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Research Techniques and Methods of Analyzing Research in Health, Exercise and Sport Science Essays

Research Techniques and Methods of Analyzing Research in Health, Exercise, & Sport Science.

Question 1: Measures of Tendency

There are three most commonly used measures of tendency. They include mean, often referred to as the arithmetic mean, median and mode. The mean is usually the most commonly used measure of tendency. It is the sum of the given numbers divided by the total number of the given numbers. Arithmetic mean is not the only type of mean, geometric mean is also another type.

 Median is the midpoint of a distribution; there the same number of variables above the median as well as below it. When the number of variables is an odd one the middle number is simply the median. When the number is an even one however the median is derived by dividing the sum of the two middle variables. Mode is defined as the most frequently occurring variable. For a continuous type of data the mode is usually calculated from a grouped frequency distribution.

Analysis of variance gives a statistical test to show whether the means of several variables are equal.  If the variance of the dependent measures within the experimental group is greater than the variance between the experimental and control group, then one assumes an error has occurred.

There are some scenarios where the mode could be the preferred measure of tendency for example when dealing with categorical data. For example if a sandwich man sells 12 different types of sandwiches, the mode is the central measure of tendency that would represent the most sold sandwich. The mode can also be very useful with calculation and analysis of ordinal data.

Question 25: Cardiovascular Disease and Dietary Practices

High intake of saturated fat causes atheromatous plaque or narrowing of the arteries which eventually causes myocardial infarction. Studies have shown a significant connection between heart conditions and high intake of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol. Dietary intake of some specific fatty acids directly influence cholesterol levels in the blood and a lot of studies have found that elevated cholesterol in the serum is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

The risk of developing heart diseases can be reduced significantly by developing proper eating habits. Some examples of these dietary practices include; eating a well balanced diet with more emphasis on fruits and vegetables, eating more portions of fruits, whole grains and vegetables, servings that go up to about 6 or even 7. Consuming of low fat or fat free dairy products, lean meat, skinless poultry is also important so as to reduce the total intake of calories and fats. Fish is important in the diet because it contains certain lipids that lower blood cholesterol.

It is important that one avoids excess intake of calories and that exercise is incorporated into everyday schedule to balance the calorie intake and calorie uptake. Exercise is important to help reduce weight. Overweight people are at a higher risk of suffering from a cardiovascular disease. Limiting the intake of foods high in calorie count, high in the content of saturated fats, high in cholesterol and high in trans- fats is also important.

Different scientific studies have identified important dietary factors that aid in lowering the risk of conducting heart diseases. These factors include one lowering the LDL cholesterol in the blood by reducing the intake of saturated fats, reducing the consumption of sugary and also the processed foods in order to lower the levels of triglycerides.

Consuming more fruits and vegetables to increase the body’s antioxidant activity is also another factor including cutting back or reducing the intake of red meat, diary products, eggs and poultry to lower the levels of fibrinogen and other growth factors in the body and reducing the levels of homocysteine by supplementing the diet with vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid.

Question 26: Rehydration of Athletes

Water is essential for a healthy life. It has many functions and among these include; transporting nutrients and eliminating waste products, lubricating tissues and joints and regulating body temperature. Water is especially important in exercise and so proper hydration is essential. Adequate fluid intake whether water or sports fluids is essential for comfort, performance and safety during exercise. Water intake or the amount of fluids needed is directly proportional to the intensity and duration of exercise.

The body operates within a given narrow internal or what is also referred to as core temperature. During training the muscles generate heat that boosts the core temperature. If this rise in temperature is not counterchecked the body can overheat and the trainee will be forced to stop. Fortunately the body has a system for checking the core temperature.

The most important and crucial component of this cooling system is the water found in between cells and tissues. Actually water is far much away from being only the primary ingredient of the body but it makes a large percentage of our body mass. In average weight women their bodies are made up of up to 55% of water and in average weighing men 65% of their bodies is water.

There have been different suggestions of how much water we need daily. But the general rule is that for every 50 pounds of the body weight one should drink one quart of a bottle everyday. An average person weighs 150 pounds so they should drink at least three quarts of water per day. Athletes however should drink more than that. The fluid replacement ratio is the calculated ratio that determines the amount of fluids that the body has lost and the fluids that the body needs to be consumed to replace the lost fluids.

Athletes need to rehydrate for good performance. During exercise the athletes lose large amounts of water through sweating and this can cause to a drop in the volume of the blood. This makes the heart work faster and harder to meet the body’s needs. Improper blood circulation in turn causes muscle cramps, fatigue and dizziness and even heat shock. Intake of water during and after exercise reduces dehydration. It is rare but athletes can suffer from a condition called hyponatremia or water intoxication from drinking too much water therefore drinking the right amounts of water is important for good performance and safety during exercise. Different people need different amounts of fluid. To determine the right amounts of fluid needed by each individual, factors like the intensity and duration of every individuals exercise should be put into consideration.

There are two main methods to monitor hydration levels of different individuals; monitoring of the urine volume and the urine color of each individual. A large amount of lightly colored urine probably means one is hydrated while little amounts of dark colored urine would probably mean dehydration. The second method is weighing athletes before and after exercise. Any weight loss implies lose of water and the lost amount of fluid should be replenished by consuming fluids. Any weight gain means an athlete has consumed more fluids than needed.

Other kinds of fluids can be used for example sports drinks are helpful for athletes exercising at high intensity for more than an hour. Fluids that supply calories are needed for continuous performance.

Question 27: Diet for a Training Athlete

The food an athlete consumes before exercise is a significant determinant of their performance. Eating before training prevents hunger during training, and also provides fuel for the muscles. What an athlete should consume should be depended on the intensity and the type of training the athlete is going to go through. The objective of each diet should be aiming at providing the body with adequate glucose which is the most preferred source of energy in the body. Thus carbohydrates should be the major food source. The day before exercise one should eat carbohydrate rich meal like pasta, brown rice and whole grain cereals. High fat and protein diets are not recommended since they slow down digestion and do not promote storage of glycogen a major energy reserve. It is important to drink plenty of fluids too especially water. Fluids high in alcohol and salts should not be consumed because they promote dehydration.

The following is an example of a meal plans before the main event; 4 hours before an athlete should consume solid food high in carbohydrates, 2- 3 hours before it is recommended to consume a liquid meal also high in energy, 1- 2 hours prior to the event its appropriate to consume an energy drink or a fluid replacement drink and an hour before water and fluid replacements.

Question 28: Body Weight Management

Incase of one being over weight, losing weight can only be achieved by causing a calorie deficit. This can be achieved by either eating less or burning up more calories. However the rate at which one can lose weight depends on their genetic make up and this should be put into consideration. To gain weight one should create a calorie excess and also it is dependent on whether a person exercises or not and ones genetic make up. To gain weight one should eat frequently, eat larger portions, add in their diets more healthy fats and exercise frequently.

The energy balance formula gives a scientific basis for losing or gaining weight. It is a scale with calories in on one side and calories out on the other side.

 The only way to lose weight is to reduce the calorie intake and the only way to gain weight is increasing the intake of calories. Eating disorders are habits people adopt as desperate measures of gaining or losing weight, for example beige eating or anorexia.

Question 29: Basic Food Groups

Basically there are only five groups of food water excluded. These groups include; dairy products, grain group, meats, legumes and fruits and vegetables. The diary products are products from milk like cheese, butter, yogurt and milk itself. These products are rich in proteins, calcium, and fats necessary in day to day diet. The grain group includes foods like rice, maize, barley, wheat, and oats among others. These foods are rich in carbohydrates, traces of proteins, minerals, oils and roughages. Meats like fish, chicken, pork, mutton, beef and game meat are the major sources of proteins.

Question 30: Nutrition and Stages of the Lifecycle

Every stage of the lifecycle has its basic nutrition needs and different stages require different types and quantities of food. One of the main nutritional concerns during pregnancy is development of cravings. Though cravings might signify lack of a particular nutrient or mineral, it may cause an expectant mother to over eat inappropriate kinds of foods because most women crave salty or fatty foods. This could cause water retention and too much weight gain. In infants the major concern is failure for the mother to breast feed her child properly. It is recommended that mothers breastfeed their infants exclusively for six months and continue doing so for up to twelve months after weaning. Many mothers however do not breastfeed their children at all.

Children’s growth rate reduces considerably after the first year and so does their food intake. Most parents mistake this for loss of appetite. Inspite of the slower growth rate proper nutrition should be provided. This is one of the major concerns about nutrition in children. During adolescence a lot of activities are taking place in the body and so energy needs to be supplemented in terms of food. Care should be taken to avoid obesity at this stage. It is also the stage during which they are discovering themselves and they feel like they have to be beautiful. According to them beauty translates to being lean so special attention should be paid to adolescents to avoid anorexia.

In early adulthood individuals are usually very active and busy so it is important that enough food and proper nutrition (and not junk) should be consumed. In the late adulthood individuals are usually very inactive and spend most of their time sitting In this case the largest portion of their daily food serving should be fruits and vegetables and lesser fatty and salty foods.

Question 17: Biomechanics of Sport Techniques

The greater the angle of takeoff, the greater the vertical velocity component, this statement is quantitative. The style of high jumper “A” is more effective than the style of high jumper “B”, this statement is qualitative. Raising the arms over the head will raise the center of gravity, this statement is quantitative.

Question 18: Vertebrae Sizes

The vertebrae differ in both shape and size according to the function. As a whole the vertebral column is shaped like a pyramid in such a way that it enlarges from the cervical region towards the lumbar region. This kind of arrangement has an important functional significance in that each vertebra bears the weight of everything that’s above it until the spinal column rests on the sacrum, where the weight of the body is transferred.

Question 19: Relative Magnitude of Acceleration

Assuming that am a, and the other person is b, a’s magnitude of acceleration will be half the magnitude of b if they are moving at the same acceleration. However if b moves with an x times as large acceleration as a, then the force driving b is b: x as large as the force driving a.

Question 20: Magnus Effect

Magnus effect is also called Magnus force. It is a force that operates during lifting and it is very important to athletes in bending the flight of a ball. It can be seen in the curved flight paths of hit, kicked or thrown balls. Pitchers, golfers, and tennis players apply the Magnus effect. As a ball spins through air, it makes a layer of air that clings to it spin along making it collide with air passing by. This causes air to decelerate to create a high- pressure area. On the opposing side a low pressure area is created because there is no collision so the air moves faster. The difference in pressure causes the lift force and it makes the ball move towards the area of pressure difference.

Question 21: Skills of Putting Backspin on a Ball

For a cue ball in pool, hitting the ball low is one of the many skills. This skill is advantageous in that it creates perfect and accurate shots so a player hits a lot of target balls. Also for the balls that are far away hitting the ball hard to keep the back spin on the ball is necessary. In golf a backspin can be created by hitting the golf ball downwards. Hitting in such a manner creates a great lift force and so one can aim far away targets accurately. Velocity plays a big role in the final blow so it is important to apply a lot of controlled force.

 Hand action is another skill a golf player can use. They can produce high speed with short iron and wedges. Hand swings are advantageous over body swings in that for short shots the body is usually limited to turning and this generates very high club head speed and ball spin.

Question 22: Anterior and Posterior

Posterior instrumentation is a form of surgery performed on the spine. It neutralizes gross instability from vertebral diseases; it is also indicated to protect anterior grafts of the bones; it is also important in preventing complications related to graft after anterior decompression in case of long segment disease and it also corrects kyphosis. Anterior constructs promotes high rigidity in plate fixation with a postulation indicating that these plates acts as load bearing devices in promoting the ideal fusion of interbody grafts with the least or without graft settling. Several studies have indicated that rigid fixation of the plate increases fusion rates dramatically.

Question 23: Conservation of Angular Momentum

Figure skating is one sport than exhibits this kind of situation. The skater uses centripetal; force which the body requires to follow curved paths. A figure skater will spin faster in order to conserve her angular momentum. A rugby player can also exhibit this situation by performing a Newton’s leap. He leaps directly upwards and at the end of the leap, leans towards the centre of the line at the waist.

Hula twist is a dance that exhibits this theory. One stands on the same spot while moving the hips around and consequently the whole body. Two axis twists combines flexing and extending of the trunk with alternate rotation of the body and lower part of the body to conserve angular momentum. Tilt twist conserves angular momentum by creating a specific tilt speed, tilt angle and moments of inertia while twisting.

Question 24: Aerodynamic Drag

Aerodynamic drug can cause very significant changes to performance. It can be experienced in activities like car racing, in motor boats, in cycling, in flying airplanes and helicopters in aeroplanes drag can be reduced by creating very sleek airfoil plane shapes and narrow wings. Another way to reduce drag is using enormously powerful engines and the use of reaction lift which utilizes the wing surface. In cycling it can be reduced by designing the bikes in such a way that less drag is experience for example shifting from the use of round tubes to oval or tear- shaped ones and use of disc wheels instead of the spoked ones.

Question 13: Accommodating Persons with Disabilities in Sports

According to the Continuum of support education authorities have an important duty of establishing procedures that help them identify and meet additional support needs of children with disabilities. So it is important to include all the students even those with disabilities to every school activity. Though the special student might need more time to accomplish what other students can in a short time they should still be perceived as members of the class so if it is time for playing ball let them play ball but with proper supervision.

 Their peers should also be taught on how to accept and support their special classmates so that they feel as part of the class. It should also be noted that even though the specials students may be unique in their ways of learning, separating them from the others is unnecessary and only contribute to preventing them from achieving their full potential. So they should be put in the same classes and the same playing fields playing the same games. Inclusion psychology goes behold simply placing a child in a class or a playing field with the other student but it also involves making the student feel to belong, and fully accepted.

For example this can be applied in the physical activity sessions like when the children are playing say football. The teacher should supervise these sessions and include the special student in the activity if they are physically able. If they are not they can be put in other activities that are not so physically demanding. The baseline however is not to exclude the students in such activities.

Question 14: Authentic Assessment

Authentic assessment is a form of assessment where students are required to perform real- world tasks that show meaningful application of the knowledge and they have acquired in class. Some of the advantages of authentic assessment are; this kind of assessment forces the teacher to clarify ideas in detail, it obtains useful feedback for effectiveness of instructions, it gives students more control over their learning process, it is flexible so can be used in many contexts, in any school level and in a wide variety of abilities, motivates the student to reach the goals specified and also narrows the gap between instruction and the assessment given.

 Some of the disadvantages include this kind of assessment can restrict a students mind power in that they are only focusing on completing the assignment, if the assessment is too complex it might affect the success of the assessment, it is time and energy consuming for both the teacher and the student. Other disadvantages of authentic assessment include the high costs involved, difficulties in making consisted results that are usable and also difficulties in demonstrating validity, comparability and also reliability.

An example of an assessment can be writing and giving a speech. In this case the student can demonstrate writing skills and the ability to speak in front of an audience by giving the speech before the teacher and fellow students. Another example of authentic assessment would be asking students to perform a practical on something they have learned. This way the students will be able to put in task their understanding if that particular practical. For example medicine students required to do an autopsy. This will provide the teacher a basis on which to measure their understanding.

Another example is the use of drilled skills in playing football. These drills are the basics of any football game so before playing one has to learn them. Application of these drills in the real football much is a good example of authentic assessment. Also a ballet dancer has to start with learning these drills then combining a number of steps on the floor but the real test comes when they are required to do the real choreographed dance. This can also be another good example of authentic assessment.

Question 15: Other Health Impaired Disability

Auditory impairment is another kind of disability that can occur. It is the inability to hear within the usually normal limits. It can be caused by a physical impairment or a dysfunction of the auditory organs leading to partial or complete deafness. The most common cause of loss of hearing is the infection of otitis media or the middle ear. There are three common types of auditory impairment; deafness which is impairment that leads to total loss of hearing and impairment in understanding speech. Hearing impairment is impairment in hearing that obstructs hearing. It can affect a students understanding. Deafness- blindness is another type and it means total loss of hearing and sight.

The students with both deafness and hearing impairments can be incorporated into physical classes by totally accepting and supporting them. Use of sign language and talking to them while facing them for lip reading can be of great help. For those with deafness and blindness conditions can participate in the activities too but with supervision until they familiarize themselves with the environment then after that support and acceptance will be needed foe them to participate in physical classes.

Question 16: Mental Retardation

Jim is suffering from Down syndrome. Some physical characteristics of Down syndrome include; truncated or short body stature, short neck, fingers, legs, arms, toes, small skull, slanting and almond shaped eyes, small mouth which makes the tongue look bigger and protrude and most patients seem to be over weight.

Psychomotor characteristics portrayed include; difficulty in walking, severe motor delays, poor muscle tone, lack of balance, hyper flexibility and usually develop heart conditions. To teach Jim basketball the first priority would be giving him therapy to help him in coordination and also to improve his muscle tone after which he can be taught the basics of basket ball and ultimately how to play.

Question 10: Metabolic pathways

Some examples of pathways that produce ATP include glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle and electron transport phosphorylation. Glycolysis breaks down glucose and forms two pyruvates, 4 ATP’s, 2 NADH but uses up 2ATP’s so the net ATP production is two. Kreb’s cycle utilizes pyruvate to produce 2 ATP, 8 NADH2 and 2 FADH2 from a single glucose molecule.

The Krebs cycle begins with two carbon atoms that are later oxidized to CO2. The energy produced by these two reactions is transferred to the other metabolic processes through GTP or ATP and also through electrons in the form of NADH and H2. This NADH sometimes donates electrons to the oxidative phosphorylative pathway to help in ATP synthesis. The citric acid cycle keeps on being supplied with new carbon atoms which are usually in the form of acetyl CoA.

The first step is a condensation reaction that involves the enzyme citrate synthase. It catalyzes the reaction that condenses acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate to form citryl CoA. This citryl CoA is then hydrolyzed into citrate and CoA. The end products of the citric acid cycle are 2ATP molecules, 8NADH2 molecules, 2FADH2 molecules and 4CO2 as the waste products of the pathway.

Chemiosmosis or the electron transport phosphorylation breaks down NADH and FADH to produce hydrogen protons used to create a gradient used in the production of ATP. It produces 3 ATP’s. The electron transport chain reactions take place in the mitochondrion’s inner membrane by using the Krebs cycle products that is the NADH and FADH as the substrates.

The first step involves transferring the high energy electrons to FMN the first carrier in the chain from NADH and hydrogen protons. Different metabolic pathways produce different number of ATP. This is because they use different substrates and each substrate only has the potential to produce a limited number of ATP’s. For example glycolysis utilizes a high energy substrate called glucose and in turn produces 4 molecules of ATP.

Question 11: Neuromuscular Junction

A neuromuscular junction is the junction found between a muscle fiber and the terminal of a motor neuron. It is also called the myoneural junction. The terminals of motor axons have thousands of vesicles filled with acetylcholine. When an action potential reaches the terminal of the axons, acetylcholine is released into the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber.

This action potential reaches the membranes through the binding of molecules of neurotransmission by the specific receptors found on the surface of the postsynaptic membrane. Studies show that there are numerous types of receptors for all the transmitters. They are found on both the postsynaptic neurons and also the presynaptic neurons.

The postsynaptic membrane contains transmembrane channels that open up to sodium ions when stimulated by acetylcholine. The entry of sodium ions into the muscle fiber reduces the charge changing the potential from a resting potential to an end plate potential. If the end plate potential  a threshold potential of about 50mV an action potential is created by the rushing in of the sodium ions  into the fiber and it sweeps down the fiber length just as it does in the axon.

The cells of the muscles are surrounded by a plasma membrane that forms the sarcolemma together with various elements of connective tissue and also collagen fibrils. Muscle membranes have a high conductance to chloride ions in the resting state unlike the nerve membranes, this chloride conductance accounts for a total of 70% membrane conductance.

A rapid stereotyped membrane depolarization is produced during the generation of an action potential caused by an increase in the conductance of the sodium ions a process that is mediated by voltage dependent sodium channels. Repolarisation is aided by the delay in opening of the potassium ion conductance pathway.

Muscle fatigue is a temporary loss in force due to a recent muscle contraction. There are varying causes of fatigue and they range from the central nervous system to cell level cross- bridge cycling. However the most common causes of fatigue include inadequate motorneuron excitation, poor transmission of the action potential, failure of the action potential, low amplitude of the action potential and the failure of action potential to invade the sarcoplasmic system and T- tubule system. Also failure of the action potential to trigger the release of calcium is another cause.

Question 12: Methods of Body Composition Assessment

Hydrostatic or underwater weighing is one method used for body assessment. Body fat is less dense than water so it increases ones buoyancy when immersed in water while the fat free mass which is much denser than water makes one sink. Fat percentage can be calculated based on the underwater weight. One disadvantage of this kind of method is that if residual volume is estimated rather than measured it could cause errors. It has an advantage of being cheap and also it can be very easily accessed.

Another method of body assessment is skinfold measurement. In this case body circumference and the thickness of the skinfold are to predict body composition. Some advantages include; the method is simple and inexpensive, they are most accurate in predicting the body composition of people having average amounts of fat. A disadvantage is that this method tends to be inaccurate for people who are very lean or obese people.

Another newer method used to measure body composition is electrical impedance. An extremely low current is passed through a subject’s body to measure resistance. A current passes lean tissues more easily than fatty tissues as the lean contains more electrolytes and water. An advantage associated with this method is its simplicity to use. Another is no special skill or training is required but it has a disadvantage of being relatively expensive.

Another method which is commonly being used is infrared interactance. It works by placing a probe on the biceps and then an energy beam is emitted to a depth of 1cm. a detector then measures the energy reflected back and an analyzer is used to interpret the reflection. An advantage is that measurement from one adipose tissue can be used to measure the composition of the whole body. Disadvantages include; it can only be handled by trained and qualified personnel and it is expensive.

Question 7: Current and Future Trends in Health, Exercise and Sport Science

The use of Native American symbols in sports can be seen as apart of social reality that can be interpreted unconsciously as superiority on the part of the dominant culture. And some people may see this as some kind of racism; dysconscious racism that unconsciously accepts dominant white privileges and norms.

The use of these symbols is seen to make the native people appear like objects and make them unreal almost like cartoon characters. The wide spread use of native paraphernalia like feathers and war paint mocks their religious and spiritual significance.  The use of native imagery has become very common but it is being seen as being insensitive to because it does not reflect knowledge or interest in their culture and traditions. These symbols can be used objectively without hurting any ones feeling or demeaning the natives by for example using the names to promote the culture and traditions of the natives or using them to promote games and sports of the Native Americans.

Question 8: Title IX

It is a federal law that states no person in the United States should be discriminated on the basis of sex to participate in or be denied the benefits of in any educational program or activity that is receiving funding from the federal finance. There are three major tests of compliance and they include; providing athletic opportunities that are proportional to the enrollment of the student.

For example in 2002 the secretary of education Rod Page announced that a commission had been formed to examine ways of strengthening, enforcing and expanding opportunities that ensured fairness to all the college athletes. This compliance requires that equal opportunities were availed for women, men, boys and girls to participate in sports.

Providing full and effective accommodation of underrepresented sex interests for example including girls and women in activities that are considered as for men is also another compliance test. The ability to demonstrate a continuous expansion of athletic opportunities for underrepresented sex like recruiting girls in football teams and so on.

Question 9: Corporate Wellness

Advantages of corporate wellness has benefits to the employer like; it boosts productivity, decreases absenteeism decrease expenses on sick leave,  reduces stress related illnesses and reduces the cost of drugs. To the employee some of the advantages include; increase in mental alertness, boosts creativity, reduces pain, stress and stiffness, reduce physical tension. Research has shown that employers providing employees with corporate wellness programs actually results in higher revenues. (Weinstein, 2008). According to Teng, (2006), employers should incorporate such programs into their companies to ensure growth.

Another survey was conducted by Business & Health on the wellness programs. The General Dynamics in San dingo responded to the research questions that the programs cost the firm next to nothing but the results were amazing. These studies show the increasing need of these programs in firms and their benefits.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, a UK firm conducted a research on the wellness programs in multinational employer organizations and found out that the largest multinational employers in the world, more than 75% took responsibility for corporate wellness.

Question 3: Motor Development and Motor Learning

The dynamic maturation approach hypothesizes that as maturation makes new and even more complex behavioral and mental processes possible; changes in environment and context give a chance to use these processes. Particular organization of self protective behavior reflect ways in which one can identify ,prevent and protect himself from danger while promoting exploration of other aspects of life. Other researchers indicate that social and environmental factors combine with the biological factors to generate complex behaviors. Faced with contradicting and different opinions like this, one has to know the basics of maturation in order to correctly interpret such differing conclusions.

Question 4: Newell Model

This model is a general term often used to describe a family of human information processing technique tries to predict and modify the user behavior. It is used to uncover a frequent goal being supported by an inefficient method therefore it makes a change in design to include an efficient method. For example the cognitive perpetual motor or the CPM- GOMS, a parallel stage model, critical- path- method.

Question 5: Gender Skill Gap

This is the difference shown by children of different sexes in developing of skills. Different researches have been conducted to show the differences in development of skills in boys and girls. For example a study done in U. S showed that boys and girls show or demonstrate big differences in development in the force for over arm throw. The studies show that these developmental differences start developing as early as when the children are three years old.

The differences grow up to 3 standard deviations in the teenage years. The boys showed more development of the throw skill than the girls regardless of the dependent variable of the distance the ball was thrown, the velocity of the ball or the developmental level of the used movements.

The gender gap in development of skills between girls and girls has been scientifically explained. Testosterone is a hormone that is produced in boys as they grow and mature. This hormone has been mostly attributed to the enhanced myelination in boys that enhances muscle growth and also promotes neural growth which enhances coordination. This is one of the major reasons why boys have been found to develop skills faster than girls.

The Newell’s model attributes these differences to the constraints theory which suggests that different cultures put constraints on different gender. Some cultures do not expect girls to adopt certain behaviors like throwing and so in such cultures the boys develop more. In cultures that did not encourage any gender to throw the differences in development would be small.

Question 6: Mountain of Motor Development

Motor skills are series of movements that are learned and usually combine to produce efficient actions. Examples of motor skills include; balancing, sitting up, holding ones head and walking. Development of the motor skills usually follows a particular pattern and usually moves from top to bottom.

The mountain motor development model is a type of model that describes the development of the motor system as some kind of mountain. The beginning of the motor development starts with the main activities like the baby learning to control the eyes. It is important that motor development reaches competent levels because important functions of the body like movement and other reflexes are depended on it.

Question 2: Variance and treatment effect

When analysis of statistics is done to compare the means of treatment and control groups, the treatment effect is registered as the difference that occurs between the mean response of the control group and that of the mean response of the treatment group. Therefore if a variation occurs around the response means, it goes into the within- groups variance.

To maintain a uniform application of the treatment and control conditions help reduce the occurrence of entering into the within- groups variance. When the variance between the independent variables is great or significant it can lead to disqualification of the findings because the treatment effect will be null hypothesized.

Variance is used in many statistical processes. It can be divided into the variance which can be as a result as a specific condition and the one that can be as a result of other conditions that are unmeasured. These can be referred to as explained and unexplained variances.

The higher the explained variance in relation to the total variance the stronger a measure gets. Unexplained variance can further be categorized into two more groups. One group is usually as a result of a random, normal, everyday free will differences that occur in a population or in a sample. Usually we can not help this type of unexplained variance occurring but it can equal out in an aggregation of data.

The other group is the one that results from unidentified condition which is also systematic and most of the times it results into a bias.

Word Count: 6, 220


Teng, M. (2006,). Corporate Wellness - the Key to Corporate Success. Retrieved July      8, 2009, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Corporate-Wellness---the-Key-to-            Corporate-Success&id=328335

Weinstein, B. (2008). Change made easy. Orlando: Advantage Books

CEOs’ Take on Wellness as Corporate Strategy; Survey Finds Over Half of Multinational          Companies Polled Plan to Invest in Workplace Wellness.(2007). Health           Resources Publishing. Available Online:             http://www.wellnessjunction.com/members/040507.htm


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