India was partitioned in the backdrop of large communal riots.Since independence the internal stability is sporadically disturbed which is contributed by many factors. India’s internal security is manifestation of internal weakness and external attempts. State actor can be defined as person/person’s or entity who is acting on behalf of state. They are acting on behalf of government. These are appointed directly by state who represent on international platform. Non-state actor’s are the entities that are not part of established government of the state.
They are not directly employed by the state but have independent ideological existence or some times backed by state. They exercise sufficient power to bring about change in international relation of two or more state. Non-state actor act as proxy element generally employed by state. In case of unlawful activities or violation of international agreement they provide a degree of deniability to state. E.g:- -NGO considered part of civil society in case of opposition at jaitapur project BY US NGO, – MNC companies financial fraud in dumping to create instability in economics -Armed group, Ethnic religious,State funded cyber attacksetc.
Constituional Provision for Safegaurding Internal Security:
The seventh schedule of Indian constitution contains ‘ public order’ and ‘police’ as state subject. Article 355 of the Constitution enjoins the Union to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the Government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of theConstitution.
The responsibility of the internal security mainly rest with the union ministry of home affairs. Union government can issue directions to the state under Articles 257-258.
Action for non-compliance of the directions from the Union government can be taken under Article 365.
A state government can be dismissed under Article 356, if a situation arises in which the administration of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
A national emergency can be declared under Article 352.
Internal Security Challenges:
If we divide the internal security challenges into following main groups, to include, Jammu and Kashmir, Northeast India, Left Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the Hinterland, creating public disorder and law and order problems through communal and secessionist tendency. Some of these challenges are direct manifestation of state across the border.
The close linkages of the ISI and such groups are well documented as is their direct involvement in attacks like 26/11.
These groups aim to not only create instability in states like J&K, they also have a larger aim of destabilising the country. This is done through sporadic terrorist strikes, which spreads terror and panic.
This could also adversely affect the ability of the Indian state to pursue economic modernisation.
The flooding of the country with counterfeits is also a way of weakening the economy.
South Asia comprises of seven independent states, with over one sixth of world’s population and numerous ethnic, religious and linguistic groups is the theatre of ethnic and religions violence which is transnational in its nature and implications.
The ethnic, religious and linguistic overlap has not only affected internal political developments in each state but also inter-state relationships.
The boundaries between neighbours are not natural both geographically and ethnically; therefore social tensions are bound to have a transborder impact. Traditional linkages of friendship and inter- action amongst people have become competing arrangements for aiding and abetting subversion, terrorism and insurgencies.
The regional geopolitical environment is likely to remain disturbed, which in conjunction with structural political and security confrontations within South Asia will continue to influence our internal security. Social tensions particularly in the ethnic and religious field due to its transborder character will continue to be the main areas of exploitation by our adversaries. Muslim fundamentalism and demographic influx are its major manifestations.
India-Pakistan and Jammu Kashmir Internal Security Challeneges:-
India’s open democratic system, judiciary and socio–political setting provides hostile agencies wide ranging opportunities to exploit contentious political issues and local tensions. .
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HUM), Lashker-e-Toiba (LET) and Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front ()have expanded their operations to Delhi, Maharashtra,Gujarat, U.P., Haryana and Punjab. ISI(state actors) agents have also cultivated transborder operators and couriers for smuggling of arms and explosives via Punjab, J & K, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
It has also established espionage networks in different parts of the country. After Punjab and J&K, it has now intensified its activities in the North East exploiting local insurgencies.
ISI is increasingly targeting the minority community in the Southern states to subvert their loyalty, while Karnataka and Kerala have become prone to smuggling,
- Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh have been targetted for subversion.
- The State of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) facing challenges:
- -affected by terrorist and secessionist
- -violence, sponsored and supported from across
- -penetrable border security
- -discourage youth from joining the militancy group .
India Nepal Bangladesh Creating Internal Security Challenges :-
- Indo – Nepal and Indo – Bangladesh borders is a
- design contrived by ISI with the help of sympathetic elements in Bangladesh to step up subversive activities in the North East.
- The muslim pockets have become the breeding ground for mafia, smugglers, gun running, hawala transactions. narco-trafficking, influx of fake Indian currency and terrorist activities
- There is direct link between drug trafficking and terrorism.
- The Golden Crescent is a major source of heroine and hashish for the West, which is smuggled through the Indo-Pak border.
- The ISI has been using these established channels for smuggling of arms and explosives, which has provided terrorism greater teeth.
- In an interview to Washington Post (12 September 1994) Nawaz Sharif mentioned ISI plans to use drug money to support militancy.
- The Golden triangle produces over 1000 tons of opium which is refined into very high grade heroin.
- Very little of it is seized in the North East due to ineffective surveillance and enforcement.
- A clear indicator of the likely illegal narcotic trade in the NorthEast is the high incidence of drug addition and abuse in Manipur, Mizoram, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
- Similarly, open Indo-Nepal border is the main source of Hashish.
- Money is then pushed through banking channels by way of gifts, donations and trade accounts.
- This also helps in tax evasion and is well manipulated by professional facilitators like chartered accountants, auditors, lawyers and traders.
- Since bulk of service sector (almost 50% of GNP) is prone to tax evasion, it facilitates laundering of black money.
India China and Challenges in North East:-
China is an important factor in India’s security perceptions and tempers its relationship with some of its neighbours.
Chinese interests in the region have to be viewed in the long term perspective. After eliminating the historical and strategic buffer between India and China by annexation of Tibet, the Chinese resorted to giving financial aid, arms and sanctuaries to Naga, Mizo and Meitei extremists.
This was followed by military encroachments culminating in the conflict in 1962.
China has shrewdly followed a policy of strategic containment of India by regional alliances and arming India’s neighboursMynamar, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Similarly, India’s technological and military mordernisation has been effectively counted by technological and weapons transfers to Pakistan in the nuclear and missile fields.
The geo-strategic importance of the North-East is not sufficiently appreciated even in the security establishment. All the states in the North-East share an international border with other countries and the seven North-Eastern states are linked to the rest of the country only by a narrow strip of land.=siliguri corridor,27km The lack of physical, cultural and emotional links has encouraged a feeling of alienation, which is being exploited by the nottoo- friendly neighbours to pursue their own agenda. They are giving support and sanctuaries to many of these groups to use them as leverage against a much bigger and more powerful neighbor. The roots of these many insurgencies in the North-East lie deep in its history and its geography. But, it would be wrong to treat it as one homogeneous region with common problems, or social systems and customs. Even physiographic ally, the region can be divided into three broad areas — hills, plateaus, and plains. The many ethnic groups, speaking many different languages and dialects, who inhabit this remote part of the country consider themselves as separate people with little in common with the people in the rest of the country.
The lack of physical, cultural and emotional links has encouraged this feeling of separation. The terrain in this region is eminently suitable for insurgency. The hilly terrain and dense forests provide convenient hiding places to mount ambushes on the moving convoys of the security forces. Large parts of the interior areas have little or no police presence. After attacking the security force they can easily disappear into the local population. Because of deprivation and alienation, a large section of the people tend to be sympathetic to the members of these groups. It is the alienation of the people that has sustained insurgency all these years, though logistic support and sanctuaries provided by the neighbouring states play a vital role in sustaining them.
The rise of armed senas based on ethnic and caste lines in some parts of the country has led to the polarisation of the society. Loss of public confidence on the state and police to protect life and property has further strengthened their interests. Their attacks on religious lines have created a sense of insecurity among the people. Far from controlling them, some partisan political groups and police have encouraged their development. Political high lords have always utilised the minority groups as vote banks, playing the communal card to their advantage, supporting their cause and cry, every time the elections makes it to the corner. This utilisation of the citizenry by dividing them on the communal basis is not new. The legacy of the British has still not left the country. Polarisation on caste and religious lines can further reduce the credibility of the democracy in the minds of the people. Ethnic, communal, linguistic and sectarian clashes have shadowed the basic principle of common brotherhood enshrined in our constitution.
The principle of vasudaivakutumbam( the world is our family) has remained always in books and papers. Thelack of faith and trust among fellow citizens has led to their exploitation by various section of society for personal greed and aggrandizement. The rise of fundamentalist forces is posing the most serious threat to India’s security. Fired with religious zeal these forces have created an entirely new situation. These bands of fanatics are not only indulging in subversive activities, but are spreading the virus of fundamentalism. The break-up of the Indian Union continues to be their main goal. Easy availability of deadly weapons with the subversive groups operating in India has created new dangers for India’s security.
Other Forms of Violence
With the ‘Golden Crescent’, and the ‘Golden Triangle’ in India’s neighbourhood, drug trafficking poses yet another threat to our security. Drug syndicates are generating huge funds, a part of which is being used to give financial support to criminal activities in the country. Drug trafficking and adulteration have been used by many to create a panic situation in the country. Low levels of tolerance has diseased the democracy to the deepest level. It is now enough for just a film or a clipping or a song or even just a facebook/twitter post or for that matter just a word/sentence to hurt the sentiments of the people and create outrage. Participative democracy has been tethered to its pieces with such growing levels of impatience and intolerance. In public perception a government that is unable to discharge all its responsibilities is more likely to respond when the demand is loud, organised and backed by acts of violence.It is even easier to create a mob and clashes and undermine the process of governance. So subtle and fragile is the security situation in the country. It has become very easy and simple to take up arms and wage a war and more and more difficult to keep calm and promote peace.
Any amount of force will not deter this rage. It is only our determined and concerted effort to avoid becoming a pawn in some master’s game will keep up the credibility of democratic governance. It is very alarming to observe the number of juveniles involved in serious crimes.More and more delinquents have been convicted under the juvenile justice act (care and protection), 2000. Distorted minds are an indication of poor levels of education, illiteracy and disturbed childhood. It is very essential to catch them young, reform and rehabilitatetheir future. Misogynist attitudes and patriarchal ways have demeaned the stature of women in society. Progress towards social emancipation of women in society has not achieved the desired outcome. The societal balance has been disturbed. Our skewed sex ratio of 940 females to 1000 males bears a testament to heinous crimes against women like female foeticide, female infanticide, abortions, acid attacks, molestation, sexual assault, rape, domestic violence, murder etc Conclusion
Effective steps to reduce ethnic and social inequalities, disparities in educational and employment opportunities and for creating effective machinery for the redressal of public grievance are essential to prevent extremists violence. Steps to reduce economic deprivation and improve the delivery of essential services can erode the base of public support on which the extremist movements survive. Lack of police reforms is fracturing the autonomy, accountability and responsiveness of the system. The Supreme Court directive in 2006 put forth guidelines to the states to improve the functioning of the police. However they have not been implemented as yet in many states. Use of ICT to develop modern techniques of investigation, forensics should be made available. Fortification of the police stations with well equipped machinery like CCTV cameras, bomb detectors, rifles, pistols etc should make its way into the system. Gender sensitization is of utmost importance given the increasing crimes on women.
The need for a well co-ordinated security apparatus cannot be undermined. A well structured machinery involving the army, paramilitary, intelligence, central forces and state police should be managed in every state. A composite force like that of NSG should be stationed in every state to meet the unforeseen violent strikes. Special training on mob handling and criminal psychology should be provided. There is a need to make the forces more professional and improving their quality rather than emphasizing on the number of men. Standard operating procedures should be laid down with ample scope to exercise discretion to balance autonomy with accountability. Centre is duty bound to intervene, if the security challenges are beyond the control of the state, as laid down in the constitution. The primary responsibility of maintain the law and order is with the state government as mentioned in the state list, but art 353 the union government is charged with the responsibility to protect the state government from internal disturbances. Action for non-compliance of the directions from the Union government can be taken under Article 365. A state government can be dismissed under Article 356, if a situation arises in which the administration of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. A national emergency can be declared under Article 352.But, even if the Centre decides to intervene, the state’s role cannot be minimised. The many internal security challenges can be met effectively only with full cooperation between the central and the state governments. The internal security problems should not be treated as merely law and order problems. They have to be dealt with comprehensively in all their dimensions and at all levels — political, economic and social. The security requirements have to be met, but that does not mean giving the security agencies a free hand. Striking the right balance is the key to success in meeting these challenges effectively.
- Indian Army Website
- Chronicle Material
- The Hindu News Paper
- All India Radio
Terrorism has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations for furthering their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic groups, religious groups, revolutionaries, and ruling governments.
Terrorism is a modus operandi (MO) used by a non-state actor against a state, its populations and capabilities or against a community of giving vent to anger, for propagating a ideology and for achieving a objective, which could be political, ideological or communal or all the three combined Since 9/11, terrorism analysts talk of old a new terrorism or pre-modern, modern and post-modern terrorism. The new terrorism is also described as catastrophic terrorism, or mass casualty or mass destruction or mass disruption or mass panic terrorism. Terrorism is also often described as an objective. Since 9/11, one talks of conventional unconventional warfare and unconventional unconventional warfare. Strengthening existing capabilities to deal with old terrorism and creating new capabilities to deal with new terrorism are tasks, which need the priority attention of the national security policy maker. The conventional definition of terrorism is the pre-meditated and repeated use of actual violence or threat to use violence against innocent civilians in order to achieve an objective or as acts of reprisal. This definition has been found to be inadequate to cover new mutations of terrorism such as what is referred to as cyber terrorism. Acts of cyber terrorism do not target human beings. They target capabilities such targeting could be human casualties too in addition to destroying or damaging capabilities. Analyses and debates on terrorism use two other expressions too- State terrorism and State-sponsored terrorism.
State terrorism refers to the use by a state of methods akin to terrorism in order to suppress its population. State-sponsored terrorism is the conscious and repeated use by a state of terrorist organizations against another state in order to achieve a strategic objective, without resorting to a direct military conflict. There are many resolutions of the United Nations (UN), which have described state-sponsored terrorism as “indirect aggression” The UN has so far not succeeded in its efforts to reach a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. Attempts towards such a definition have been thwarted by subjective political considerations of different member-countries. Hence, the cliché that one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom-fighter. India, which has been the most serious victim of indigenous and externally-sponsored terrorism, should take the lead in helping the international community in finding a way out of the endless debate on this issue. It could propose that the international community should define what constitute acts of terrorism. No one deny that acts such as hijacking and blowing 0up means of transport, use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in public places throwing hand- grenades into crowdsetc. Constitute terrorism. Once there is an international convergence on what constitute acts of terrorism, it should be simpler to proceed from there to state that organizations, which repeatedly indulge in such acts, are terrorist organizations and states, which support them or make use of them, are state-sponsors of terrorism. India has been a victim of insurgency as well as terrorism ever since it become independent. Many analysts refer to insurgency and terrorism as if they are one and the same thing. They are not. There are characteristic differences. Firstly, insurgents normally target only combatants and not non0combatants though civilians may die as a result of their attacks on combatants. Terrorists deliberately target combatants as well as non-combatants. Secondly, insurgents seek territorial control by establishing “liberated area”. Terrorists do not seek territorial control.
Thirdly, insurgents try to create the paraphernalia of a seeming state in the areas controlled by them replicating the state machinery.(parallel government) Terrorists don’t. Fourthly, insurgents emulate the state model of a hierarchical organizational structure. Terrorists don’t. There are organizations, which are exclusively insurgent. Examples are found in our North-east. There are organizations, which are exclusively terrorist. Examples are AI-Qaeda the members of the Osama bin Laden0led International Islamic Front (IIF) for Jihad against the Crusader and the Jewish people, the Kashmiri terrorist organizations, such as the HizbulMujahideen, the Khaslistani organizations of Punjab, etc. And, there are organizations, which are a mix of the two. Examples are the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and Maoists of Nepal and India.
Since 1947, India has faced insurgent /terrorist movements of 3 broad categories. The first is ideological terrorism of the extreme left. It made its appearance in the Telengana areas of Andhra Pradesh immediately after Independence, metamorphosed into the Naxalite movement in the 1960s and more recently into a Maoist movement. India’s tribal belt in the interior extending from Andhra Pradesh and covering areas in Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkand, West Bengal is the epi-center of ideological terrorism. Ideological terrorism in India has had and continues to have genuine root causes, which cannot be denied. Amongst them are the lack of genuine land reforms, extreme poverty and under development, indebtedness, cruel exploitation of the tribal by non-tribal and the absence of a satisfactory tribal area’s development policy. The tribal areas suffer from certain inherent handicaps. They do not have adequate human resources other than minerals, which could be converted into productive assets for creating jobs and prosperity. The ideological terrorist groups have had external inspirations and contacts with like-minded groups not only in other countries of South Asia such as Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka but also in far away countries such as the Shining Path guerillas of Peru.
However, there is no credible evidence of external assistance from other foreign States in the form of training, arms and ammunitions and even funds. There have been reports of the LTTE providing the Nazalites in South India with some training and arms assistance. No immediate end to ideological terrorism is in sight. It is likely to continue in the short and medium terms unless and until a comprehensive plan for the development of the affected tribal and other areas is worked out covering the entire affected belt and implemented. The responsibility for the implementation has to be that of the affected State, but the Government of India has to play a leadership role in finding the required funds and coordinating and monitoring the implementation. The plan should provide for land reforms, measures to end tribal/rural indebtedness, spread and up gradation of education, creation of job-generating projects in sectors such as food processing, establishment of grameen banks to provide cheap credit to local farmers and entrepreneur, improvements of essential services such a provision of drinking water and free or affordable medical facilities etc. The policy package to address the grievances of the people should have a judicious mix of incentives and disincentives- incentives for those who have kept away from the terrorists in order to demonstrate that observing law and order pays and disincentives for the terrorists in order to rigorously enforce low and order against them and to make it clear that violence will not pay. Better enforcement of law and order would call for better intelligence, better policing and better police-community relations. There is only limited scope for the collection of good technical intelligence (TECHINT) in the affected areas since the ideological terrorist groups are not well endowed in respect of communications. They mostly rely on human couriers and telephones.
Telephone call interception in accordance with the law could garner some useful TECHINT. Beyond that, that scope for TECHINT is limited.
The emphasis has, therefore, to be on the collection of better human intelligence (HUNINT). The responsibility for this has to be that of the local police, with the central intelligence agencies providing the necessary training, logistics and other back up support. There is a need for a better co-ordination of the intelligence collection, analysis and follow-up action activities of the central agencies and the local police. The state and central intelligence agencies should avoid weakening each other’s capabilities through unhealthy rivalry. There has been a lack of consistency in the approach of different governments to the twin tasks of enforcement of law and order and addressing the legitimate grievances of the people through a dialogue. Whenever priority is given to dialogue fails the law and order enforcement is sought to be tightened. Both the tasks should have equal priority and should be undertaken simultaneously. It is not a question of one or the other approach. The Naxalites/Maoists have established control over certain areas, but vast areas still remain out of their control. The first priority of the policy-makers should be the rapid development of these areas and to immunize them against the spread of the terrorism virus into those areas. The second priority should be to organize a campaign of attrition against the Nazalites/Maoists in the areas presently controlled by them in order to dilute their hold.
Separatist Insurgency/Terrorism in The North-East
The second category is separatist insurgency/terrorism by groups in the belt along our international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh. They are more insurgent than terrorist groups, but they do occasionally resort to acts of terrorism. Insurgency first made it’s appearance in Nagaland in 1980s. Arunachal Pradesh is the only region in the North-East, which has remained free of insurgency or terrorism. There have been and there continue to be genuine root causes in the North-East too the feelings of separateness engendered among the tribals along our international borders, particularly in Nagaland, by the British policy of keeping them away from the national mainstream, their sparse population, complexes arising from relationships between tribals and non-tribals, lack of development, their feelings of solidarity with tribals of the same ethnic stock on the Myanmar side of the border, complexes in the relationships between Assamese and non-Assamese arising from perceptions of Assamese hegemony during the years when many of these areas were governed by Assam and in failure of successive Governments in New Delhi to stop large-scale illegal migration into Assam and Tripura from Bangladesh, creating fears of the locals one day being reduced to a minority in their own territory.
The situation in the North-East has been rendered difficult for the Government of India and the local Governments by external involvement. This involvement has been in the form of training, arms and financial assistance and provision of sanctuaries by the intelligence agencies of Bangladesh and Pakistan similar assistance by the Chinese intelligence at least till, 1979, suspected financial support from the overseas Baptist church, particularly in the US, to the insurgent organizations in Nagaland and Mizoram, etc. Another complicating factor has been the support received by our tribal insurgent groups from their co-tribal in Myanmar Territory. There is no evidence of the Myanmar Government’s involvement. The Myanmar Government has repeatedly assured us of its determination to put an end to the sanctuaries enjoyed by the insurgents in their territory, but its capability to carry out this task is very limited. The Myanmar Government itself has very little control over large tracts in Northern Myanmar. Another complicating factor in the North-East has been the large flow the narcotics from the Golden Triangle in South-East Asia and money and public health problems (spreading AIDS) engendered by it and the dissemination of counterfeit currency by the intelligence agencies of Bangladesh and Pakistan. This is particularly so in Manipur, where the grown nexus between insurgents and narcotics smugglers has made the State more and more ungovernable. The only saving grace in the North-East has been that there has so far been no involvement of foreign mercenaries in our territory. This situation may not remain so in the near and medium terms if we continue to avoid taking action against the illegal Bangladeshi migrants in our border belt and stopping the fresh flow of migrants.
Bangladesh is already will in the way to becoming a new epi-centre of pro-Al- Qaeda and pro-Taliban international jihadi terrorist organizations. The Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami(HUJI) of Bangladesh, whose head quarters are located in Pakistan, is a active member of bin Laden’s IIF. The Lashkar-e Toiba (Let) has an active presence in Bangladesh. The Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen (Jum) of Bangladesh, which introduced suicide terrorism into Bangladesh, openly supports the Taliban and calls for the Talibanisation of Bangladesh. About 200 members of AI Qaeda, mostly belonging to South-East Asia, who survived the US military strikes in Afghanistan, managed to flee to Bangladesh and take sanctuary there. Wahabisation, which is the precursor of Jihadi Terrorism, has already made
its appearance in Bangladesh and pro-Wahabi mosques and madrasas, funded by money from Pakistan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, have been mushrooming all over the country. Successive Bangladesh Governments have been reluctant to act effectively against these pernicious developments.. I we fail to bake note of these developments and fashion an appropriate policy package, the time is not far off when we may be faced with an aggravating problem of cross-border terrorism in the East too. Arunachal Pradesh has been relatively free of insurgency/terrorism. Nagaland has been largely peaceful since the signing of the Shillong Accord with the so-called Naga Federal Government in 1975.
Mizoram has been peaceful since the Government of India persuaded the late Laldenga, the leader of the Mizo National Front (MNF), to come overground and join the plkitical mainstream in 1986. The Government of India missed a wonderful opportunity for the rapid development of these three States and presenting them to the rest of the aggrieved population of the North-East as a good example as a good example of the peace dividend if the insurgent leaders give up resort to violence and join the political mainstream. Arunachal Pradesh could have been projected as a showcase of development if the people abjured the path of violence. At least now, a comprehensive programmer for the rapid development of these there states should be drawn up and implemented in a time-bound manner under the over-all supervision of the Governments of India. Since the presence of the Myanmar Government and the scope for the opening –up of North Myanmar would continue to remain very limited till Myanmar comes out to its international isolation, expectations based on these States serving as a hub for our economic and trade links with South-East Asia are likely to be belied in the short and medium terms. Ways have to be found for the Government and private sector from the rest of India to work jointly for the economic development of these areas. The negotiations of the Government of India with the Isaac Swi-Muivah Faction of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) should be pursued in order to persuade them to give up their demand for a greater Nagaland and join the mainstream. Manipur is the most worrisome State of theNOrth-East due to the almost total break-down of governance there and the explosive mix of insurgency, terrorism and narcotics smuggling in the area. Governance cannot be improved in the State without a better control over and weakening of these three evils.
They cannot be controlled and weakened with better governance. It is a vicious circlhue. There is a lot of black money due to narcotic smuggling, but every little development. The mushrooming of militant organizations has led to a situation where there is hardly any credible interlocutor with whom any meaningful dialogue can be held. Restoration of the authority and effectiveness of the State has to be the first priority. A first step towards this is the posing in the State of a carefully-selected hardcore of officers from different All-India and Central Services, who would be able to inspire confidence and lead. There cannot be an improvement in the ground situation in Assam and Tripura with effective action to stop the flow of illegal immigrants from Bangladesh. The completion of the construction of the border fencing with Bangladesh must be expedited, whatever be the opposition from the Bangladesh authorities. India should prod the US and European Union to take a more serious view of the spread of Jihadi Terrorism in Bangladesh and exert pressure on the Bangladesh Government to act against this.
Religious Terrorism: Punjab
The Third category is religious terrorism. It first made its appearance in Punjab in 1981 in the form of the so-called Khalistan movement, which continued till 1995. Since 1995, it has shown signs of weakening, but is has not yet been totally eradicated. This became evident from some recent explosions in cinema hall in New Delhi and reports of arrests of activists of the Khalistani organizations in New Delhi and Punjab. Some of the leaders of the Khalistani organization continue to enjoy sanctuaries in Pakistan and President Prevz Musharraf has repeatedly avoided taking action of Indian requests to arrest and hand them over to India. He has been denying their very presence in Pakistani territory. Khalistani terrorism has had no genuine root cause. Its was pure and simple Pakistan State-sponsored terrorism as a reprisal for its losing control of the then East Pakistan. It was born in the Sikh diaspora abroad, particularly in Canada, the UK and the then West Germany, and from there imported into our Punjab at the instigation and with the connivance of Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI). It did acquire some indigenous support in the Punjab due to the unwise policies of the Government of India vis-à-vis Bhindranwale and due to the widespread anger and feelings of hurt caused by the military operation in the Golden Temple in June 1984 under Operation Blue Star.
Despite this, the terrorism in Punjab world not have lasted as long as it did but for the active ISI sponsorship and involvements in the form of sanctuaries, training, arms and financial assistance and the flow of narcotics money from the golden Crescent and counterfeit Indian currency from the ISI. While sparring active ground involvement through mercenaries sent in from Pakistan due to fears of adverse reactions from the West. When he was the head of the ISI in the late 1980s under Mrs. Benazir Bhutto, the then Prime Minister, Lt. Gen. (now retd) Hamid Gul was reported to have remarked that keeping Punjab bleeding and unstable was equivalent to the Pakistan Army having two extra Divisions at no cost. In the 1980s and 1990s, the ISI has initiated as clandestine project called “the two Ks Project” (the Khalistan-Kashmir project). It was its assessment that an unstable and bleeding Punjab, with the Indian security forces preoccupied with internal security duties there, would facilitate its objective of annexing Jammu & Kashmir through a proxy war. One should not presume from the recent external signs of a seemingly benign Musharraf that this old thinking of the Pakistan Army and its ISI has changed. They would find it difficult to resist the temptation to create fresh instability in Punjab if a new opportunity presented itself and they think that the international community’s attention is focused elsewhere. Self-complacency in Punjab would be ill-advised. We cannot afford to relax our vigilance and counter-terrorism capabilities there.
Aggravation of partisan politics and what the French call “politiquepoliticienne” (the politics of politicians) as distinguished from the politics of statesmen could easily take the State back to the days of instability. Improvement of governance, acceleration of development activities and avoidance of petty, point-scoring politics should be the priorities. Attention to public grievances is equally important. We should not forget that the so-called Khalistan movement, which initially started in the 1960s as the Sikh Home Rule movement in the UK, had its origin in the grievance of sections of the Sikh diaspora over what they perceived as the indifference of the Government of India to the humiliation suffered by them. This perception of humiliation arose from the order issued by some municipalities in the UK and Canada debarring the employment of Sikhs as bus conductors and drivers if they did not discard their turbans. There were similar feelings of humiliation in the community in France over the ban on their children in public schools wearing turbans and over the denial of driving licenses to Sikhs if there photos showed them wearing turbans.
The Governments of India should show interest in taking up such issues instead of treating them as issues to be sorted out by the overseas Sikhs without there being any role for the Govt. of India in it. The Govt. of India has a role in it not just because these people had migrated from India, but also because India is the birth place of the Sikh religion and its has duty to protect the honour of the adherents of the faith. Even though the ISI has not been using what Mrs. Benazir Bhutto use to call the Sikh card against India for some years now. It has not yet given up its option of using this card against should the circumstance warrant it and if a suitable opportunity presented itself. India should not keep quiet over the sanctuaries which some Khalistani terrorist leaders continue to enjoy in Pakistan. Peace process and confidence-building do not mean that we remain muted in our expression of concern over Pakistan’s continuing to shelter and protect them. We should persist with our efforts to draw the attention of the international community to this. Religious Terrorism: Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) has had sporadic acts of terrorism even before 1989. Examples: the hijacking of a Indian Airlines aircraft to Lahore by two terrorists of the J&K Liberation Front ( JKF in March 1971 and its subsequent blowing-up after asking the crew and the passengers to leave the aircraft; and the kidnapping and murder of Ravi Mhatre, and Indian diplomat posted in Birmingham, UK, by some terrorists of the JKLF in March, 1983, in a full attempt to secure the release of Maqbool F leader, then in Tihar jail awaiting the execution of a death sentence after having been convicted on a charge of murder. Terrorism on a sustained basis, with the sponsorship and assistance of the ISI, started in 1989. Even before 1989, he Najibullah Government, then in power in Kabul, had repeated dly cautioned the Government of India that small numbers of Kashmiri extremists were being brought by the ISI to the Afghan mujahideen controlled areas in Afghanistan for being trained and armed. The Government of India was complacent under the impression, which subsequently proved to be wrong, the that Pakistan
would once again fail in its attempts to instigate the Kashmiris against the GoI, just as it had failed in 1965 and 1971. This complacency proved ill-advised and a regular porxy war was started by the ISI in J&K in 1989 with the help of its surrogates, in an attempt to annex the State. Terrorism in J&K is the product of a mix of four motives: separatist for securing independence for the entire pre-1947 J&K-this is the motive of indigenous organizations such as the JKLF; religious for join in Pakistan-this is the motive of indigenous organizations such as the Hizbul Mujahideen (HM); pan-Islamic for “Liberating” the State form the control of India and subsequently making it part of an Islamic Caliphate-this is the motive of the pro-AI Qaeda Pakistani Jihadi terrorist organizations such as the Lashkar-e-Toiba (Let), the Harkat-uI-Mujahideen (HuM) the Harkat-uI-Jihad-aL-IsIami (HUJI) and the Jais-e-Mohammad (JeM), all of whom are members of bin Laden’s IIF; and territorial – this is the motive of Pakistan in using these organization with conflicting motives for annexing the State, using the pretext that J&K was the unfinished agenda of the 1947 partition under which, accord ing to IsLamabad, it should have rightfully come under Pakistan. Sine Pakistan considers J&K as rightfully belonging to it, thinks it has a right to assist the people to the State. It assists the terrorists with no holds barred, giving them money, training and arms and ammunition. It has also been facilitating the infiltration of a large number of Pakistanis and some non-Pakistani foreigners belonging to the pan-Islamic Pakistani organizations into J&K to operate there. It projects the on-going terrorism in the State as a freedom struggle similar to the Palestinia n freedom struggle and not terrorism.
The international community, particularly the US and other Western States, which agree with the Pakistani contention that it is a disputed territory, does not view the Pakistani sponsorship of jihad terrorism against India with the same seriousness with which it views jihadi terrorism in other parts of the world. One cannot deny that there were genuine root causes in J&K initially. Important among there were bad governance, perceptions of a lack of genuine democracy, dilution of the original status of the State , perceptions of the domination of the politics in the State by one family, etc. All these grievances by themselves might not have led to the kind of situation which the State has faced since 1989 but for the exploitation of these causes by Pakistan and its ISI for waging a proxy war against India through their surrogates in order to wrest control of the State from India. This proxy was has gone through four stages.
In the first stage, the pro-independence groups led by the JKLF were in the forefront. In the second they were eclipsed by the proPakistan groups with the HM in the forefront. In the third (between 1993 and 1999), on finding that the pro-Pakistan groups were not able to make headway, the ISI started infiltrating Pakistani jihadi organizations (the LeT, the HuM, the HUJI and after 2000 the JeM), Which subsequently joined bin Laden’s IIF after its formation in 1998. In the fourth stage, which started after the Kargil conflict in 1999 and continues till now, these Pakistani jihadi terrorist organizations took the driving seat, started propagating pan-Islamic ideas and introduced suicide/suicidal terrorism for the first time in the State. While the indigenous Kashmiri and Pakistani jihadi terrorist organizations closely co-ordinate their activities, ideologically they adopt different postures. The indigenous organizations claim that their agenda is limited to J7K and avoid any anti-Americanism in their pronouncements lest they antagonize the US, whose support they consider necessary for achieving their cause. The pan-Islamic Pakistani organizations describe J&K as the gateway to India and say that after having “liberated” the Muslim in J&K from Indian control, they want to “ liberate” the Muslims in the rest of India. The LET describes Junagadh and Hyderabad as rightfully belonging to Pakistan and asserts its right and intention to wage a jihad there in order to bring those areas under Pakistan control. Since the visit Shri AtalBehari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister, to Islamabad in January, 2004 and his agreement for initiating the peace process with Musharraf, the ground situation has been as follows: 1. The ceasefire has held without any major breach.
- The cross-LOC/border infiltration of trained terrorists has declined, but has not stopped.
- Acts of terrorism, including targeted attacks on political leaders, continue with varying intensity.
- The ISI has not wound up the anti-Jandia jihadi terrorist infrastructure in the Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK) and other parts of Pakistan. Large numbers of Pakistani and other recruits for acts of terrorism in India territory continue to be trained and armed.
While the so-called peace process and the confidence building measures have been moving forward, there is no evidence of Pakistan having given up its policy of using terrorism as a weapon against India for achieving its strategic objective. Keeping the above realities in view, it is assessed that Pakistan-sponsored terrorism against Inda will continue in the short and medium terms. Its in Pakistan’s calculation that if its keeps the Indian security forces bleeding , battle fatigue could ultimately set in there by making the Indian Political leadership amenable for a change in the status quo. The Pakistani military leadership has realized that it cannot wrest control of the whole of J&K from India either through a conventional war or through a covert war waged with the help of terrorists. Its present objective is to work for a change in the status quo, so that a least the overwhelming Muslim-majority valley will come under its control. Keeping the above realities in view, it is assessed that Pakistan- sponsored terrorism against India will continue in the short and medium terms. Its is Pakistan’s calculation that if it keeps that Indian security forces bleeding, battle fatigue could ultimately set in thereby making the Indian political leadership amenable for a change in the status quo.
The Pakistani military leadership has realized that it cannot wrest control of the whole of J7K from India either through a conventional war or through a covert war waged with the help of terrorists. Its present objective is to work for a change in the status quo, so that at least the overwhelming Muslim majority valley will come under its control. For achieving this objective of change in the status quo, it has been following a twin-track policy-continue the peace process and the confidence-building measures in order to reassure the international community of its seeming peaceful intentions and what Musharraf repeatedly projected as his flexible approach as against the rigid Indian approach; and, at the same time, keep up the jihadi terrorist activity in J7K at a tempo, which would keep the Indian security force bleeding without causing undue international alarm and condemnation. Internally, Indian policy should be a mix of flexibility
in our dealings with the indigenous organizations and unrelenting hardline in dealing with the pan-Islamic Pakistani jihadi terrorist organizations. The latter have to be eradicated without mercy. The indigenous organizations consist of mainstream political parties such as the National conference (NC), etc., which have remained loyal to Indian, participated in the political process and resisted the pressure and intimidation of the Pakistan-sponsored terrorists, and those such as the JKLF, the HM, etc., which have taken to arms against India with Pakistani support and the Hurriyat, which is nothing but the political façade of the indigenous terrorist organizations. While the Government of India should be willing for a dialogue with any indigenous organization on the future for a dispensation of the State, it should not fall into a Pakistani trap for having the patriotic mainstream forces marginalize to the benefit of the Hurriyat and its terrorist backer. The suggestions and demands of the mainstream political parties for greater autonomy should be given due consideration.
Under the pretext of pushing forward the peace process and strengthening the CBMs, Musharraf has been tried to make the Government of India agree to a phased demilitarization in certain areas, which are the favorites operational areas of the Pakistan sponsored jihadi terrorists. This is another trap, which we should avoid. Any decision regarding the forces to be deployed, the areas where they should deployed and their counter-terrorism tasks should be based purely on our assessment of the ground situation and on the force requirements of our counter-terrorism agencies. This assessment should not be influenced or distorted by considerations such as the need to push forward the peace process and strengthen the CBMs. The counter-terrorism operations in J7K, as elsewhere, have to be intelligence driven. There has reportedly been an improvement in our intelligence collection capability consequent upon the implementation of the recommendations of the Special Tasks Force appointed by the Government of India to revamp the intelligence apparatus. However, the fact that acts of terrorism continue to take place indicate gaps in our intelligence and physical security capabilities. These gaps need to be identified and action taken to remove the deficiencies. As a consequence of the peace process and the setting in motion of the CBMs, our articulation of our concerns over the failure of Pakistan to act against the jihadi terrorist infrastructure in Pakistani territory and to round up and hand over to India for trail the 20 Kashmiri, Pakistani, Khalistani and other terrorists given sanctuary in Pakistan has become muted. This could prove counter-productive and result in a dilution of the international pressure on Pakistan to act against the anti-India terrorists. This policy of muted references has to change. There is no reason why we should fight shy of talking about if with force. The task of improving the governance in J&K and speeding up its economic development should be pushed forward with vigor . There has been a welcome change in the policy of the Government of India of keeping quiet over the political suppression of the people of the POK and the Northern Areas (Gilgit and Baltistan). The Government of India did well in openly expressing its concern over the continuing anti-Shia violence in the Northern Areas and over the suppression of the human rights of the people there. This should not be a dingle-shot affair. The Government of India should continuously draw the attention of the international community to the state of affairs in the POK and Northern Areas and should no hesitate to actively interact with the people there. The Government of India’s repeated acts of gesture to the victims of the quake in POK in 2005 were a well though-out move, which send a positive message to the people of the POK and the same time created some discomfort for the Pakistan Army and Musharraf. Such psychological pressure on the Pakistani military establishment on the issue of the Indian keenness to help the Kashmiris living under Pakistani occupation should to kept up in a sophisticated manner.
India has faced two instance of serious reprisal terrorism, which were the out come of the anger in large sections of our Muslim community ove the demolition of the Bari Masjid in December, 1992, and the alleged police excesses against Muslims during the subsequent communal riots. The first instance was the serial explosions in Mumbai in March, 1993, which attacked economic targets and killed about 250 innocent civilians. It was the handiwork of a group of angry young Muslims of Mumbai, whose anger was exploited by the ISI for organizing the explosions through Dawood Ibrahim, the mafia leader, who was then living in Dubai and is now living in Karachi. They were recruited by Dawood, taken to Pakistan via Dubai for training and sent back to Mumbai after the training. The arms and ammunition and the explosives required for the strike were given by the ISI and Dawood arranged for their clandestine transport by sea to Mumbai. The second instance was the serial explosions at Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu in February, 1998, which killed many civilians. These explosions were organized by some angry Muslim youth to Tamil Nadu and Kerala with the help of locally stolen industrial explosives. The perpetrators belonged to an organization called Al Ummah. There was no evidence of Pakistani involvement. Since 1998, there have been many other instances of jihadi terrorism in different parts of India targeting innocent civilians and places of worship. These were related to the pan-Islamic objectives of the pro-Al Qaeda organizations of Pakistan. The only way of preventing acts of reprisal terrorism is by maintaining communal peace and by removing perceptions in the minds of the Muslim youth that the Police tend to be unduly harsh towards the Muslims during communal disturbances.
Terrorism and Transnational Crime
The developing linkages between terrorism and transnational crime have been a major concern of the intelligence and security agencies of the world since the Mumbai explosions of March, 1993. The state patronage enjoyed by the gang of Dawood Ibrahim in the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan and the refusal of Pakistan to comply with the red corner notices of the INTERPOL to arrest and hand over to India, Dawood and his followers wanted by India in connection with the Mumbai explosions and other acts of crime, have come in the way of effective actions against this nexus. In October, 2003, the US Treasury Department declared Dawood as an international terrorist because of his suspected involvement with Al Qaeda and the LET. Its notification stated that he was living in Pakistan under an assumed name. This has been denied by Pakistan. Pakistan’s repeated actions in avoiding the extension of mutual legal assistance to India for brining to justice Dawood and other terrorists given sanctuary in Pakistani territory constitute a blatant violation of the UN Security Council Resolution No. 1373 against international terrorism It has suffered no punitive consequences. The Government of India cannot escape its share of responsibility for this because of its failure to take up this case forcefully before the UN Security Council, which is responsible for monitoring the implementation of this Resolution. After the US declared Dawood an international terrorist , we should have immediately moved the UNSC for ordering the freezing of all his bank accounts, wherever held and under whatever name. It is not known whether the Government of India took this action. Confidence-building does not mean we remain silent of Pakistan’s repeated transgressions of international laws to the detriment of India.
Action against Terrorist Funding
The ISI remains an important source of funding for terrorist organizations sponsored by it in Indian territory. It is suspected that the Bangladesh intelligence agencies have also been funding some of the terrorist organizations operating in the North-East. Narcotics money from the Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle and counterfeit currency notes got printed and supplied by the ISI are the next important sources. Contributions from members of the Sikh diaspora in the West and from some of the overseas gurudwaras partly funded the Khalistani terrorist organization. Many dubious charity organizations based in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait have been funding the mushrooming mosques and madrasas, many of them contributing to a radicalization of our Muslim youth. Action to stop the flow of funds to terrorist organizations has to be a important component of any counter-terrorism strategy. This has also been highlighted by the UNSC Resolution No.1373. We have failed to highlight Pakistani’s farcical implementation of this resolution. After the earthquake to October, 2005, in Pakistan, organizations such as the LeT, Al Rashid Trust, etc., whose SC because of their involvement in terrorism, were indulging in large-scale fund collection in Pakistan under new names under the pretext of quake relief. Even the US, through its Ambassador in Islamabad, expressed its concern over it. India, which should have been in the forefront in drawing attention to this, remained strangely quiet. We do not seem to have seriously addressed the issue of flow of foreign funds to mosques and madrasas in our territory. They longer we ignore this problem, the more difficult it will be for us to deal effectively with old as well as new terrorism.
Action against Pakistani Sponsorship of Terrorism
Ever since the mid-1950, Pakistan has been using the insurgent groups of the North East and subsequently the terrorist groups in Punjab, J&K and rest of India as a strategic weapon to keep the Indian security forces preoccupied with internal security problems. It provided sanctuaries, funds, training and arms and ammunition to the insurgent groups of the North-East in the then East Pakistan. After it lost East Pakistan in 1971, it started providing similar sanctuaries, training, arms and ammunition and funds to different terrorist groups in the territory of present Pakistan. Since 1993, it has also been infiltrating a large number of Pakistani nationals belonging to different jihadi terrorist organizations in J&K and other parts of India. There are UN resolutions, which have described sponsorship of terrorism by one State in the territory of another as amounting to indirect aggression. After the bombing of the UN Marines in Beirut in 1983, Mr George Shultz, the US nationals and interests, the US would not hesitate to use military force against that State, if political, diplomatic and other non-military means failed to persuade that State to stop sponsoring terrorism. It was in pursuance of this policy that President Regan ordered the bombing of suspected terrorist sanctuaries in Libya in 1986 after an explosion in a West Berlin discotheque killed some American soldiers. Israel has been following a similar policy of active defence against other States sponsoring terrorism against its nationals and interests. Continued Pakistani use of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) for sponsoring insurgency/terrorism against our North-East was one of the reasons why India decided to assist the liberation forces in the then East Pakistan. For some years after Pakistan lost East Pakistan, its sponsorship of terrorism against India decline, but it picked by momentum again after 1981. Though Pakistan has now been using terrorism against India for nearly 28 years, the Government of India has not come out with a meaningful policy which will make the sponsorship of terrorism prohibitively costly for Pakistan. As a result, the Pakistani military leadership had formed the impression that it can do anything against India and get away with it. Unless this impression is corrected, the Pakistani sponsorship of terrorism against India will continue. Until January, 2004, India at least kept highlighting vigorously the Pakistani involvement with terrorism. Under the so-called peace process, we are not even talking loudly and forcefully on this subject. Our muted silence will prove counter-productive. Our policy towards Pakistan has to have a mix of incentives and disincentives-incentives to makes it behave responsibly and disincentives if it does not. Presently, there is hardly any disincentive in our policy.
Nagaland / Mon Distt. On 16 Oct 13, Two NSCN (IM) terrorists apprehended in an operation.
In Syria, at least 30 people are reported to have been killed by a car bombing in the central city of Hama. The British-based Observatory for human rights said a check-point operated by the Syrian government troops was targeted. State TV described it a terrorist act.
In Iraq, at least ten people were killed and 23 wounded in two suicide bomb attacks in Rawa city in the western province of Anbar today. A provincial police official said one of the suicide bombers blew himself up during a City Council meeting, killing at least five officials and wounding ten others. The other explosion hit the entrance of the police station killing at least five policemen and wounding 13 others.
Linkages of Organised Crime With Terrorism Organised Crime
Definition by Interpol
“Any group having a corporate structure whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities often surviving on fear and corruption” Organized crime can be divided in three zones:-
- Zone of production:- Example- Colombia, Afghanistan
- Zone of distribution:- Example- North Mexico, Balkan
- Zone of consumption:- Example- US, Western Europe
“Activities that appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population to influence policy of a government by intimidation(dara dhamka kar) or coercion or to affect the conduct of the government by assassination or kidnapping” Four types:-
State Terrorism: – acts committed by government as WMD (weapon for mass destruction) used by Iraq in 80s. 2. International Terrorism: – acts planned, executed across more than one nation. 3. Domestic Terrorism: – acts planned, executed in one nation. 4. Religious Terrorism: – Example- Islamic Terrorism.
A decade ago, motivations for terrorism and organized crime were different. The main objective of terrorism was to pursue power; acquisition of power and to use power through political, ideological, religious or ethnic means but of organized crime was money and power through criminal activity. Today, most terrorists are engaged in some form of organized crime and a growing number of organized crime cartels are engaging in political violence. While some terrorist organizations may only profit briefly or indirectly from organized crime, others converge and become a hybrid organization displaying both characteristics. The UN office on drugs and crime (UNDC) recently issued a report on drug trafficking as a means to finance terrorism, highlighting the case of heroin trafficking, terrorist and warlords in Afghanistan. AL Qaeda is a terrorist network that has decentralized cells, franchises and associates that conduct criminal activities across the globe.
End of cold war: – reduce state financing of terrorist. Thus terrorist indulge in criminal activities to fill financial needs. 4. Global war on terror: – global cooperation to crack down terrorist financing.
Internet and cyberspace are essential tools for recruitment, propaganda, planning, logistics, fund raising, money laundering. Other crimes include identity theft, video piracy, credit card fraud, phishing. Internet also serves as a platform to traffic women and children, smuggle illegal migrants, sell weapons, obtain assassination services, sell bomb making equipments, illegal drugs sell and to deal with toxic waste. Both profited from anonymity of internet to diffuse propaganda, extort victims and recruit new people. Prisons acts as meeting ground for organized crime and terrorism. It also helps in recruitment. The terrorists who executed the Madrid train bombings in 2004 were organized criminals that were recruited in prison by terrorists. Access to travel documents is as important as weapons because most acts of terrorism are facilitated by stolen identity. Shared tactics have resulted in strategic alliances between organized crime and terrorist groups, especially if they are operating in same territory.
- Direct impact
- Indirect impact
- Global security
- Protracted wars
- Weaken fragile states
- Weaken licit trade
- Weakens access to resources
- Retrenchment of globalization
- Human security
- Global health
- Global migration
- Greater economic disparity
- Greater pressure on resources
- Lower global GDP
- Destruction of biosphere
- Failed peacekeeping
- Governance failure
- Failing and failed states
- Corrupt governments
- Lost of government revenues
- Lost GDP
- Reduction in tourism
- Shift of power to criminal gangs
- Society/human security
- Erosion of trust in government
- Exposure to crime/violence
- Illegal trade
- High risk environments (pollution, drugs, arms)
- Loss of legal business revenues
- Illegal trafficking of men/women/children
- Natural resources/wildlife/arms
- Rise of populist and criminal groups
- Reduction of resources (food, oil, water, land)
- Higher cost of living
- Higher drug addiction and increase in HIV/AIDS
Northeast: -Numbers of insurgent groups over a time have morphed into crime syndicates. All militant group run a parallel government or have their areas of influence involved in collecting money directly from people, and from government funds due to misgovernance, government officials threatened or bribed to award contracts and also essential commodities like rice and kerosene and sold to public at much higher rate. Extortion, kidnap, contracts, black marketing transnational drugs and arms to finance terrorism. Infamous entry points from Southeast Asia to India- moreh and Chittagong hill tract especially cox’s bazaar. Kashmir: – Unlike northeast reliance of funds from extortion and other related means is minimal. No parallel government and government resources do not reach militants hands. External funds by Pakistan and other Muslim countries especially gulf. Hawala (Money laundering) transactions take place swiftly and effectively in Kashmir. Another relationship is through the spread of counterfeit currency. Terrorists are the main courier of this currency. Indian mujahidin resorted to crime to raise funds. This includes robberies and kidnapping. Maoist’s terror movement also uses extortion, robberies of banks and kidnapping for fundraising.
Owns a well organised company in Pakistan, Thailand, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia and UAE to franchises in the fields of drug trafficking and gambling dens. He provides fund and information to Pakistan to continue terrorist activity across the border and inside India. He was also accused in the 1993 Mumbai blasts carried out under pressure of Inter services investigation (ISI) agency of Pakistan.
Cooperation in transnational policing such as building liaison networks, personnel exchanges, foreign training programs, technical assistance programs, joint operations and capacity building programs. Improving legal systems by training members of judiciary or international law or human rights. Professionalizing police training to include respect for human rights. Awareness raising efforts need to focus on the responsibility of individuals to dry up demand by stopping the purchase of illegal products and services. Need to strengthen financial intelligence to stop financial flows between cooperating terror and crime graphs. Domain
Convergence of organized crime and terrorism has now become utmost threat for
international security and peace. Its widening base at grassroot level was the cause of many failed states like Afghanistan, Kosovo etc and is weakening many states like Pakistan, North Korea etc. Its eradication can be possible only if cooperation will be achieved at international level and counter-terrorism programs along with development schemes will be implemented at grassroot level.
Terrorism is the systematic use of violent terrorin order to force another party to act in an involuntary manner (whether through action or inaction) by use of intimidation or threats or some other form of pressure or force. In fact the actual definition of terrorism has proved controversial. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions of terrorism in their national legislation. Terrorists are motivated by different goals & objectives.
INDIAN LEGISLATIONS (ACTS) RELATED TO TERRORISM
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (1985–1995):- It was the first anti-terrorism law legislated by the government to define and counter terrorist activities. It got lapsed in 1995 due to increasing unpopularity due to widespread allegations of abuse.
Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act (2002–2004):- Enacted after the attack on Parliament…supported by NDA.. passed in joint session of parliament (interesting…isn’t it) (180 days detention without charge sheet)…but repealed by UPA…reason was same- gross misuse.
Unlawful Activities Prevention Act(1967-now) (seriously…old is gold..still 1967 act is active & working) enacted to implement the provisions of 1963 Constitutional amendment act(which says that the state can impose, by law, reasonable restrictions in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India)…5 years to life imprisonment.. Included the term “Economic security” which in turn includes financial, monetary and fiscal stability, security of means of production and distribution, food security, livelihood, security, energy security,
ecological and environmental security…..
Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act (MCOCA) and the Karnataka Control of Organized Crime Act… these are some state acts….MCOCA was extended to Delhi in 2002.
What groups are involved in terrorism in India?
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT):- a militant Islamist group operating in Pakistan as well as in Jammu and Kashmir Jaish-e-Muhammad (J&K)
Harakat ul-Mujahadeen (HuM)
The Communist Party of India (Maoist)
Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI)- FORMED IN Afghanistan to counter USSR (1980). The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA)
What agencies are responsible for fighting terrorism in India? RAW:- External intelligence gathering agency
IB:- Internal intelligence gathering agency
Paramilitary forces (eg. CRPF)
NCTC (explained in Mrunal notes)
National Counter Terrorism Center (NCTC)
After the 26/11 attacks, Government felt the need to setup a separate body to deal with terrorism. It will have the power to conduct searches and arrests in any part of India. It will collect, collate and disseminate data on terrorism.
It will also maintain a data base on terrorist and their associates including their families.
Integrated intelligence grid that will link the databases of several departments and ministries of the Government of India. proposed in 2008 after Mumbai attacks but to be operational in 2013. tax and bank account details, credit card transactions, visa and immigration records and itineraries of rail and air travel…all these to be integrated.
The Illegal Immigration and Ethnic Conflicts of NE India
2. Strategic Importance
3. Various Accords
4. Sixth Schedule and Local Autonomy
5. Historical Background of Immigration
6. After Partition of India
7. Immigration Before and After 1971
8. Laws and Agreements to tackle Immigration and citizenship in India 9. Provisions of IMDT Act 1983
10. Assam Accord, 1985
11. Supreme court Verdict, 2005
12. Present Scenario
In the midst of security, human rights, border Land and resource sharing issues of North East India, the illegal Immigration gets up in the order as one of the major socio economic unresolved problems. Started as a conflict between the inhabitants and settlers as land tenants during British period, the issue developed as a resource sharing to communal conflicts. The clashes and loss of life for the past five decades needs strong political decisions regardless of the brotherhood bond between India and Bangladesh. The violence of Kokrajhar in Assam triggered all India communal tensions towards a particular community.The issue needed to be addressed in a broader platform. For Mains, this article can be covered under topics of GS-II paper and State PSCs exams.
Ethnic mosaic as diverse as the rest of our nation, of the 563 communities listed by the “People of India” project, 635 were categorized as tribal, as which 213 were belong to NE states. Project also listed 325 languages of 175 belong to Tibeto-Burman and the MonKhmer family were found in NE. NE represents India’s most complex affair, leading to difficulty in policy making and execution. 84% of its population from rural, Geography- 9%of India, 98% of border form India’s International Boundary. Connected by 27Km ‘Siliguri Corridor’ of West Bengal with rest of the Nation. Called as 7 sister and a brother State. Sikkim not part of NE initially, till approved so by GoI in 2002. Rich in Resources: Hydrocarbons, coal, Limestone, dolomite, Graphite, Quartzite, Sillimonite etc., Over 10% of Forest Products requirements of the country met from NER. Rich in Biodiversity, Immense Potential in Hydro Power Generation. 80% of Total Hydro Power Potential of the Country. Arunachal Pradesh alone Expected to Generate 267GW i.e 30% of Total Country Production. A central region for many International Initiatives and Trade agreements: SAFTA, BIMSTEC, APTA, LEP, EAS. Gateway for South-East Asian Nations. Though shares just 3% of Total GDP of the Nation. Because of Multi-Lingual and Multi-Religious society, NE envisaged with some special Provision in Our Constitution like Part IX and Part IXA not applicable for Nagaland and Parts of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram. Local Autonomy ensured with Sixth Schedule Status to NE states: Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram. Special Status For Nagaland Under Art- 371A
Sixth Schedule provided for autonomous districts and autonomous regions within those districts with elected councils that enjoyed the power to levy certain taxes, to constitute courts for administering justice and make laws on various subjects. Powers of the District Councils and Regional Councils to make laws were with respect to- (a) the allotment, occupation or use, or the setting apart, of land, other than any land which is a reserved forest for the purposes of agriculture or grazing or for residentialor other non-agricultural purposes or for any other purpose likely to promote the interestsof the inhabitants of any village or town (b) the management of any forest not being a reserved forest; (c) the use of any canal or water-course for the purpose of agriculture; (d) the regulation of the practice of jhum or other forms of shifting cultivation; (e) the establishment of village or town committees or councils and their powers; (f) any other matter relating to village or town administration, including village or town police and public health and sanitation; (g) the appointment or succession of Chiefs or Headmen;
Historical Background of the Issue:
British east India company brought Muslim Peasants from East Bengal to Brahmaputra Valley(Policy of Permanent Settlement), Policy towards the development of the region accelerated the movement of people from outside, they needed essential human resources includes administrators, businessmen & Laours. Assam annexed by British in 1826 and adopted Bengali as official Language though mostly inhibited by Bodos and Ahoms. Bodos are Largest Plain Tribes of India. Partition Bengal in 1905 created Communal differences and Tensions. Formation of All India Muslim League in Dhaka in 1906 encouraged the migration to increase the Muslim population in Assam for political reasons. GoI(Excluded and Partially Excluded areas) order 1926 and GoI Act 1935 all based on assumptions that only hill tribes need special protection as there were vast differences between them and the majority of the Assamese people in the Plains.Plain Tribes Ignored. In 1937 Muslim League,demanded and created Pakistan for Muslims, became part of the ruling dispensation of Assam and its leader, Saiyid Mohammad Saadulla, headed five different ministries for most of the period 1937-1946. The elections had been held to Indian provinces after the British relented and gave Provincial Autonomy. In 1941 the ruling Muslim League introduced Land Settlement Policy, which allowed migrants to settle down in government land anywhere in Assam. The agitation of locals opposed to the migration was further intensified by claims of Saadulla during World War II that his policy of allowing migrants into Assam was part of an effort of the Muslim League to help the British in its World War II efforts. The Muslim League, which supported the British war efforts, claimed immigrants would help in cultivating more food for the war period.
After partition of India:
After partition, though Jinnah was secular in his inaugural speech, the following government provoked major communal riots and made Hindus to flee India. The East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act 1950 enacted by Muslim League made ‘No land to be possessed by a single person in excess of 200 bighas or a quantity of 10 standard bighas/person of his family. The Zamindars, mostly Hindus lost land and fled to India in fear of future troubles. India Responded with Immigrant(Expulsion from Assam)Act 1950. It distinguished immigrants as Hindus- refuees and Muslims- Migrants. Allowed only people affected by civil disturbances in East Pakistan to settle in India(Muslim cannot claim so). Deported back them into East Pakistan. The India’s action created much antipathy to Pakistan and the made a pact with India. That is Nehru-Liaquat Ali Agreement of 1950 to allow return of all migrants back into East Pakistan regardless of religion and ensured same land they left before flee. Also it brought Muslims who fled to East Pakistan back into India. Around 161360 people came to Assam through recognized route during 1950. The all deportation allowed only who migrated before Dec31, 1950.
Immigration Before and After 1971:
In 1964, Fresh Communal riots absorbed in both nations. Large influx of Hindu migrants in India. Assam state passed ‘Prevention of Infiltration from Pakistan(PIP)Act 1964- More Secular from 1950 Act. This Formed Special Border Force, set up passport checkup center. More Engagements from federal government for the governance of border area witnessed. After the war of 1971, 75Million population of Bangladesh, 10 Million fled to India as refugees and 1million stayed permanently. When Electoral rolls were revised byState Election Commission, found a large no of Bangladeshi Muslims were included in that and asked the state to identify the constituencies with a big rise in no of votes. ‘Assam Movement’ (1979-85) formed to agitate against the issue, Majority of them were Bodos, Koch-Rajbhangshi, Rabhas, Adivasis, Tea Tribes and Assamese. Issue worsened because of ‘Nalli Massacre-1983’.
As a result,GoI enacted Illegal Migrant(Detention by Tribunals)Act 1983 confined only to Assam. Tripura do witnessed 6 lakh Bengali immigrants from 1947-1971. The Inhabitants who speaks Kokborok and other tribal groups formed ‘Tripura National Volunteer Force(TNVF) and killed Bengali Immigrants at Mandai Bazaar(Mandai Bazaar Massacre). Agreement between GoI & TNVF for self-governance as ‘TripuraTribal Autonomous Council’. Extremists’ activities still exists under ‘All Tripura Tiger Force’ and ‘National
Liberation Front of Tripura’.
Enacted purportedly to deal with the detention of foreigners illegally migrated to India across the borders of the sensitive East& NE regions of the Country. Failed to serve the purpose because of its very stringent provisions. It setup tribunals to hear the complaints as quasi-judicial body. The complainant was required to prove the suspect is an Illegal Immigrant. It created burden to the complainant also contrary to other Laws, especially in Foreigner Act the onus to prove lies on suspect not on the prosecution. Also Complaint against a Immigrant could be filled only by prosecution lives within 3Km radius of the residence of accused. The affidavit also should be supported by a person of above same condition. The Act applicable to the migrants of after 25 March 1971.
The Definition of ‘Illegal Immigrant’ was mentioned as one without possessing passport, any travel document and any Law document. Conviction become difficult because easy to claim loss of passport, document etc., so responsibility again fell on Litigant. It restricted Litigant by saying ‘not more than 10 application (or) declaration per one litigant’.
Fixed the cut-off date to determine illegal migrants in Assam was March25,1971. Migrants who arrived before that considered citizens and
arrived between Jan 01,1966 to Mar25, 1971 registered under Foreigners Act, their names deleted from electoral rolls for 10 years and restored after that. Those who came after Mar25,1971 deported under IMDTs.
Failure of IM(DT) Act, the cases Deported 1985-2003 were 1561 compared with deported from 1962-1984 through Foreigners Act 1946 were 3Lakh, questioned the validity of the Act. On the Case Sarbananda Sonowalvs. Union of India in SC 2005, held that onus to prove a person as a foreigner on the complainant as unconstitutional and stuck down the Act. SC observed ‘Deep analysis of IMDT act & Rules made they have purportedly enacted or made to give shelter or protection to immigrants of Bangladesh. Also held the Tribunals under IMDT should ‘cease to function’ and cases before it to be transferred to Foreigners (Tribunals) order, 1964 and decided the manner provided under Foreigners Act, 1946. After the verdict the central amended Foreigners Act 1946 and Included Assam, as like other states in the Act. The tribunals became devoid of appellate authority to justify citizenship and the power came under Executive Authority. Government of West Bengal Managed to deport 50lakh illegal migrants under Foreigners Act without Tribunals, IMDT act and any agitations recently.
Cite this Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security. (2017, Jan 25). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/role-of-external-state-and-non-state-actors-in-creating-challenges-to-internal-security/