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Research Reference Manual Essays

Research Reference Manual

Defining and elaborating concepts of research

Research Sources.

 Sources of research include the field or topic from which the research would be carried out. It encompasses the background information of the concerned field and gives the practical importance of the research to be conducted. For example. In the contemplation of space exploration in the 19th century makes one ask him self; what is the significance of the space exploration to common man? How will spending of resources in this exploration assisted the common man? The research source would help indicate how the exploration has made some practical implications recently.

Literature Review

 This refers to review of other researchers work that has been done in the past concerning the same topic and what they have achieved as well as what they have not achieved. In 1876, for instance, Scientist Galileo makes trials in examining the meanings for several notions such as celestial and earthly occurrences (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005).

Theory and practice of the Research

This refers to the gap between the current situation and the ideas of the researcher. It includes the explanation of the current situation and the solution to this. For example, Research by National Environmental Authority indicates that there is still the notion that the environment would is still be polluted due to ignorance by most people.   This research intends to find out whether educating people on how to recycle waste materials would reduce pollution.

Research Problem

Research problem is the deficiency identified in the field of research that needs solution. For instance, Pollution of the environment is due to much ignorance from people. There is need to find means of eliminating this ignorance.

Sub problems includes the minor  problems which are part of the major problem that have been broken down into specific issues For instance, What is the size of the sample representative of the entire population under investigation

Problem Statement.

This is a statement that shows the deficiencies of the issues under investigation. For example, the effort to conserve environment through provision of dumping sites has not been efficient simply because most people are ignorant.


This one contains intelligent and tentative clues of the possible solutions to the indicated problems. For example, the idea of using drip irrigation in marginalized zones to irrigate trees would be a long term solution to restore the diminishing plants population

Research questions

These are designed questions which aim at indicating how the problem in the issue being researched would be solved. For instance; will the notion of educating people to use drip irrigation to irrigate plants assist in restoring the dying forests?

Purpose statement

Purpose statement tries to indicate the overall objective of the research efforts. It shows what the researcher would achieve by conducting the proposed research. For example; this research would help find how to restore the diminishing environment and forests.

Assumption and Delimitation

Assumption: This is the notion developed by the researcher regarding the field under investigation. For example; since most plants dry up in marginalized are due to lack of sufficient water, drip irrigation would restore the forests.

Delimitation shows things that the person conducting the research wants to do as well as what he does not aim to do.  For example; this study aims at examining whether using drip irrigation would help restore forests in marginalized areas but not to educate people on the dangers to cutting down trees (Davis, 2002).

Online databases

These include sources of research which the research would refer from the internet.

Tictoc. (2009). Research ethics, retrieved on July 31, 2009 from


Ethics and code of Conduct

These include the professional procedures as well as guidelines laid down to be followed in a certain profession which directs the manner in which certain operations of the profession should be carried out. For instance, it is unethical for a doctor to reveals the conditions of a certain patient to public.

Informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity, no harm, right to privacy, honesty with professional colleagues.

            a). Informed Consent: This is a distinctive mandate pertaining the professional work of code of Ethics. Example; getting permission to act on behalf of someone else.

            b). Confidentiality:

This means that any research work remains property of the owner and can not be claimed by any body to be his own unless given permission by the author to do so. E.g, data collected for one aim is not meant for another (Tictoc, 2009).

            c). Anonymity: Implies that the research work or any information pertaining this is granted unique identifiers to see to it that people who respond to it can not be identified. E.g the data protection acts states that all staff should be aware of the rule that data for one purpose can not be used for another.

            d). No harm: This implies that one can not be punished for adopting someone else research work without claiming to be his own by acknowledge the sources of the ideas or getting permission from the author.

            c). Right to privacy:

            This means that the researcher has got rights to have his work remain his property and can not be adopted by anybody else unless with permission granted from him. For instance; the content of this book remains property of the author can should not be copied or adopted without permission.

            d). Honesty with professional colleagues.

 This is the virtual of being in a position to reveal the most truthful professional information that is supposed to be shared with other professional colleagues without hiding or changing any information to avoid misleading them. For instance, swearing “this information is true to the best of my knowledge”

Institutional/ internal review board (IRSs)

This refers to the committee in an institution or department that is mandated with ensuring that all research work presented meets the required standards and content before being considered for reward or to have passed. For example, the Faculty’s body of examiners responsible for checking validity of research works before graduation.


Davis, D. (2002). When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the

Battle against Pollution. New York: Basic Books publishers.

Leedy, P. & Ormrod, J. E. (2005). Practical research: Planning and design. New Jersey:

            Prentice Hall.

Tictoc. (2009). Research ethics, retrieved on July 31, 2009 from



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