Retail Sector in India
Indian Retail Sector March 2011 1 Table of Contents Title Executive Summary Section 1: Evolution of Indian Retail Evolution of Indian Retail Indian retail has evolved into a major growth opportunity Supported by strong economic fundamentals Domestic Retailers Indian retail: Changing with times Indian Retail: 100% FDI – The Implications Industry Speaks…on FDI in Multibrand Retail Section 2: Learning from the Past Learning from the Past Case Study: Vishal Retail Section 3: Consolidation Consolidation Section 4: View on Future View on Future Model APMC Act View on Future Industry speaks…on GST
Slide No. 5-6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16-17 18 19 20 – 24 25 26 – 29 30 31 32 Strictly Private and Confidential 2 Table of Contents Title View on Future Section 5: Critical issues in Indian Retail Critical Issues in Indian Retail sector Case Study: Aditya Retail Ltd.
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Critical Issues in Indian Retail sector Case Study: The SPA Group Case Study: The MobileStore Case Study: Dolphin Kidswear Critical Issues in Indian Retail sector Case Study: Guardian Lifecare Critical Issues in Indian Retail sector Case Study: Marks & Spencer Critical Issues in Indian Retail sector Case Study: Max Hypermarket Case Study: Inorbit Mall Section 6: Capital Market and Latest Deals Indian Retail: Capital Market snapshot Indian Retail: Latest Deals Section 7: Analysis of Major Domestic Players Pantaloon Retail Strictly Private and Confidential 3 Slide No. 3– 34 35 36 37 – 38 39 40 – 41 42 43 44 45 46-49 50-51 52-57 58-60 61 62 63 64 65 66-71 Table of Contents Title Shoppers Stop Tata Group Brandhouse Retail Provogue Reliance Retail Domestic Players – Trading Multiples About Resurgent India Disclaimer Slide No. 72 – 75 76 – 78 79 80 81 – 83 84 85 86 Strictly Private and Confidential 4 Executive Summary India is the fifth largest retail market globally, with a size of INR 16 trn, and has been growing at 15% per annum. Organized retail accounts for just 5% of total retail sales and has been growing at 35% CAGR.
Though the journey has so far been rather mixed, organized retail is being tipped as one of the biggest gainers from growing consumerism and rising income. India’s robust macro- and microeconomic fundamentals, such as robust GDP growth, higher incomes, increasing personal consumption, favourable demographics and supportive government policies, will accelerate the growth of the retail sector We have structured the report broadly In three parts (1) Learning from the past (2) Consolidation (3) View on future (4) Critical issues 1) Learning from the Past: During 2005-2007, the sector was in a hyper growth phase.
In pursuit to capture market, companies made strategic as well as operational errors which has been broadly classified as follows: i. Race for increasing retail space resulting in haphazard growth ii. Unviable formats iii. High lease rentals iv. Manpower costs and productivity issues v. Poor backend infrastructure vi. Entry of too many new players 2) Consolidation: During the global slowdown phase of 2007-2009, the Indian retail players paused to realize their past mistakes and took time and effort to re-organize themselves: i. Focus on profitable growth ii.
Exit from unprofitable stores / formats iii. Rental renegotiation / revenue sharing arrangements iv. Reduction in salaries / higher manpower productivity v. Significant investments in backend vi. Exit of unsuccessful new entrants Industry also witnessed failures like Subhiksha and Vishal Retail with many other existing players still trying to fine tune their operations Strictly Private and Confidential 5 Executive Summary 3) View on future: Post consolidation, the sector is now revitalized and is poised to fully benefit from India’s Next Trillion Dollar opportunity: i.
Consumer sentiment improving ii. Same store sales rising iii. Store additions accelerating iv. Policy resolutions are potential upside triggers – FDI, GST, APMC Act, etc. 4) Critical Issues in Indian Retail: During the global slowdown phase of 2007-2009, the Indian retail players paused to realize their past mistakes and took time and effort to re-organize themselves: i. Focus on profitable growth ii. Exit from unprofitable stores / formats iii. Rental renegotiation / revenue sharing arrangements iv. Reduction in salaries / higher manpower productivity v. Significant investments in backend vi.
Exit of unsuccessful new entrants Industry also witnessed failures like Subhiksha and Vishal Retail with many other existing players still trying to fine tune their operations Strictly Private and Confidential 6 Section 1: Evolution of Indian Retail Evolution of Indian Retail Historic/ Rural Reach Traditional / Pervasive Reach Government Supported Modern Formats/ International • EBOs • Super Markets • Department Stores • Shopping Malls Availability/Low Costs/ Distribution Shopping Experience/ Efficiency • Weekly Markets • Village Fairs • Melas Source of Entertainment Convenience Stores • Mom and Pop / Kiranas Neighborhood Stores • PDS Outlets • Khadi Stores • Cooperatives 2009-10 – Gross Domestic product USD 1,385 Bn 43% 63% 57% 37% 246 45 85% 15% With the boom of the service sector and increased industrial output, the growth pace has spiralled in the last decade. This has set a sustainable platform for consumerism and rising per capita spend leading to an inclusive growth Source: Technopack Research Strictly Private and Confidential 8 Indian retail has evolved into a major growth opportunity Retailing Industry in India is estimated at INR 15. trillion growing at CAGR of 15 to 20 % Organized Retail accounts for 5-8% which is lowest compared to its peers in BRIC countries – Brazil (38%), Russia (33%) and China (20%) The Organized Retail has been growing at 35% CAGR The retail and wholesale sector in India accounts for approx 14% of GDP In terms of employment, the sector is second largest employer providing over 10% of all formal jobs Indian Retail Sector – Quick Facts Market Size Organized Retail penetration Unorganized Retail market Growth rate Retail density INR 15. 5 trn 5-8 % 12 million Kiranas 15-20 % 6% Source: Technopack Research, 2010 Strictly Private and Confidential 9
Supported by Strong Economic Fundamentals India has witnessed a robust growth rate of 9% p. a. from 2005 to 2008 and an impressive growth of 6. 7% in 2009 despite the global downturn Government is committed to encourage inclusive growth 72. 2% of India’s population resides in rural areas. High agriculture growth rate offers huge potential Households forming ‘rich class’ have grown at CAGR of 35% during and that of ‘Major consuming class’ have grown at a CAGR of 11 % Favorable Demographics Low Penetration Strong Economic Growth Retail Growth Rising Consumer Income Infrastructure & Mall Boom Credit Availability
One of the most challenging, dynamic and exciting Indian Retail sector has led most global retailers look towards India to grow and access new customers Strictly Private and Confidential 10 To become a challenging market for both Global and Domestic Retailers • Changing tastes and preferences makes Brand loyalty an important aspect in serving customers. Consumers are increasingly demanding value for money and are not willing to compromise on product quality • India is viewed with a long term investment horizon and thus patience, deep pockets, and customization of products and services are required for success
Serving a Heterogeneous Market Long Term Investment Horizon Regulatory Framework • The Indian Retail sector is not fully liberalised. Global retailers looking to enter India can do so through cash and carry route, single brand retail franchising, distribution and strategic licensing agreements Focus on Innovation, customization and new product development • Retailers having long term plans for India have to consistently try hard to understand the nuances of serving Indian customers in terms of offering right product, at right price and through the right distribution channel
Strictly Private and Confidential 11 Indian Retail : Changing with times Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Policy FDI Policy – Milestone FDI up to 100% allowed under the automatic route in Cash & Carry (wholesale) Government mulled over the idea of allowing 100% FDI in single-brand retail and 50% in multi brand retail 1991 1997 Liberalization Indian economy opened FDI up to 51% allowed under the automatic route in select priority sectors 2006 2008 2010 FDI up to 51% allowed with prior Government approval in ‘Single Brand Retail’ Government proposing to allow FDI in Multi brand retailing
Strictly Private and Confidential 12 Indian Retail : 100% FDI – The Implications • • The proposed FDI norms will open up strategic investment opportunity for global retailers who have been invest in India. This may have a significant impact on the current arrangement of foreign players Some key norms and its implications are: ? ? ? ? ? The policy will require investment from retailers in area of supply chain, especially for perishable products, thus helping farmers to get better income leading to an inclusive growth in the country Given the large number of SKU’s that retailers stock Small and
Medium Enterprises (SME) sector is also set to gain from this move due to preference given by retailers to private label brands The move will also encourage smaller suppliers to take their products to a national platform that they could not previously manage due to lack of an organized supply chain of their own This policy will also open up avenues for attracting, developing and retaining talent. Contract manufacturers would also benefit from these policy changes Retailers entering the Indian market need to ensure that they have considered the opportunity along with the challenges to maximize their returns.
Retailers will need to bank on the local knowledge brought in by their partners/employees/ service providers to be able to reduce the lead time required by them to set-up operations and get a foothold in the Indian market Strategic License agreements This route involves a foreign company entering into a licensing agreement with a domestic retailer or partnering with Indian promoterowned companies Strictly Private and Confidential waiting to
Available routes for foreign players to enter the retail sector Franchisee Route This entry route is widely used by many international brands, who opt for the master franchise route and the regional franchise route for an entry into India Cash and Carry wholesale Banking 100% FDI is allowed in wholesale trading, which involves building a large distribution network Manufacturing A company can establish its manufacturing unit in India along with standalone retailing outlets Distribution An international company can set up a distribution office in India and supply products to local retailers.
Franchisee outlets can also be set up by this route Joint Ventures International firms can enter into joint ventures (JVs 51% stake) with domestic players in single brand retail. 13 Industry Speaks…on FDI in Multibrand Retail “Opening up foreign investments will bring in funds required for expansion of the nascent modern retail sector in India. The market opportunity is large and we do not see much impact at a national level from new players. We support opening up of the sector to FDI.
Most of the opposition is related to the food sector, where stakeholders are not sure of its impact on suppliers and on agriculture. Specifically for the food sector, the government may adopt a calibrated approach of opening it up to FDI” Mr. Kishore Biyani, Managing Director, Pantaloon Retail “FDI can be a game changer. There is huge demand – the consumer wants modernization of retail. Incumbents do not have the balance sheet strength to support long-term transformational needs. There is need for more equity infusion in the sector Developing countries like India need a strong manufacturing base to fulfill demand.
Retailers need to make available good quality products at reasonable prices and yet make a profit. FDI can enable increased capital allocation for the sector and enable development of a manufacturing base and a backend. Opposition to FDI is due to the perception that the big foreigner kills the small Indian; the truth is that the big Indian can also kill the small Indians. Restriction on FDI is being projected as safeguarding the jobs in small retail, but actually there is little job creation happening in small retail now.
FDI should be allowed, but the sector should be opened up gradually to gauge the impact and initiate any corrective steps as we move along” Mr. B S Nagesh, Vice Chairman, Shoppers Stop “To be successful in organized retail, we have to necessarily invest in backward integration of the supply chain as well as infrastructure by way of reprocessing centers, distribution centers, etc. All players in this sector need to fund growth and fund the investment in backend infrastructure. FDI can be a game changer by allowing incumbents access to lower cost funding.
In my view, those who oppose FDI have not necessarily taken into account the experience in other countries, where rise in organized retail has not led to the demise of local traders, who have also grown. Rather, it has led to benefits to farmers, who get another more transparent market for their product as well as improvement in supply side infrastructure” Mr Thomas Varghese, CEO, Aditya Birla Retail The MSME Ministry has proposed allowing only up to 18 per cent FDI in multi-brand retail, while cautioning that entry of global retailers could arm interests of kirana stores, small farmers and consumers Strictly Private and Confidential 14 Section 2: Learning from the Past Learning from the Past In the Hyper growth phase during 2005-2007, organized retailers committed strategic and operational errors They entered the race of adding retail space without proper due diligence Large players entered numerous formats, some of which proved to be unviable • • Hyper Growth Frenzy – The Indian organized retail revitalization is already reflecting in improved financials over the past few quarters and this trend will sustain in the coming periods as well.
However, the sector underwent a hyper growth phase during 2005-2007. The companies got carried away and committed strategic and operational errors, which they subsequently realized • Race for increasing retail space resulting in haphazard growth – Organized retailers entered the race of adding retail space without proper due diligence on the catchment area, mall density and acceptability of organized retail. Retail space addition was looked upon as a key success factor and was a key market cap driver.
This resulted in haphazard growth, with several malls coming up within a square km in places like Gurgaon and Ahmedabad, which impacted footfalls and store viability Unviable formats – Various formats mushroomed during the hyper growth phase. Retailers were looking to create some niche positioning for which they were ready to experiment. Large retailers expanded into numerous specialty formats ranging from mobile phones, beauty, health, wellness, media, entertainment, catalogue retailing, tea and snacks kiosks, etc. Some of these ideas were ahead of their time, as the modern Indian shopper had just begun emerging.
In their attempt to get a higher share of the consumer wallet, retailers ignored the value proposition for the consumer High lease rentals -Retail is a tough business to operate; PAT margins are as low as 2-3%. Indian organized retail follows the lease rental model due to high real estate costs and paucity of quality malls. Lease rentals should ideally be 3-6% of sales depending upon the format. However, rentals in a few specialty stores touched Rs 300/sf/month during the heydays – in a period of two years, lease rentals in general increased 50-70%.
The increase was more evident in FY08 and FY09 due to decline in same store sales growth 16 In the race to acquire real estate for their stores, retailers pushed up lease rentals • Strictly Private and Confidential Learning from the Past Lease rentals (% of sales) have been inching up Source: Company financials As trained manpower was scarce, salaries of experienced retailing professionals went through the roof Retailers focused all their energies on store openings and neglected the backend Viewing it as a sunrise sector, too many players entered organized retail and some have perished Strictly Private and Confidential •
Manpower costs and productivity issues – Aggressive store opening plans resulted in retailers keeping a bench of new recruits. Trained manpower was scarce, which resulted in salaries of experienced professionals going through the roof. However, lack of properly trained manpower and people with sales and retail mindset resulted in poor productivity for the industry and impacted performance Poor Backend infrastructure- Focus of organized retail during 2005-2008 was faster store openings, with little focus on strengthening backend activities like vendor development, supply chain management, inventory management, logistics and reducing wastage.
This resulted in companies having high cost of logistics, poor fill rates (70% of the required SKUs or goods) and stockouts (lack of automated ordering systems and real time inventory), and very low inventory turns (loads of slow moving inventory in stock) Entry of too many players- The hyped phase resulted in the entry of houses like Reliance, Bharti, Aditya Birla Group, India Bulls, Mahindra, Godrej, DCM, Marico, Dabur, etc with already established players like Tata, RPG, Future Group, Raheja, etc.
Most of the players that entered the space had no prior experience in retailing nor were there any synergies with their existing businesses. Many players just entered to create a footprint, which could later be sold to foreign players in event of opening up of FDI in retail 17 • • Case Study: Vishal Retail • Performance till FY 08 Vishal Retail was one of the most profitable hypermart retailers till FY08. Private labels were a big focus area and a key growth driver ? In FY08, its EBITDA margin was 12. 7% (highest in the industry) and PAT margin was 4. 1% on sales of Rs10. b ? Vishal Retail had increased its store count from 49 to 100 in one year. Its retail space increased from 1. 3 msf to 2. 1 msf ? 74% of its stores were in tier-III cities ? Apparel contributed 62% of sales and FMCG contributed 18. 5%; the rest came from general merchandise • What went wrong ?Expansion was debt funded – Vishal Retail’s growth was primarily funded by debt, with the hope of raising cheap equity during the pre-meltdown boom in the retail sector. To chase high growth, it continued to expand using debt. Its debt-equity ratio increased from 0. x to 1. 9x in FY08 ? Deterioration in inventory turnover – Controlling inventory is one of the golden rules in retail. Vishal Retail’s inventory turnover declined from 5x in FY06 to 2. 5x in FY08. Even though EBITDA margins expanded, lower inventory lowered ROCE by 6. 5% and ROE by 5%. The reasons for higher inventory could have been too fast an expansion, stocking goods in an inflationary environment and new private labels ? Small town strategy backfired: Vishal’s growth was propelled by tier-III cities, where it was the first retailer to enter.
It tried to replicate the same model in smaller cities that were not open to organized retail at that time. Consequently, it faced head-on competition from small kirana stores; Vishal had increased focus on FMCG significantly. It continued to invest in smaller cities where footfalls and sales per square foot were much lower, and competition from small stores was higher • Future Plans in FY 10 ?Vishal Retail had planned to increase the number of stores to 190 by FY09 and to 500 by FY11. The estimated retail space was 3. msf as at end-FY09, which it had intended to expand to 10msf by FY11. The company was targeting 45% of sales from apparel, 30% from general merchandise, and 25% from FMCG ? It had plans to increase the proportion of private labels (excluding own brand of apparel) from 13% to 50% • Current situation ?Vishal Retail is under a corporate debt restructuring program, with numerous cases in the courts ? It reported a loss of Rs916m in FY09 and Rs2. 8b in 9MFY10 as against a profit of Rs403m in FY08 Strictly Private and Confidential 18 Section 3: Consolidation Consolidation
In the slowdown phase that followed from 2007, Indian retailers paused and realized their errors Retailers are using analytics for insights into the business • As sales growth declined, most retailers found themselves on the wrong side with huge inventory, bloated costs, untested formats and cash crunch due to higher working capital requirements and difficulty in accessing funds from capital markets. The Indian players are re-organizing on the following parameters: • Focus on Profitable growth – The focus of retailers has shifted from retail space addition to profitable business growth.
They are using analytics in store opening and format selection, and focusing on private labels to reduce the probability of failures and improve profit margins ? Analytics to improve catchment selection and customer retention – The Indian retail industry has started using analytics for valuable insights on important consumer and business parameters. Analytics provide retailers information on where to operate, what to stock, which consumers to retain, how to communicate with consumers, how to reduce store cannibalization, what rewards programs to maintain, etc.
Analytics help to improve catchment selection and customer retention Parameters Consumer buying behavior Store location and Merchandising Predictive modelling Action Point Track prime customers, locations, lifestyles, level of maturity, socioeconomic background Store layout, planning, preferable format, how consumers upgrade, future growth categories Store cannibalization, catchment analysis – number of stores, expenditure analysis, potential market Impact Higher consumer retention, Ideal product pricing and Promotions Ideal format selection, Sales growth Ideal store location, proper merchandise selection
Scientific format selection, catchment study and competitive landscape studies will reduce new store failures Strictly Private and Confidential ? The impact of some of these initiatives is visible on sales and store selection. Change in store layout has resulted in sales for some segments rising by 25-30% due to increased consumer convenience and visibility. Some retailers are using the analytics data to study the low performing stores and taking steps to turn around such stores. Scientific format selection, catchment study and competitive landscape studies will reduce new store failures 20
Consolidation Indian retailers have begun to focus more on private labels… ? Increased focus on private labels – Private labels are own store brands launched by various retailers. Private labels, which account for ~17% of an average retailer’s sales globally, account for just ~10% of total organized retail sales in India. In more developed markets like Germany, UK and France, the share of private labels is upwards of 30%. Private labels are 40% of sales for Walmart and 55% for Tesco Apparel and loose grocery are the primary drivers of private labels Private Labels (% of sales) Source: Google search Indian organized retailers started with private labels in stores like Westside and Pantaloons, which are predominantly store brand driven. The trend to have private labels across segments is fast catching up. Private labels are available in segments like accessories, footwear, colas, fruit juices, noodles, snacks, biscuits, breakfast cereals, readyto-eat foods, air fresheners, floor cleaners, wipes, sanitary napkins, toilet cleaners, detergents and washing soaps, etc. …which yield higher margins ? Retailers across segments have increased focus on private labels to improve profitability.
While the proportion of private labels in apparel and accessories is quite high, the focus is now shifting to FMCG, grocery and electronics. The sales proportion of private labels is expected to increase from the current average of 10% to 20% over the coming few years Strictly Private and Confidential 21 Consolidation Shoppers Stop has increased the proportion of consignment and concession sales from 40% in FY07 to 53% in FY10 ? Reduction in share of bought out merchandise – Retailers have tried to reduce the proportion of bought out inventory in their total sales which has enabled them to reduce costs.
Pantaloon is following this model extensively in Central and Home Town while Shoppers Stop has implemented it in their departmental store. Shoppers Stop has increased the proportion of consignment and concession sales from 40% in FY07 to 53% in FY10 ? Exit from unprofitable stores / formats – Retailing involves store-to-store and brand-tobrand competition. Retailers experimented with a whole new set of formats and store sizes, with a view to capture consumption and increase share in consumer wallet. The industry has tried to control costs and address the issue by way of: ?
Store Closure – Some retailers closed stores in locations where they found the stores unviable in the prevailing conditions and changed realities. Aditya Birla Retail and Spencers have closed more than 100 stores each in the small neighborhood grocery store format Exit from formats – Several retailers have completely exit from certain formats. Example: Fashion Station by Pantaloon, Sonata by Titan, Hypercity Argos by Shoppers Stop, etc. Restructuring of format – Pantaloon merged Dollar Store with Food Bazaar/Big Bazaar and Furniture Bazaar with Big Bazaar.
Shoppers Stop converted Cafe Brio into Cafe Coffee Day on a franchisee arrangement. REI 6Ten changed its business model from owned stores to franchisee-based model Change of Location – Specialty retailers changed the location of stores to reduce costs and improve footfalls. Titan Eye+ changed the locations to improve the footfalls; Kaya shifted some of its stores to higher floors or nearby locations with lower rentals ? ? ? After touching unprecedented highs, lease rentals have softened in the last 12-18 months Strictly Private and Confidential Rental renegotiation / revenue sharing agreements – Unlike the West, where retailers own their stores, organized retailers in India work on a long-term lease model. Given the high property cost in urban areas, Indian retailers have preferred to expand through leased stores. The race for retail space addition resulted in a sharp increase in lease rentals, more so in 2007 and 2008. In the last 12-18 months, however, lease rentals have softened. On their part, retailers too have actively been trying to reduce their rent costs 22 Consolidation
Retailers are no longer paying fancy salaries to attract talent ? Reduction in salaries / higher manpower productivity – The retail sector faced paucity of trained manpower during 2007/2008, which led to salaries spiraling during that period. However, following the slowdown, Retailers have focused on reducing manpower cost and increasing productivity in the following ways: ? ? The scramble to add retail space has ended; retailers are no longer paying fancy salaries to attract talent At the store level, there has been little employee addition. Vacancies have not been filled.
Gradually increasing sales with fewer employees has raised productivity considerably Some retailers have increased the proportion of sales from consignments and concessions, where part of the sales responsibility lies with the brand holder. This has reduced the number of people required on the floor to facilitate sales ? Backend, systems and processes constitute the backbone of an organized retailer ? Significant investment in Backend – Backend, systems and processes constitute the backbone of an organized retailer. It not only ensures smooth running of business and control over inventory but also lowers costs.
Some of the key elements of backend infrastructure are: ? ? ? ? Direct product sourcing from farm gate/producer Efficient hub-and-spoke store formation Warehousing, distribution and logistics ERP-based ordering and inventory system, vendor management Storage and fulfillment, retail store replenishments Post the slowdown, retailers have been making huge investments to strengthen their backend systems ? ? Post the period of slowdown, retailers have been making huge investments to strengthen their backend systems and operations ? They have set up huge warehousing spaces, with stores on a hub-and-spokes model.
We estimate warehousing requirement at 25-30% of frontend retail space requirement Retailers have increased direct sourcing initiatives from farmers, although selectively ? Strictly Private and Confidential 23 Consolidation ? Pantaloon Retail has invested INR 1bn in supply chain initiatives (FY07-09), which include warehouse consolidation, warehouse management system (auto sorting), and auto replenishment system (increase in fill rates from 70% to 90%) Shoppers Stop has implemented ERP system, JDA, which has features like auto replenishment, auto purchase order, Arthur planning, arehouse management, inventory control, B2B vendor connection, and Oracle Financials, with online payment for vendors Pantaloon Retail plans to have integrated distribution centers, with apparel, general merchandise and electronics under one roof and one integrated DC for FMCG and food to reduce the distribution and logistics costs in the post-GST scenario Pantaloon Retail: IT net block has increased sharply (INR mn) ? ? Organized retail: stages of supply chain from vendor to store Source: Company financials Vendor D&S Collaboration ? Packaging & Shipping marks ? Smaller and Frequent Supplies Strictly Private and Confidential Hub ? Cross Dock ? Flow thro ? Fast processing ? Case in / out Transport ? FTL Point to Point ? Fast TAT ? Transit time adherence ? Visibility ? Customized trucks 24 RDC ? Cross Ducks ? Flow Thru ? Infrastructure and technology ? Accurate in Transport ? FTL Point to Point ? Fast TAT ? SGOTIF ? Visibility ? Customized trucks Store ? Fast Receiving ? Fast onto shelf Section 4: View on Future View on Future
Indian economy is expected to add another trillion dollars to its GDP in 5-6 years • Indian economy is expected to add another trillion dollars to its GDP in 5-6 years, enabling per capita income CAGR of 12%. The resultant income growth would change the shape of income distribution from a pyramid to a diamond, with a huge consuming class in the middle Per capita nominal GDP is expected to increase by 12. 2% CAGR to US$2,609 in 2015 Second USD trillion in 6 years First USD trillion in 60 years • Consumer sentiment is improving and shoppers are back to retail stores in large numbers Strictly Private and Confidential
Retail sector is in early growth phase of its lifecycle and would emerge as a sunrise sector. Post reorganization, Indian retail is now revitalized and is poised to fully benefit from the opportunity as: ? Consumer Sentiment Improving – Consumer sentiment is improving and the shoppers are back to retail stores in large numbers. According to the Master Card Consumer Confidence Survey for India, although consumer confidence at 68. 8 is way below the highs achieved in 4QCY07, it has stabilized at 64-70 in the last 12 months.
Some factors that impact consumer confidence are economic conditions, employment, regular income, inflation, personal financial health, quality of life, and stock performance 26 View on Future After bottoming out in June 2009, same store sales growth has since been on a recovery ? Same Store sales rising – Organized retail is back to double-digit same store sales growth in the last 2/3 quarters. This follows sharp decline in growth rates during FY09 due to impact of global slowdown. We note that same store sales growth bottomed out in June 2009 and has been on a recovery since then.
Same store sales growth had suffered across segments and formats ? ? Premium segments had suffered more. Shoppers Stop reported a decline for three consecutive quarters from December 2008 to June 2009 Home retailing, which includes electronics, home building, furnishings, furniture, etc witnessed high double-digit decline in same store sales, as consumers postponed their purchase decisions. Other discretionary items like jewelry, watches and accessories reported a decline in same store sales during this period Consumers down-traded during the slowdown due to which value segments in food and grocery as well as fashion recovered faster.
Same store sales did not decline and started improving from March 2009 Home, jewelry and premium segments in fashion bottomed out in June 2009 and started recovering from September 2009, a good six months after recovery was visible in the value segment Shoppers Stop: Same store sales bounce back Same store sales growth (%) ? ? Source: Company financials Strictly Private and Confidential 27 View on Future Post restructuring, retailers are now planning store additions ? Store additions accelerating – Due to the slowdown, various retailers reduced the total number of stores operated by them to cut losses and improve store viability.
The restructuring undertaken by the retailers is reflected in higher margins and increased store viability in the current scenario of rising sales growth. The resultant increase in confidence levels is driving up new store openings ? Trent has added a total of 15 Westside departmental stores in the last 24 months on a base of 28 stores. It has added three Star India Bazaar stores, taking the total to seven. They are planning to add 7-8 Westside and 4-5 Star India Bazaar stores every year Shoppers Stop has added six stores in the last two years and four stores in FY10. It expects to add 18 stores in the next 2. 5 years on a base of 30 stores.
It plans to increase the number of hypermarts from seven to 15 by FY12 Aditya Birla Retail operates eight hypermarts under the brand, More Megastore. It plans to add another 10 hypermarts in the coming 12-15 months Bharti Retail plans to increase the total number of supermarkets from 60 to 125 by FY11 and double its compact hypermart stores, Easy Day Market from 6 to 12 Carrefour is close to launching its first cash and carry store of 60,000sf and plans to open 5-6 more in the current year Amongst specialty retailers, Dominos plans to add 70 stores while Titan Eye+ is looking at expanding from 75 stores to 200 in two years.
Adidas plans to increase the number of stores from 30 to 100 in the current year ? ? ? ? ? Strictly Private and Confidential 28 View on Future In food and grocery, organized retail has not been able to make much of a mark ? Government Initiatives – Organized retail operates with several limitations: FDI not allowed in multi-brand retail, poor infrastructure, high real estate costs, inefficient supply chain / cold chain, complex taxation systems, and rigid labor laws. However, policy makers are realizing the role that organized retail can play in improving farm practices and in ensuring better price discovery.
The growth of organized retail helps to reduce inefficiencies in trade – a win-win situation for farmers and consumers. It can be a big source of employment, more so for the unskilled workforce. We expect the following to be key upside triggers for the sector ? APMC Act reforms – In food and grocery, organized retail has not been able to make much of a mark. It accounts for just 1% of food and grocery sales in India; the ratio is even lower for fresh foods like vegetables and fruits. The policy impediments are: ?
Organized retailers cannot source the produce directly from farmers. Marketing of agricultural products is governed by respective state APMC (Agricultural Products Marketing Committee) Acts, which have created marketing monopolies Contract farming is not prevalent and this limits the capacity of retailers to source products of uniform quality or products that are in great demand Intermediation cost is very high and the farmers’ share is just 40-60% of the final price at which the products are finally sold to consumers ? One reason for this is that organized retailers are currently not permitted to source directly from farmers ? Direct sourcing can reduce the consumer price by ~26%; organized retailers’ own distribution and logistics systems can help reduce costs further. Government has formulated a model APMC Act but implementation has been tardy. Players like Bharti Walmart and Reliance have begun building relationships with the farming community, but the benefits would be reflected only in the long term
Strictly Private and Confidential 29 Model APMC Act • The Ministry of Agriculture formulated a Model APMC Act in 2003, which aimed at transformation of agricultural marketing in India. The impact has been mixed, as states/ APMCs and traders have the fear of losing their incomes if alternative markets are established The salient features of the Model APMC Act are: ? ? ? Under the new act, private players will be allowed to open and operate agriculture markets, where farmers can sell their produce.
It will end the state monopolies, and should result in farmers obtaining better prices There is no compulsion on the farmers to bring their produce to the market yard. They can directly sell the produce to private parties, food chains and retailers Contract farming has been allowed so that the food processing and retail industry can get desired quantity and quality of the produce, without the requirement of routing through notified markets • Status of implementation of APMC Act in India
Stage of Reforms Direct marketing; Contract Farming, Private Markets Partial Implementation Name of State/ Union Territory Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Orissa, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Tripura I. II. III. Direct Marketing: NCT of Delhi Contract Farming: Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh Private Markets: Punjab and Chandigarh States with no APMC Act APMC Act already has reforms Administrative action initiated
Bihar*, Kerala, Manipur, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu & Lakshadweep Tamil Nadu Mizoram, Meghalaya, Haryana, J&K, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Puducherry, NCT of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh 30 Strictly Private and Confidential View on Future The implementation of the GST can be a big trigger for organized retail ? GST Implementation – The implementation the goods and services tax (GST) can be a big trigger for organized retail. It will reduce the tax incidence and complexities of doing business in India.
It will remove inefficiencies in the logistics and taxation system. Key benefits expected are: ? ? ? Organized retail suffers on account of VAT; unorganized players rarely pay VAT Organized retail pays 10. 3% service tax on lease rentals; this can be completely set off once GST is implemented. Organized retail could benefit up to 0. 5% of sales Inter-state taxes like central sales tax (2%) result in retailers having multiple warehouses to reduce taxes, and repeated loading and unloading of goods, which not only increases the lead time but also the cost of goods.
GST implementation will result in realignment of the entire supply chain system, reducing storage, handling and transport costs for organized retail Strictly Private and Confidential 31 Industry Speaks…on GST “The existing tax regimes and state law does impact efficiency of supply chains across the country. GST will help rationalize distribution networks and warehousing spaces, streamline reportation and improve efficiency in a significant manner” Mr. Kishore Biyani, Managing Director, Pantaloon Retail “GST can make India a seamless and scalable country, with no borders.
However, unless all taxes like CST and local taxes are subsumed in GST, this cannot be achieved. So, how GST is implemented will also be a key factor. India has seen the creation of a lot of manufacturing capacity simply due to tax benefits at specific locations. GST will result in shifting of manufacturing bases closer to the markets. Organized retail will see cost reduction of 0. 3-0. 5% of sales, once GST gets implemented” Mr. B S Nagesh, Vice Chairman, Shoppers Stop “GST will allow us to move fully to a hub-and-spoke model of distribution, where the only consideration in setting up distribution centers is the time to market.
There are a few other policy issues that need to be addressed, including the issue of MRP, the need to enforce adherence to bar codes, service tax applicability to retail as well as the plethora of licenses that are currently required to set up retail outlets” Mr Thomas Varghese, CEO, Aditya Birla Retail Strictly Private and Confidential 32 View on Future Infrastructure is the key to sustainable growth for retail industry ? Urbanization / improvement in infrastructure – Organized retail in India is more of an urban phenomenon; most retailers have so far been focusing on etros and tier-II cities. This is unlike the US, where Walmart focused on smaller cities, having a population of 10,000-20,000, with a strategy to enter city-by-city and state-by-state. Rural retail models are yet to stabilize in India due to small ticket size, high real estate costs and tough competition from millions of small mom-and-pop stores. However, the development of modern cities and townships is catching up in India, and should boost organized retail The catchments for retailers are shrinking, as most of them have been crowding the same areas.
Consumers do not like to travel long distances for shopping. Poor road infrastructure and poor car density are impediments for growth. Retailers are forced to set up stores near the city centers, which increases their costs. Some retailers have started experimenting with the business model of having stores away from busy areas and offering free transport to consumers Case Study: Hypercity Retail in Thane Hypercity Retail opened its fifth hypermart at Ghodbunder Road near Thane. It is a 0. 1msf store, with 350 car parking spaces.
The store is 4-5km away from the primary catchments. It provided consumers free car parking, which otherwise would cost Rs40-50. Also, for the first time in India’s retailing history, the company offers a free bus service for the consumers. The experiment seems to be going well. The store is receiving consumers from as far as 8-9km as against the initial target of drawing customers from catchment areas in a 4-5km radius. It is currently experiencing footfalls of 3,000 during weekdays and 7,000-10,000 during weekends.
Strictly Private and Confidential 33 View on Future Regulatory bottlenecks need to be addressed to encourage inclusive growth ? Other issues – Organized retail also suffers from regulatory issues at the state and local levels, the resolution of which can reduce lead time and costs, and improve profitability ? Labor laws: Labor laws place restrictions on employing women for jobs that require them to work after 8:00 pm. The cost of employing women as store executives is lower, but the prevalent abor laws discourage retailers from doing so Too many regulatory approvals: Organized retailers require more than 40 approvals from various authorities for opening a store. Delay in getting the approvals increases the gestation period, inventory carrying cost (purchased in anticipation of store getting ready) and manpower cost (staff is recruited in advance for training) ? Strictly Private and Confidential 34 Section 5: Critical Issues in Indian Retail Critical issues in Indian retail sector 1.
Supply Chain • Supply chain dynamics is a critical factor for growth and profitability of modern trade due to following reasons: ? Regional variances exist in demand patterns which result in differences in goods distributed to cities/rural area ? Value conscious consumers demand lower prices, which require retailers to be cost efficient ? It can assist retailers in creating strong customer value propositions, such as being more cost effective, providing fresher products, better product assortment and have a better reach • The table below suggests that retail supply chain in India is still under-developed
Indian Retail vs. Global Retail Logistics cost as % of price Indian Retailers Global Retailers Approximately 10 5 Inventory turns 3 to 14 Average 18 Stock-out percent 5 to 15 Below 5 Shrinkage percent 3. 1 Average 1 Improving supply chain and logistics will enable retailers in India to significantly enhance overall competitiveness and successfully deploy growth initiatives Strictly Private and Confidential 36 Case study : Aditya Birla Retail Ltd. Aditya Birla’s Methodology for scoring store success Food and Grocery One of he key and the most important decisions for any retail organization is to set up quality stores at the right location and the right catchment. Aditya Birla Retail Ltd (ABRL) has a detailed process which ensures that extensive due diligence is completed for the opening of new stores. Every new store is scientifically measured on the following key parameters • • Store location Store Catchment • Store Financials ? Pay back Store Contribution in a specified time ? frame Factors for Success Extensive due diligence of catchment area Scientific rigor in determining parameters /metrics for store success
The new store sign off process is rigorous and has various check points in the system. New store opening is an action that is not easily reversible and hence ABRL spends significant time and energy in ensuring that any new store that is opened is a high quality store that delivers the value proposition to its customers and contributes to the positive bottom-line of the organization ABRL maintains and reviews a monthly store scorecard that enables them to measure, on a scientific basis, the likelihood of success for outlets in the short and medium term.
The store score card has the following parameters that are measured scientifically: • • • Location/Catchment Assortment Pricing • • Stock Availability Communication *Stores with a rating of one or two on the five-point scale are closed unless there are special circumstances Strictly Private and Confidential 37 Case study : Aditya Birla Retail Ltd.
Aditya Birla’s Methodology for scoring store success Best Practices workshop ABRL realized that they had an employee base that possessed unique skill sets acquired from having worked in several industries, including FMCG, retail, brick and mortar, etc; as a result, the mindset of staff was diverse. Mr. Thomas Varghese, Chief Executive Officer, ABRL realized that the company needed to create a uniform set of standard operating procedures, processes and prescribed methodologies by which all members of the rganization would be aligned To achieve this, Mr. Varghese created a high potential team that was mandated to create the content of the Best Practices in Retail. This team assessed all the operational functions of a retailer, such as • • • • • Business Development Buying and Merchandising Supply Chain Management Store Operations Loss Prevention • • • • • Quality Execution of Private Labels Marketing and Visual Merchandising Human Resource Finance and Commercial
Factors for Success Systematic and measured approach to aligning staff and the organization in a singular direction Extensive due diligence of KRAs, KPIs, expectations, etc. Best practices workshops based on operational dynamics Focus on ensuring that “everyone is on the same page” Support and buy-in from senior management was essential in encouraging new and shared behaviors, actions, etc. Strictly Private and Confidential These functions were then translated into series of Best Practice Workshops.
These workshops were conducted by internal domain specialists and by March/April 2009, the organization had 1300 people who understood excellence and were aligned in a singular direction, with common perspectives, goals and directions ABRL interprets the concepts of measurement and standardization through a holistic approach. ABRL follows the Balanced Scorecard methodology in deriving the KRAs and the KPIs in a top-down approach. This has enabled ABRL to drive its organizational objectives through aligned goals across the length and width of the organization 38
Critical issues in India retail sector 2. Innovation and Marketing • The importance of branding is imperative in today’s increasingly crowded retail marketplace which not only comprises several brands but is also characterized by the consumer’s fickle mindedness about choosing products Innovations in Retail Sector ? Launching of new formats (SIS, Value, etc. ) ? Customer loyalty programmes that enable retailers to use customer data to generate new product ideas, build brands, launch marketing and promotional campaigns ?
Creation of private labels that, over time, can be marketed, branded and positioned as unique and well recognized brands ? Development, creation and implementation of customer service standards that delight and excite consumers as they interact with retailers ? Creation of new distribution channels such as non-store channels where the staff visit consumers at their homes and bring merchandise, allowing consumers to display products in their homes, understand product features, etc. Key Challenges Absence of store differentiation Merchandising confusion Discounting • Companies are focusing on making marketing strategies more efficient at lowest possible cost. Some vehicles that are being increasingly used are: ? Reality Shows ? Mobile Phones ? Brand Ambassadors ? The Internet ? Sponsorships Strictly Private and Confidential 39 Case study : The SPA Group New Distribution channels at The Spa Group The Spa Group launched two new distribution channels as a means to reach and serve consumers • The Spa Group deepened relationships with clients through the non-retail channel (NRC).
The NRC requires that staff visit customers in their homes, display products and even leave the products there for a few days until customers have made up their minds to purchase products ? ? ? While the NRC has limited capital expenditure involved, per manhead sales are greater than that of the boutique Members of the NRC also develop deep relationships with families they visit and serve. In fact, customers typically request NRC members to help them with other services. In effect, Spa has developed an informal luxury concierge service for clients The Spa
Group has 11 NRC channel groups; established in 2006, Spa worked with staff to teach them how to interact with customers, maintain sensitivities, display product awareness and knowledge, etc. • The Spa Group established a digital channel that enables the company to reach customers through digital avenues (e. g. , Internet, mobile phones, etc. ). Selected benefits experienced by Spa Group through the use of this channel include – ? As customers’ lives become more stressful and busy, they will increasingly value their leisure time and will prefer not to indulge in in-person shopping.
Digital marketing will enable customers to shop at their convenience and in comfort (i. e. , from their homes) Though the luxury market is nascent in India, Spa Group believes that launching a digital medium for selling luxury products will result in higher sales by 2012 ? Strictly Private and Confidential 40 Case study : The SPA Group The role of innovation and new product development at retail organizations India-inspired products for luxury home accent products The Spa Group partners with its vendors, such as Lladro, work to suggest and create India-centric products.
Spa assumes a handholding approach with its vendors where it— • Suggest ideas and themes for products that are typically based on religion, mythology, culture, heritage, national/heritage. etc. Embarks upon Research &Development, interact with the vendor’s design department Factors for Success Trust, willingness to listen to new ideas, constant cooperation Commitment towards the process, which may involve discarding over 50% of ideas and concepts Appetite for risk in launching countryspecific product lines Overcoming the perception that Indians only want products that are “foreign” in nature The gestation period that encompasses concept creation, design and delivery typically lasts for three years. The collaboration between Spa and Lladro has proved to be successful— • • • Llardo’s Laxmi sculpture is one of the company’s best-selling items worldwide Fifty percent of Lladro’s sales in India come from India-inspired products Sixteen percent of Lladro’s global sales come from its range of India-inspired artifacts, suggesting the growing popularity of these products worldwide among non-resident Indians and others
Lladro’s India-themed collections include Radha Krishna, Lord Krishna, etc. There are 100 new products under development of which 40 to 50 will likely become new product additions for Lladro; between two to three new products will be launched every year for the next few years Strictly Private and Confidential 41 Case study : The MobileStore The “Rock with Rolls” promotion at The MobileStore Best-in-class telecom experience for consumers The MobileStore (TMS) embarked upon a two-year long unique and exciting marketing campaign that involved the luxury automotive brand, Rolls Royce.
This innovative marketing and branding campaign conveyed TMS’s promise to consumers that they will enjoy a “best in class” telecom shopping experience and be made to “feel like a king” at TMS outlets The use of the Rolls Royce, an icon for customized luxury, was to link TMS to the highend automobile, propagating the consistent message that products and services associated with the chain are the best As TMS’ Rolls Royce cruised rom one city to another on a predefined route, it enabled Indian consumers to touch, feel and experience the TMS brand. • The campaign increased visibility for the TMS stores since over 200,000 people received a free ride in the car, giving consumers a once in a lifetime experience. These 200,000 people have shared their experience with thousands more through word-ofmouth etc. India’s leading national publications covered the promotion proving TMS with further awareness and buzz.
Quality coverage with photographs of the Rolls Royce and celebrities were published in newspapers wherever the promotion went, generating a huge mileage for the Brand Factors for Success Campaign centered around consistent theme of the telecom retailer’s commitment to provide consumers with a rich and meaningful in-store experience Unique campaign created buzz, media awareness, excitement and consumer interest Campaign helped link best-in-class service with The MobileStore Extensive involvement consumer Strictly Private and Confidential 42 Case study : Dolphins Kidswear Dolphin Kids Wear’s strategies to build relationships with children Embarking upon initiatives to build both the brand and relationship with target consumers Bangalore-based Dolphin Kids Wear, a new entrant into the Indian children’s wear market, plans to embark upon innovative and attractive initiatives to build brand recall and brand loyalty amongst its target consumer group.
The brand offers high quality and fashionable apparel at reasonable prices Today, children are demanding and have become influential decision makers in their families. Therefore, Dolphin believes that undertaking initiatives that make children loyal to their brand is a more effective method than using conventional advertising media, which is typically targeted at parents. Selected initiatives that Dolphin plans to undertake include – • Building a play area within its stores- Dolphin plans o build a play area for children within its stores. The play area will function as an interactive space rather than simply a playground to make the shopping experience more memorable and exciting for its target customers—the children! Participating in school events – The company is planning to organize, sponsor or participate in school events and other children’s events to generate brand awareness.
The company feels that by being involved in such activities, it lends its support to children’s growth and at the same times manages to make its core market aware of its brand and more importantly brand values Providing in-store entertainment services – The company plans to provide in-store entertainment such as a hair dresser and a makeup artist giving free makeovers to girls, video game console for boys Factors for Success Designing and executing non-conventional marketing initiatives that appeal to children The Brand’s value proposition of offering fashionable children’s apparel at reasonable proces • •
Strictly Private and Confidential 43 Critical Issues in India retail sector 3. • Private Label products – a major growth driver for retailers Since Indian consumers are value conscious, Retail & Consumer companies are launching a range of private labels products in order to meet the demands of value conscious consumers, to develop product portfolios and to improve margins in a retail environment where efficiency and competitiveness is imperative While low-price private labels exist, retailers are changing their focus from “a price game” to one that involves developing a portfolio of brands with distinct positioning for each brand.
Retail chains are trying to understand unfulfilled demands existing in Indian market through need-gap analysis and are incorporating demographic an psychographic indicators India’s major retailers expect to embark upon the following strategies for their private label products— ? ? ? ? ?
Increase the range of offerings Derive an increased share of revenue from the sales of products Embark upon promotional offers and sales Increase the visibility of products in store outlets Offer selected products through other retailers’ outlets Benefits of private label brands – The consumer’s perspective • Private labels are typically priced lower than branded products • Private labels are available across a range of categories, such as food, beauty, care, apparel, home furnishings, FMCG, household cleaners, consumer durables, etc. Retailers plan to launch additional private label brands which will ensure that the consumer is not starved of choice • Benefits of private label brands – The retailer’s perspective ? ? ? ? ? ? Retailers can maintain control over development, design, marketing, promotion, positioning, etc. Provate labels have higher margins than branded products Private labels help draw footfalls Private label offerings appeal to cost – conscious consumers A private label brand can become synonymous with retailer Private labels can, over time, help retailers differentiate their offerings Strictly Private and Confidential 4 Case study : Guardian Lifecare Building private label portfolios at Guardian Lifecare Private Labels in personal care, food and beverages, and health wellness categories As part of its private label strategy, Guardian Lifecare first identified categories that it would establish private labels in, such as – Ayurvedic juices Personal care Men’s grooming Baby care Pharmaceuticals Mineral water Health and wellness products Feminine hygiene Weight loss Factors for Success Determining parameters for creation (eg. margin, quality, depth, etc. ) Maintaining control over formulation Identifying new product lines
During the process of launching private label products, Guardian identified the topselling 500 products in their outlets. In tandem the company adopted three major principles for launching private label products The entire process of launching a private label product takes approximately three months. Guardian employs a team of pharmacists who prepare the formulations which are then sent to third-party pharmaceutical companies for production. Manufacturing is outsourced to companies that also produce products for some of the leading companies in the pharmaceutical space
Competition Guardian will not compete that had over 85% market share in a product segment Guardian’s Private Label Parameters Quality Guardian ensures that quality of pvt. labels is as good as top branded products Margin Guardian ensures that it receives a healthy margin of 30% 50% on pvt. label producrs Strictly Private and Confidential 45 Critical Issues in India retail sector 4. GST will benefit retailers After much deliberation, the Empowered Committee (EC) of State Finance Ministers finally released the First Discussion Paper on 10 November, 2009 on the implementation of a dual GST in India.
The nation-wide implementation of a dual GST signals the next generation of tax reforms designed to remove the barriers of trade through a common market in India and to accelerate the country’s growth prospects. The dual GST will have a material impact on businesses. The taxable events under the dual GST regime would be significantly different from those prevalent under the existing excise and value added tax provisions. Besides, there will be major differences in terms of the tax base, the rates of tax, the manner of levy and collection thereof, the manner of utilization of input tax credits etc. It is therefore apparent that trade and industry must gear itself up for the GST, not only from a business efficiency standpoint but also from a compliance standpoint In particular, the impact of the GST on the retail sector is likely to be extremely significant, given the significant growth of the retail sector and hence its relative size, but also because of the nature of the dual GST itself Some of the key advantages for the retail sector under the GST regime: i.
GST will benefit retailers – Cross border retail trade between States can get easier with GST and this would help many retail companies to expand their distribution optimally. The tax will also have a significant positive impact on the supply chain of retail operations.
However, most importantly, the dual GST is expected to operate in a manner that all of the input taxes paid on procurement of goods and services by retail companies will henceforth be eligible for a complete offset Major tax issues impacting retailers and how GST can assist – The retail sector currently faces the significant challenge of an inability to offset the service tax credits pertaining to several input credit services, including the most significant cost for retail companies of property rentals, as also non-creditable central sales tax on inter-state purchases of goods.
Similarly, on imports, the retail sector is unable to offset the countervailing duties against output taxes. Under the proposed GST regime, these challenges will entirely disappear since the retail sector would be able to offset the entire input taxes, whether paid at the Central level in the form of the CGST or at the State level in the form of SGST against its output CGST and SGST respectively. Even with regard to inter-State sales of goods, the sector can offset the input taxes of the CGST and SGST against the output IGST which is applicable on such inter-state sales ii. Strictly Private and Confidential 46 Critical Issues in India retail sector iii. Simplified Compliance Requirements From excise standpoint – The retail sector typically undertakes activities such as packing and repacking of goods procured in bulk quantities into retail packs. Such activities with reference to specified products are treated as deemed manufacture under the current excise laws and accordingly are liable to excise duty. The retailers have to ensure timely payment of such taxes, filing of returns etc. eading to practical difficulties and increased compliance costs. Further, the additional excise duty burden is possibly borne by the retail sector as increases in the price of products may not always be possible. The GST regime can help address some of these problems From excise standpoint – Currently the retail traders need to deal with different compliance procedures in different states. Besides adding to compliance costs, these pose problems in maintenance of uniform and consistent reports and accounts across all states.
This leads to serious IT systems challenges. The GST regime would reduce the currently prevalent disparities in compliance procedures across different states to a large extent thereby paving the way for a far lower tax compliance cost for the retail sector Uniform threshold limits under proposed GST regime – The current tax structure lacks uniformity, in terms of prescribed threshold limits and periodical compliance requirements. The threshold limits prescribed by the different State VAT laws vary from INR 0. 2 mn to INR 0. 5 mn.
Under the proposed GST regime, a uniform SGST threshold across states is recommended at a gross annual turnover of INR 1 mn both for goods and services. However, the threshold for CGST for goods is proposed to be kept at INR 15 mn with a similar high level for services as well. In addition, there would be a compounding cut-off at INR 5 mn of gross annual turnover and a floor rate of 0. 5% across the States Differing thresholds for CGST and SGST will be relatively difficult to administer as compared to administering uniform thresholds across the two taxes. Further, differing thresholds across goods and services will also pose problems.
Clearly, uniform thresholds are a better option from a business standpoint. The retail trade has a stake in ensuring uniform thresholds. However, should the differential thresholds remain intact, the retail sector would need to adopt in order to ensure that it is both compliant under differing thresholds as well as able to fully offset its input taxes Strictly Private and Confidential 47 Critical Issues in India retail sector • The impact of GST on tax collection from Retail sector: ? It is expected that the dual GST will comprise CGST and SGST of 8% each.
If this assumption becomes a reality, it would mean that the overall revenues could decline due to reduction in the current aggregate rate of 20% (approximately) comprising federal excise of 8% and the State VAT at the typical rate of 12. 5% by four percentage points. However, this will be balanced by the fact that the federal GST will now apply throughout the chain and will no longer be restricted to manufacturing The increased tax base will enable the state governments to maintain tax revenues from the retail sector, notwithstanding the reduction in the State GST rate from 12. 5% to 8%.
The important and independent point however, is that the GST will surely incentivize an explosion in consumption and therefore it plays to the larger story around the fact that India’s economic growth is essentially domestic consumption led growth Hence, it is this incentivizing consumption that would lead to significant enhancement of revenue for both the Central and the State Governments. The retail sector is at the centre piece of this great consumption led growth story. Consequently, the GST will undoubtedly ensure that the tax revenue from the retail sector will significantly rise in the times to come ? Summary The key benefits of the GST for the retail sector are as follows – ? ? ? ? ? Enhanced competitiveness through efficiencies in procurement and distribution Enhanced competitiveness through full and complete offset of all input taxes Ability to offer lower prices for goods through increased offset efficiencies as also lower compliance cost Lower cost on compliance from an accounting and reporting standpoint Enhanced government revenues from retail sector through higher CGST, SGST and IGST collections Source: PWC report Strictly Private and Confidential 48 Critical Issues in India retail sector . Workforce management practice is at nascent stage According to the Indian Labor Market Report 2009, published by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), retail is the largest employer among the emerging sectors in India. Hiring in the retail sector is projected to increase in the future due to several new entrants, including well-known global names, entering the sector as well as the range of formats that retailers plan to adopt Growth in the Indian retail sector and the corresponding demand for talent has highlighted the need for effective workforce management systems.
A closer look at the industry suggests that in general, HR practices in workforce management are in the nascent stages of development. To understand the challenges in acquiring. developing and retaining a retail workforce, it is important to understand the context of talent in the retail sector: ? Since organized retail is an emerging sector in India, experienced retail talent is somewhat scarce ? Globally, retail has a high turnover of greater than 40 percent, with even the larger and more established retailers facing attrition rates, which can be higher than in other sectors ?
The talent crunch in retail is exacerbated by the lack of requisite training infrastructure Talent Acquisition Organized retailing is highly manpower intensive. At the lower levels, there is requirement for large number of support staff, such as customer care associates. It is essential to hire employees with the right hard and soft skills, customer service ethic, etc. Employers have explored various options of meeting workforce requirements from hiring students on a part-time basis to entering into agreements with management schools to offer programmes in retail management for line staff and store managers ?
For experienced frontline staff, companies typically poach from multinationals and other retailers ? For filling front-end operations like HR and merchandise management, FMCG companies are targeted as sources for potential hires ? Retailers are entering into partnerships with business schools to create content and courses in retail management ? Companies are using referral programmes and internal hiring to fill talent requirements. Employers are increasingly using technology and outsourcing services to manage large scale staffing programmes Strictly Private and Confidential 49
Case study : Marks & Spencer The role of Workforce Management in increasing employee engagement and commitment to the organization Focusing on people engagement enables Marks & Spencer to move closer to its goal of becoming an employer of choice in the Indian retail sector Marks & Spencer created a “people engagement” programme that encompasses several important people practices in workforce management. Marks & Spencer created this programme with the goal of becoming the employer of choice in the retail sector.
This programme, which has been customized for the Indian marketplace, includes Recruiting, Hiring and Orientation, Learning and Development, Talent Management, Performance Management, Health and Well-Being, Work Environment, Work/Life Balance and Financial Security Marks & Spencer indicates that their robust workforce management programme has positively impacted attrition and commitment to the organization ? ? Factors for Success Commitment to become an employer of choice Comprehensive range of people practices that comprise the workforce management programme Uniformity in and processes systems Clear and transparent communication Attrition reduced from 30 to 35 percent to between 10 to 15 percent currently Marks & Spencer conducts an annual employee perception survey which is based on three main parameters – ? Positivity index— Marks & Spencer scored 86 percent ? Commitment index— 91 percent of staff indicated that they plan to remain with the organization in the next 12 months ? Responsiveness index— 97 percent of staff responded Induction program ? A robust induction programme offered to front-line staff ?
Program has a cohesive and collaborative approach with both HR and line function contributing extensively ? Modules range from product information, values, company policies and procedures, etc. ? Corporate staff too receives an induction program Strictly Private and Confidential 50 Case study : Marks & Spencer The role of Workforce Management in increasing employee engagement and commitment to the organization Focusing on people engagement enables Marks & Spencer to move closer to its goal of becoming an employer of choice in the Indian retail sector ? Factors for Success Commitment to become an employer of choice Comprehensive range of people practices that comprise the workforce management programme Uniformity in and processes systems ? Learning and development ? Front-line staff are assigned individual development plans ? Staff receive comprehensive training on several operational and organizational strengths ? Staff are assessed at assessment and development centers Talent management ? Staff receive 360 degree feedback and are aware of future career paths ?
Current leaders at corporate headquarters and store managers are asked to train, coach and develop the next line of leaders Performance and reward ? M&S uses a competency-based performance management system which is based on KPIs, reinforces company values and prescribes behaviours ? M&S also offers performance-linked pay and a range of financial and nonfinancial rewards, such as— ? ? Individual Contributors Team Contributors Clear and transparent communication Strictly Private and Confidential 51 Critical Issues in India retail sector 5.
Sustainability and green marketing Sustainability is becoming a business imperative and involves securing businesses for the future. Sustainability issues are affecting retailers across every point of the business model. Converging influences are forcing sustainability issues to the top of the corporate agenda and are impacting every function and business unit. Consumer awareness, pressure on commodity and energy prices, scarcity of raw materials, together with regulator and competitor actions are combining to ensure businesses cannot ignore the environmental and social dimensions of how they operate.
Understanding the strategic implications of the drive for sustainability and factoring it into corporate decision-making is to secure the future and enhance commercial performance Sustainability has internal and external implications for costs, risks and commercial performance. The commercial logic for assessing and minimizing energy, carbon, water and commodity usage is clear. A more efficient use of key inputs and reductions in waste offers cost-saving opportunities Therefore, leading companies are opting for a two-pronged mandate — ? Reducing the levels of resources used Adopting innovative solutions to secure the quantity and quality of materials needed to manufacture and operate Consumers are becoming increasingly attuned to sustainability issues and demanding retailers to keep pace with their changing expectations. Most consumers in India are in the early stages of thinking of sustainability as a high-cost option or a “luxury” that “normal people” cannot afford. Retailers, therefore, assume an important role in promoting the accessibility of sustainable products to all consumers.
In today’s economic climate, consumers want to understand why a price premium exists so they can make an educated choice on which products best fit their emotional, ethical and functional needs Strictly Private and Confidential 52 Critical Issues in India retail sector At present, the three major sustainability issues facing retailers are • Climate change – The measurement of retailers’ carbon footprints and those of their products is seen as an important step in enabling retailers to understand and mitigate their impacts on climate change.
Although the carbon footprint labeling of individual products by selected large retailers is a step forward, the initiative is at a relatively early stage and to date lacks the critical mass and public awareness to drive significant changes in consumer behavior Waste – This issue is at the top of the agenda for both consumers and retailers. There is a widespread call for reducing the overall amount of packaging, more guidance on recycling and more education and emphasis on re-use.
This area needs co-ordination and leadership, ideally from the industry, working closely with local authorities and other experts Supply Chain – Ensuring security of supply is considered to be a goal which can be compatible with social compliance and something that retailers can work on together. Responsible procurement brings with it many issues for retailers and these are perceived to become more pressing as environmental pressures become increasingly felt. Collaborative efforts seem to be the most effective response to many of these issues in terms of increasing the impact and reassuring consumers • Green Marketing Green marketing, which initially emerged in the early 1990s in the developed countries, involves the procuring and supplying of products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment, as compared to competing products or services that serve the same purpose. The goal of a green marketing program is to implement approaches that enable companies to purchase and supply products or services of a high quality, at the most reasonable cost, while also lowering the impact on the environment and human health.
Green marketing has the potential to impact sustainable consumption and also result in significant shifts in demand and supply While the development of these items is at a nascent stage, consumers are helping drive Research & Development efforts due to increasing awareness about climate changes and rising energy prices, heightened focus on health and safety, and the desire to help contribute to the preservation of the environment.
Green marketing typically aims to satisfy customers and improve the quality of the environment. Retailers must take several initiatives to shift their focus from niche to mainstream consumers, make green products affordable and thereby contribute in solving environmental issues Strictly Private and Confidential 53 Critical Issues in India retail sector Aspects related to development of green marketing initiatives in India are ? ? Absence of consumer demand for green products – Some retailers are not ocusing on green marketing at this time since their consumers are not demanding environment-friendly products and services Focus on operations and improving profitability – Some retailers indicate that they are choosing to focus on improving operations and strengthening the profitability of their ventures, before addressing non-core activities, like sustainable practices and development Reducing carbon footprint – Selected retailers, such as McDonald’s, are committed to reducing their carbon footprints.
To that end, the company removed prechillers from its restaurants and found a way to direct cool air from ACs to the coke system which results in chilled coke. The company, in addition to using biodegradable packaging, also constantly refreshes air in their restaurants; during low volume periods, McDonald’s adjusts fresh air refreshment levels to reduce carbon emissions Making initial strides – some of the practices include ? ? ? ? ? Reducing the number of plastic bags given to consumers since plastics and packaging are high costs items Encouraging consumers to buy company-branded linen bags or persuading them to bring their own bags by charging them for the purchase of plastic bags Using recyclable paper billing roles and printing thermal bills which are 20 percent the size of A4 paper-based bills Restricting the use of air conditioning in stores Sponsoring green events Introducing biodegradable packaging for products ? ? Strictly Private and Confidential 54 Critical Issues in India retail sector
Few initiatives that retailers can undertake upon creating sustainable business practices are ? Discourage plastics ? ? ? ? ? Reduce the number of plastic bags given to consumers, and instead use paper/ jute bags Encourage consumers to bring their own bags Encourage consumers to purchase retailer-branded linen bags Avoid excessive packaging and reduce the use of plastic as a packaging material Introduce the use of biodegradable packaging for products Minimal power consumption during operation and standby mode Reduce the quantity of paper consumed, (i. e. wo-sided copying/printing and multiple-page in one page copying/printing) Use toner cartridges that have reusable and recyclable parts/raw materials Use recyclable paper billing roles and print thermal bills Separate and recycle various types of papers (copy paper, newspapers, magazines, corrugated cardboard, etc. ) Minimum power consumption during operation and stand-by mode Materials for refrigerants, insulators and foaming agents that have minimal effect related to ozone layer destruction and global warming Sponsoring the green events and offsetting the emission when organising events Putting the sensitizing taglines in the products (e. . , Think Climate – Wash at 300C. ) ? Printers, copiers and faxes ? ? ? ? Paper usage ? ? ? Refrigeration/ Air conditioning ? ? ? Creating awareness ? ? ? Carbon Footprinting – A carbon footprint is the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product. Retail space carbon footprint reduction is gaining importance due to the emergence of green building concepts and also the increased focus on establishing energy efficiency in stores 55 Strictly Private and Confidential
Critical Issues in India retail sector ? Carbon Footprinting – A carbon footprint is the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organisation, event or product. Retail space carbon footprint reduction is gaining importance due to the emergence of green building concepts and also the increased focus on establishing energy efficiency in stores Transportation – Many supermarket chains have been assessing transport usage and are exploring alternatives to transportation and distribution by road.
Some global retailers have: ? ? ? Reassessed the locations of warehouses to reduce the number of road miles required Changed their fleet vehicles to use more efficient vehicles and therefore, lower the level of emissions Switched some transportation activities from road to rail ? ? Water Footprinting – The water footprint of a business (i. e. the ’corporate water footprint’) is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used directly or indirectly to run and support a business.
It is the total volume of water use, to be associated with the use of the business outputs. The water footprint of a business consists of two components – ? ? The direct water use by the producer (for producing/manufacturing or for supporting activities) The indirect water use (in the producer’s supply chain) ? Investment in renewable energy – Switching to renewable sources of energy, such as wind and solar power, to operate offices helps reduce carbon emissions.
Investing in renewable energy also supports the uptake of green energy which is vital in moving towards a low-carbon economy Energy/ Green House Gas (GHG) emission label in products – ? ? ? Informing and developing awareness among consumers about energy used and GHG emissions emitted during manufacturing of the product is important Using more energy-efficient ovens, refrigeration and air-conditioning is important since these tools are the major users of energy in retail stores Using more efficient lighting, timers and motion detectors that switch off lights when they are not needed ? Waste management of packaging materials – Physical supplies are running out faster than previously predicted, competition for remaining resources is intensifying and in the medium-term we are likely to see changing weather patterns that lead to volatile output levels. Many retailers have been working with suppliers to reduce packaging waste associated with the products sold 56 Strictly Private and Confidential Critical Issues in India retail sector Rural livelihoods – The use of retail goods leading to sustainable livelihoods for indigenous artisans and craftsmen is increasing, as locally made handicrafts, fabrics and ecologically beneficent and ‘natural’ products find place in retail outlets that position themselves as sensitive to sustainable business practice Supply chain dynamics – Greening the supply chain through healthier products and environmental quality is emerging as large international groups who follow a uniform global policy with respect to green procurement enter India Involving consumers – Retailers need to encourage and help customers to change their behaviours.
The retail sector can effectively influence lifestyles changes since it is in daily contact with consumers’ moods, preferences and expectations. Some issues that retailers can explore include: ? ? ? Conducting R&D on healthier options for consumers Educating customers about healthier options and nutritional enrichment of food products Discouraging overconsumption: Replacing “buy one get one free” offers with promotions for greener (low carbon) products could have a significant impact on consumer choice ? ?
Strictly Private and Confidential 57 Case study : Max Hypermarket Sustainable sourcing and procurement practices at Max Hypermarket Working with local communities, sourcing locally and imparting best practices in farming enable Max Hypermarket to offer high quality fruits, vegetables, meat and fish to consumers Factors for Success Commitment to working with local farmers/ producers Ownership of processing unit robust In 2004, Max Hypermarket entered into an agreement with SPAR to retail food and nonfood merchandise in India.
We focus on Max’s sustainable business practices of working with local farmers and communities to procure fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish for consumers. These sustainable sourcing and procurement practices ensure that: • • • Suppliers receive a fair market price, are paid on time and regularly and are also educated on best practices in farming and business management Max receives well-priced and high quality products that can be sold to consume Consumers receive price benefits from Max and also consume fresh and hygienic food that meets Max’s high standards of quality
Fruits and vegetables • • • • Time, effort, patience and dedication in the communicating importance of basic business practices All portioning, pre packing and marinating of lamb and poultry is done at the stores to ensure freshness for consumers Strictly Private and Confidential Max maintains agreements with local farmers for the farming and procurement of fruits and vegetables.
Seventy percent of the fresh produce in Max’s hypermarkets and large format supermarkets is sourced from these farmers Max established a captive processing unit for fruits and vegetables; this processing unit is temperature-controlled with sufficient cold storage space The 80 farmers that Max works with are located between one to two hours away from the unit Max ensures freshness of product since it has a mandate of 24-hour fresh delivery : • 12pm, Processing center—Farmers deliver their produce • 12-7pm, Processing center—Fruits and vegetables are cleaned, sorted, graded, cut and pre-packaged • 7pm, Transport by temperature-controlled trucks—Produce is transported in the evenings to the outlets since temperatures are lower in the evening • 9pm, Max outlet—Produce is delivered to Max outlet and is kept in cold storage before being placed onto temperature-controlled produce section • 9am, Max outlet—Customer receives fresh produce 58 Case study : Max Hypermarket The role of Workforce Management in increasing employee engagement and commitment to the organization (contd. ) Max buyers maintain a long standing relationship with suppliers for fruit and vegetables. Lamb, poultry and fish.
This enables Max to ensure that rigorous standards for procuring and sourcing of these products are fulfilled Lamb Max buyers have deep and personalized relationships with suppliers which have been developed over the period of a few years. Lamb rearers are based in and around Karnataka; this required Max buyers to visit farms and check the antecedents of livestock. Suppliers send the live animals of a certain weight to government-approved slaughterhouses, after which the carcasses are transported to Max within two hours of slaughter. Max needed to educate the vendors regarding health and hygiene standards, etc. Buyers are in continuous contact with rearers and slaughterhouses to constantly ensure quality control, transparency of