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Research Paper on Auditory Processing Disorder

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Research Paper on Auditory Processing Disorder:

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is “a deficit in the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system” according to Dr. Bellis.  Furthermore, in California Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s Guidelines for the Diagnosis & Treatment defines Auditory Processing Disorders that it is specific to the auditory modality. That is, it may be associated with difficulties in listening, speech understanding, language development, and learning, but in its pure form, it is conceptualized as a deficit in the processing of auditory input.

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Patients with APD displayed different kinds of behaviors. In the consensus created by the California Speech-Language-Hearing Association (CSHA), the committee listed most of the symptoms noted such as:

• Poor listening skills

• Difficulty learning through the auditory modality

• Significant difficulty understanding or focusing in the presence of background

noise or competing conversations

• Frequently says “huh” or “what”

• Difficulty with phonics

• Poor auditory memory

• Processes verbal stimuli slowly

• Often complains the speaker is “talking too fast”

• Misunderstand what is said

• Difficulty understanding speech that has been muffled or distorted

• Difficulty “hearing” speech when presented via a PA system, telephone,

or electronically.

•   Require repetition or clarification of age level appropriate directions

• Difficulty following discussions, particularly in large rooms, with poor acoustics.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association issued a screening guideline stated that,  “It involves systematic observation of listening behavior and/or performance on tests of auditory function to identify those individuals at risk for APD.” Screening tests were performed by audiologists, speech language pathologists, psychologists, and others using variety of measures to evaluate auditory-related skills. In a journal written by Dr Bellis, screening test protocols such as; questionnaires, checklists, and other procedures have been suggested to examine patients who are candidates for auditory processing evaluation. More often than not, screening questionnaires, checklists, and related measures probe auditory behaviors related to academic achievement, listening skills, and communication. The minute the patient is diagnosed with the disorder, applicable treatment approach is needed in order to maximize successful therapeutic outcomes, and minimize residual functional deficits.

Researches regarding treatment approach must include: direct therapy, modification of the environment, compensatory strategies, teaching modifications, and when required an appropriate assisted listening device to improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio. Hence, it is sensible to initiate these primary treatment approaches of auditory processing disorder. Although other reports mentioned that there are only three primary areas being emphasized namely: changing the learning or communication environment, compensating for the disorder, and direct treatment. But the best choice for ADP treatment goal is something that is individualized and deficit specific.

According to the Guidelines published by the California Speech Language Association 2004, A CAPD Task Force was created and it specified examples of skills that are applicable as goal for children with APD. These skills ought to be selected according the child’s individual basic needs. The value of the therapy must demonstrate on the

improvement of behavior as well as in the educational enhancement.

Another approach mentioned is the direct skills remediation or the auditory training. This is based on the bottom-up  treatment which the strategy is to lessen or  resolve the APD. Most literatures noted that the potential of the auditory training changed the auditory behavior. The auditory drill activity comprises procedure targeting the intensity, frequency and duration discrimination; temporal sequencing, pattern recognition, localization/lateralization and recognition of auditory information.

In the review of literatures, the initial stage in choosing the appropriate bottom-up environmental modifications were: to evaluate the acoustic location and to verify the necessary approach for enhancement of the acoustics of the physical space.

Environments like the classrooms, workplaces, and home can be modified in order to lessen the noise and reverberation. Its improvement was associated to visible aspects of the communication. These reformation decreases the reverberation. Methods use like covering reflective surfaces, using properly placed acoustic dividers, using other absorption materials throughout open or empty spaces, and location of sites are ways which can be used.

Moreover, studies regarding accommodations that utilize technology to improve audibility and clarity of the acoustic signal itself just like the assisted listening devices such as FM or infrared technology may be indicated for some individuals with APD.

In the consensus, the recommendation of signal enhancement technology as a management strategy for individuals with APD should be centered on the patients’ clinical profile of auditory processing deficits rather than as a general recommendation for all persons diagnosed with APD. Furthermore, studies have shown that the strongest indicators for the use of personal FM as a management strategy are deficits on monaural low redundancy speech and dichotic speech tests. These listening tasks involve degraded signals, figure ground, or competing speech that are similar to the effects of noise and reverberation in classroom, home, and workplace environments.

References:

California Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s.  (2004). Guidelines for the Diagnosis & Treatment for Auditory Processing Disorders.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). (Central) Auditory

Processing Disorders [Technical Report].

ASHA Conference (2003). Auditory Processing Disorders: Identification, Intervention,

and Management with School-Age Children.

 

Cite this Research Paper on Auditory Processing Disorder

Research Paper on Auditory Processing Disorder. (2016, Nov 26). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/research-paper-on-auditory-processing-disorder/

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