hypothesis we need to reply

Does community forestry sequester C?

Is the community forestry patterns directed in sustainable attack?

In order to prove the hypothesis, this research has to depend on assorted beginnings of literatures. Information on the direction governments and livelihood status of Community Forest User Group ( CFUG ) members will be collected based on the questionnaire study, focal point group treatments and observation method. The questionnaires that indicate the status of wood before and after handover to the community will be the surveyed based on random sampling. And these collected informations will be validated with focal point group treatments with CFUGs member.

The forest country will be mapped out with the aid of CFUG members utilizing a Global Positioning System ( GPS ) . For this, the full boundary of wood will be visited and co-ordinate are marked at all canopy gaps ; Using Arc View 3.2 ( 2 ) tools of Geographical Information System ( GIS ) , co-ordinates will be plotted to organize a map. In equal interval, points will be generated and trying will be drawn as prescribed by guidelines of Department of Forest ( DOF, 2004 ) . Sample size will be taken as round secret plans holding country 250 sq. m ( i.e. radius 8.92 m ) as mentioned by MacDicken ( 1997 ) .

Dirt samples will be collected from different deepness at the Centre of the round secret plans. And these samples will be chemically analysed in Laboratory of Nepal Agriculture Research Centre.

Carbon stock: The dirt organic C was calculated utilizing the method

SOC ( kg/sq.m ) = % SOC X dirt majority denseness ( Kg/m3 ) X thickness of the dirt skyline ( m )

( Express into ton/ha ) .

Biomass Appraisal: Above Ground Biomass ( Biomass Estimation of Trees and saplings ) :

Diameter at chest tallness ( DBH ) at 1.37 m of all single trees holding DBH greater than 5 centimeter in secret plans will be measured.

Allometry equation ( I ) and guidelines of Natural Resource Management Sector Assistant Programme ( NARMSAP 2000 ) of the Department of Forest will be used, which is simplified equation that required merely DBH as individual input variable to cipher biomass of leaf, subdivision and root.

Regression theoretical account is

Ln W = a+ B X Ln ( DBH ) & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; ( I ) ( NARMSAP 2000 )

Where: W = Green weight of tree constituent ( biomass ) in kg.

a = intercept

B = incline

DBH = Over bark diameter of the tree at chest tallness ( measured at 1.3 metre above land ) in centimeter.

Below land Biomass:

Carbon will be estimated on the simple premise that half ( 50 % ) of the life biomass is C ( MacDicken 1997 ) . Then C will be converted to CO2 equivalents by multiplying by 44/12 ( Nowak et al.,2007 ) which is the ratio of the molecular weight of C dioxide to C.

Statistical Analysis:

Standard divergence, standard mistakes and scope will be calculated as per required.

The major beginnings of secondary informations will be obtained from Central Bureau of Statistics ( CBS ) Nepal, Department of Forest ( DOF ) , and Biodiversity Sector Programme for Siwalik and Terai, Forestry Nepal. World Bank ( WB ) , Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) and United Nation Environment Programme ( UNEP ) .

Mentions:

DoF 2004: Guidelines for Inventory of community forest resources. Published by Department of Forest, Community Forest Division, Babarmahal Kathmandu.

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. ( 2007 ) : The Ecosystem Concept and the Identification of Ecosystem Goods and Services in the English Policy Context. Review Paper to Defra, Project Code NR0107, 21pp.

IPCC 2000: Land usage, land-use alteration, and forestry: Particular study of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

IPCC, 2003: Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry, IPCCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Institute for Global Environment Strategies, Kanagawa, Japan.

IPCC 2007: Climate alteration: Synthesis study. An Appraisal of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

IUCN 2004: Comparing the Ecosystem Approach with sustainable usage. Seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity ( COP7 ) ( Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9-20 February 2004 ) . IUCN Information Paper February, 2004.

Karky, B. 2006: Case Study: Kafley Community Forest, Lamatar, Nepal. In Skutsch ( Ed. ) Can Carbon Income Combat Forest Degradation, Rational and Case Studies. Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, the Netherlands.

Kanel et. al.,2004: Twenty-five old ages of community forestry- proceeding of the forth national conference on community forestry. Department of Forest, Nepal.

MacDicken, K.G. 1997: A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agro forestry Project, Forest Carbon Monitoring Program, Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development.

Masera, O. , Garza-Caligaris, J.F. , Kanninen, M. , Karjalainen, T. , Liski, J.Nabuurs, G.J. , Pussinen, A. de Jong, B.H.J. and Mohren, G.M.J. 2003: Modeling Carbon Sequestration in Afforestation, Agroforestry and Forest Management Projects: the CO2FIX V.2 attack. Ecological ModellingVol. 164, pp 177-177.

NARMSAP 2000: Biomass and Volume Tables with Species Description for Community Forest Management. Natural Resource Management Sector Assistance Programme, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Nepal.

Nowak, D. J. , Hoehn, R. and Crane, D. E. 2007: Oxygen production by urban trees in the United States. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 33: 220-226.

Sharma, P and Rai, S.C. 2007: Carbon segregations with land-use screen alteration in a Himalayan watershed. Geoderma 139: 371-378.

Springate-Baginski, O. , Blaikie, P. , Banerjee, A. , Bhatta, B. , Dev, O.P. , Reddy, V.R. , Reddy, M.G. , Saigal, S. , Sarap, K. and Madhu, S. 2008: In Blaikie, P. and Springate-Baginski, O. ( 2007 ) ( Eds. ) Forests, Peoples and Power: The Political Ecology of Reform in South Asia. Earthscan, London, pp 27-60.

Stern Review, 2007: Stern Review on the Economicss of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

W & A ; uuml ; nscher, T. , Engel, S. , Wunder, S. 2008. Spatial targeting of payments for environmental services: A tool for hiking preservation benefits. Ecological Economicss 65: 822 – 833.

vitamin D ) Please supply a brief timetable for your programme of work up to September 2010. This should non transcend one page.

( Entire Markss for this subdivision: 15 % )

Activities

Time frame ( months )

May ( Week )

June ( Week )

July ( Week )

August ( Week )

Sept.

( Week )

1,2

3,4

1,2

3,4

1,2

3,4

1,2

3,4

1

Literature reappraisal

Discussion with supervisor and co-supervisor

Formulation of cardinal points and checklists

Planing for field visit

Primary informations:

Field observation

Focus group treatment

Informal meeting with local leaders, NGOs, and INGOs.

Forest function

Measurement of biomass

Dirt trying

Secondary informations:

Census

CFUGs records

Reports from DoF, NGOs, INGOs.

VDC and territory profile

Published and unpublished articles and diaries.

Chemical analysis of dirt samples

Compilation of overall informations and entry

Data analysis and reading

Writing up

Draft to supervisors

Adding remarks and suggestion from supervisors

complete concluding thesis

Concluding thesis entry

vitamin E ) Please supply a brief non-technical sum-up ( this is a short sum-up of your research proposal directed at a non-specialist audience that explains its cardinal purposes, principle and relevancy ) . Please reference how you expect your research to be utile, and to whom. This should non transcend 300 words. ( Entire Markss for this subdivision: 15 % )

Community forestry direction patterns in Nepal Himalayas play a important function in cut downing planetary emanation. However, the Clean Development Mechanism policy does non to the full acknowledge this attempt. The present survey will try to place the bing conditions of one of community managed forest [ Buddha Community Forestry ] which is important in stand foring the forest status of the mid hills of Nepal. As a major C pool, it is indispensable to acknowledge the prominence of forest direction and C hive awaying capacity of the forest. This survey chiefly focuses on gauging C content in the biomass and dirt in the community forest. It will besides happen out the environmental benefit to local people. After the consent of Kyoto Protocol, it is important for Nepal ; a underdeveloped state can hold benefit through C trading mechanisms. For this, it is indispensable to cognize the value of C segregation by community forestry. This survey will assist for community people know how much their forest worth if they protect it and enter into C trading. This will promote the right of CFUGs to sell C credits in the planetary C market ; the fiscal gross it could bring forth could function as an inducement for them to better pull off their forest by puting more in protection steps, therefore bring forthing more environmental and societal additions for the community and beyond. It is thought that consequence obtained would be utile and helps in preparation of policy for effectual direction of wood. I have expected the consequence will be utile for assorted stakeholders [ Local Community, Governments, Scientific Society, NGOs and INGOs ] . The results will besides utile to originate better public presentation of CF as option to extinguish rural poorness, back up economic development and protect against planetary climatic alteration.

degree Fahrenheit ) Please suggest two members of staff who you think would be most appropriate for the supervising of your thesis. Your suggestions will be considered when we allocate you a supervisor.

1. Dr. Jorg Kaduk 2. Dr. Susan Page

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

Signature:

Name: Bhanu Bhakta Panthi DATE: 22/03/2010

PLEASE SUBMIT THIS COMPLETED FORM BEFORE TUESDAY 23rd MARCH 2010 THROUGH TURNITIN AND PROVIDE 2 HARD COPIES TO THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER.

University OF LEICESTER

RESEARCH ETHICS REVIEW CHECKLIST

This checklist should be completed for every research undertaking that involves human participants. It must be completed before possible participants are approached to take portion in any research. It will be used by your Supervisor, Module Tutor and/or Departmental Research Ethics Officer to place whether a Fuller application for moralss blessing needs to be submitted or whether the research can continue without this.

Section I: Undertaking Detailss

1. Undertaking rubric:

Prospect of cut downing emanations through community forestry and its hereafter in Nepal

Statement of Research Purpose

The foremost intent of the survey is to gauge C pool, a instance survey of Buddha community forestry in Nepal and its hereafter. It will concentrate on the appraisal of biomass and dirt C of Buddha community forestry and rate of segregation. Is the hereafter of community forestry bright?

Project Aims/ Research inquiries:

Does community forestry sequester C?

Is the community forestry direction patterns directed in sustainable attack?

Proposed methods:

Field visit based on primary and secondary informations

Method of enrolling research participants

N/A

Standards for choosing research participants

Expected figure of research participants

Section II: Applicant Detailss

2. Name of research workers ( applicant ) :

Bhanu Bhakta Panthi

3. Status ( delight chink to choose ) :

Student

4. Email references:

a ) bbp3 @ le.ac.uk

B )

degree Celsiuss )

5a. Contact references:

a ) 23, Glossop street, Leicester, LE5 5HP

B )

degree Celsiuss )

5b. Telephone Numberss

a ) 07552152217

B )

degree Celsiuss )

Section III: For Students Merely

6. Faculty name and figure or MA/MPhil class and section:

MSC, Global Environmental Change

Department of Geography

7. Module leader ‘s name:

Dr. Lex J. comber

8. Email reference:

ajc36 @ le.ac.uk

9. Contact reference:

Dr Alexis Comber

Senior Lecturer in Geographic Information

Department of Geography

University of Leicester

Leicester

LE1 7RH UK

Tel +44 ( 0 ) 116 252 3812 / 3823

Section IV: Module Tutors/Dissertation Supervisors Merely

Please tick the appropriate boxes. The survey should non get down until all boxes are ticked:

The subject merits farther research

The pupil has the accomplishments to transport out the research

The participant information sheet or cusp is appropriate

The processs for enlisting and obtaining informed consent

are appropriate

Remarks from faculty coach:

Section V: All Research Applicants

Please outline below whether or non your research raises any peculiar ethical issues and how you plan to turn to these issues.

NO

Are you utilizing a Participant Information and Informed Consent Form?

YesNO

If YES, delight paste transcript signifier at the terminal of this application.

Have you submitted a Risk Assessment Form YESNO

Now proceed to the Research Ethics Checklist

Section VI: Research Ethical motives Checklist

Please answer each inquiry by clicking the appropriate box:

YES No

1. Does the survey involve participants who are peculiarly vulnerable or unable to give informed consent? ( e.g. kids, people with larning disablements, your ain pupils )

2. Will the survey require the co-operation of a gatekeeper for initial entree to the groups or persons to be recruited? ( e.g. pupils at school, members of self-help group, occupants of nursing place )

3. Will it be necessary for participants to take portion in the survey without their cognition and consent at the clip? ( e.g. covert observation of people in non-public topographic points )

4. Will the survey involve treatment of sensitive subjects ( e.g. sexual activity, drug usage ) ?

5. Are drugs, placebos or other substances ( e.g. nutrient substances, vitamins ) to be administered to the survey participants or will the survey involves invasive, intrusive or potentially harmful processs of any sort?

6. Will blood or weave samples be obtained from participants?

7. Is pain or more than mild uncomfortableness probably to ensue from the survey?

8. Could the survey bring on psychological emphasis or anxiousness or do injury or negative effects beyond the hazards encountered in normal life?

9. Will the survey involve prolonged or insistent testing?

10. Will fiscal incentives ( other than sensible disbursals and compensation for clip ) be offered to participants?

11. Will the survey involve enlisting of patients or staff through the NHS?

If you have answered & amp ; lsquo ; yes ‘ to any of the inquiries in Section VI, delight complete the whole moralss review – i.e. all Sections and guarantee that you have described in item how you plan to cover with the ethical issues raised by your research.

Answering yes to inquiries does non intend that you can non make the research merely that your proposal raises important ethical issues which will necessitate careful consideration and formal blessing by your Supervisor, Module Tutor and/or Departmental Research Ethics Officer prior to you get downing your research.

If you answered & A ; lsquo ; yes ‘ to inquiry 11, you will besides hold to subject an application to the appropriate external wellness authorization moralss commission. Any important alteration in the inquiry, design or behavior over the class of the research should be notified to the Module Tutor or Departmental Research Ethics Officer as they may necessitate a new application for moralss blessing.

Signatures

Date

Chief Investigator/Students Bhanu Bhakta Panthi & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

( all pupils must subscribe ) & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

& A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

& A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

& A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

& A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

Supervisor/Module Leader/Research Ethics officer ( where appropriate ) & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; . & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ; & A ; hellip ;

Please paste transcripts of information/informed consent signifiers in here before subjecting to Supervisor/Module Tutor/Departmental Research Ethics Officer:

Cite this Research design and methods module.

Research design and methods module.. (2017, Jul 08). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/research-design-and-methods-module/

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