Research design (app3)

Research design (app3)

Fegg, M.J., Kramer, M., Bausewein, C. and Borasio, G.D.  (2007).  Meaning in life in the Federal Republic of Germany: Results of a representative survey with the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE).  Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5, 59-67.

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            This report described the results of the first national survey that was conducted to determine how Germans perceived the meaning of life.  Approximately 1,004 participants between the age of 16 to 70 years old and above were interviewed regarding their perceptions.  Only the advanced age participants or those above 70 years of age, identified spirituality as the most important component that would provide meaning in life.

Jatoi, A. Novotny, P., Cassivi, S., Clark, M.M., Midthun, D., Patten, C.A., Sloan, J. and YANG, P.  (2007).  Does marital status impact survival and quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer? Observations from the Mayo Clinic Lung Cancer Cohort.  The Oncologist, 12, 1456–1463.

            This research study investigated the influence of marriage on the survival and quality of life of patients diagnosed with lung carcinoma.  Approximately 5,898 patients were interviewed.  A higher level of spirituality was observed among married, as well as widowed patients.

Lipsman, N., Skanda, A., Kimmelman, J. and Bernstein, M.  (2007).  The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: A qualitative study.  BMC Palliative Care, 6, 7-17.

            This qualitative study was conducted on 29 individuals, of which 7 patients were at their terminal stage of brain cancer.  An additional 22 participants were relatives of the patients.  Participants expressed their increase in spirituality in coping with the serious illness.

Matsuyama, R.K., Grange, C., Lyckholm, L.J., Utsey, S.O. and Smith, T.J.  (2007).  Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.  Journal of the National Medical Association, 99, 1113-1119.

            Approximately 39 cancer patients of either African American or Caucasian ethnicity were interviewed with regarding to perceptions to cancer care.  The study showed that African Americans tend to be more spiritual as soon as a cancer diagnosis has been released.  On the other hand, Caucasian patients remain spiritual even before a diagnosis has been made.

Van Ness, P., Towle, V.R., O’Leary, J.R. and Fried, T.R.  (2008).  Religion, risk, and medical decision making at the end of life.  Journal of Aging and Health, 20, 545–559.

            Approximately 226 elderly patients diagnosed with advanced stages of cancer were interviewed with regards to their religiousness and their acceptance of life-sustaining treatment.  The study showed that patients who were spiritual were correlated with a greater chance of taking risks taking potentially effective treatments.



Fegg et al. (2007)
1.004 patients aged 16 to 85 years old
No disease
Study participants 70 years and older indicated that spirituality was the most important component that would give meaning in their lives.
Jatoi et al. (2007)
5.989 patients
Non-small cell lung cancer
Married and widowed patients admitted a higher degree of spirituality, resulting in a better quality of life.
Lipsman et al. (2007)
7 terminal stage patients and 22 family members
Brain cancer
Spirituality helps patients and their loved ones to accept and to cope with this serious medical disease
Matsuyama et al. (2007)
39 African American and Caucasian patients
All cancers except skin cancer
African American participants admitted an increase in spirituality when they were diagnosed with cancer.  Religious participants before the diagnosis remained spiritual after receiving positive diagnosis for cancer.
Van Ness et al. (2008)
226 elderly patients
Advanced cancer,

congestive heart failure, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Spirituality was associated with the patients’ willingness to accept life-sustaining treatments.


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