Research Tutorial - Causality Essay Example
TUTORIAL QUESTIONS Page 52, Discussion Question 12 - Research Tutorial introduction. Problem statements: Does employee loyalty result in a companies benefit? Page 98, Discussion Question 9. Conceptual model: Independent Variables Seeing a film character smoke Attitude toward smoking is stronger Dependent Variables Adolescents’ intention to start smoking Adolecents’ intentions to start smoking increase when watching a film character smoke due to their perceptions that smoking is awesome. Besides, being influenced from the movie they watched also will raise their intention to smoking.
Exercise 5. 1 page 121. A foreman thinks that the low efficiency of the machine tool operators is directly linked to the high level of fumes emitted in the workshop. He would like to prove this to his supervisor through a research study. Would this be a causal or correlational study? Why? Correlational study. This is because the cause and effect has been recognized by the foreman. Besides the foreman want to investigate the situation in order to prove the efficiency of the machine to his supervisor.
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Is this an exploratory, descriptive or hypothesis-testing study? Why? Exploratory studies because some facts/problems are known but more information regarding low efficiency of the machine are required for developing the research study. What kind of study would this be : field study, lab experiment or field experiment? Why? Lab experiment because the foreman will conduct the research in real situation accurately. What would be the unit of analysis? Why? Individuals as the unit of analysis, where the individuals is refer to the machine tool operator.
The foreman need to study the connection between low efficiency of the machine tool operator and high level of fumes emitted in the workshop. Thus the foreman will take sample on each machine tool operator. Would this be a cross-sectional or a longitudinal study? Why? Longitudinal study. This is because the foreman might want to study people behavior where the efficiency of machine tool and high fumes level impact the employee’s performance. Exercise 5. 3 page 122 Purpose of the study:
To examine how thin or heavy models in advertisements influences a person’s self-esteem. May use exploratory studies. Types of investigation: Correlational study. As I want to figure out the important variables related to the problem. Study setting: Field experiments because I want to discover the cause and effect relationship. Unit of analysis: Individuals. This is because the information can be gained from the people who view the advertisement. Time of horizon: Cross-sectional as it can be conducted not more than one year or less.