Satisfaction Dimensions of LCD TVs in Comparison with the CRT TVs Sultan Kayg? n Sel VESTEL Electronics, R&D Division, Turkey Middle East Technical University, Turkey sultan. [email protected] com. tr There is a great transition from CRT TV to flat panel TV usage. This transition has an effect on the preferences, expectations and satisfaction criteria of flat panel TV users. This research will inquire the satisfaction dimensions for CRT TVs and LCD TVs, as a common type of flat panel TV, and point out whether there is an effect of the before mentioned transition on the satisfaction dimensions for LCD TVs.
Keywords: CRT TV, flat panel TV, user preference, satisfaction. 1 Introduction Today there is a transition from CRT TV to flat panel TV consumption. The decrease in the number of CRT TVs and increase in the number of flat panel TVs in the world’s leading TV production companies, the disappearance of CRT TVs in the consumer electronics fairs worldwide (i.
e. IFA 2006-2007-2008, CEBIT 2006-20072008, CES 2007-2008-2009) and appearance of flat panel TVs in all the brand’s showrooms is a strong clue for this transition.
This transition should also have an effect on the preferences, expectations and accordingly satisfaction criteria of LCD TV users. This research aims to explore the satisfaction dimensions for CRT TVs and LCD TVs and point out whether there is an effect of the before mentioned transition on the satisfaction dimensions for LCD TVs. 1. 1 Satisfaction Satisfaction is a considerable issue for marketing discipline since it affects the purchase of the products. Satisfaction with its great emphasis in marketing is therefore deeply explored in this discipline since 1970s (Wirtz & Mattila, 2001).
Different definitions of satisfaction exist in the literature. Giese & Cote (2000) mention about a need to clarify its definition prior to measurement as the measures may be questionable otherwise. It is defined mainly with the concept of fulfillment of expectations. Swan & Combs (1976) explain the process of satisfaction according to the theoretical resources as following: “When purchasing a product the consumer makes predictions (forms expectations) concerning the future performance of the item. As the item is used, the consumer compares the quality of performance to his expectations.
If the product performs as well as, or better than expected he will be satisfied. If, however, performance is below expectations, dissatisfaction will result. ” (p. 25) This process is called as the confirmation-disconfirmation paradigm (Cadotte et al, 1987). Anderson and Suillivan (1993) pointed out that the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of customers could be measured based on the gap between the expectations of customers before purchasing and the performance of the purchased products or services.
There also exist an idea on the concept that consumers judge products according to some attributes, some of them being important determinants for satisfaction and the remaining some not critical for satisfaction but are related to dissatisfaction when they lead to poor performance (Swan & Combs, 1976). In marketing discipline satisfaction is explored and evaluated in terms of customer and purchasing action whereas in this study it will be explored in relation to user and usage since the product is in intense relation to user after the purchasing action.
Although satisfaction is regarded in the side-line besides efficiency and effectiveness in HCI literature (Hassenzahl et al. , 2001), consumer electronics products need to satisfy the user in terms of both their performance and image-impression felt by them (Han et al. 2001). Han et al. (2001) find the common usability definition inconsistent with consumer electronic products. They state that consumer electronic products are not merely tools fulfilling their function but also a visual object that is placed in the living environment.
Indeed they reflect the preferences of its user and the satisfaction through their image-impression that is as much important as their ease of use and efficiency. Main questions for this research can be stated as; • What are the dimensions of satisfaction for CRT TVs and LCD TVs? • In what aspects are they similar in these two groups? • In what aspects do they differ between these two groups? • How does the transformation of satisfaction take place in LCD TV usage? 2 Method For identifying the concept of satisfaction in CRT-TVs and LCD TVs a four tep study is carried out: 1. Technology acceptance questionnaire 2. Questionnaire on Interaction Level 3. System acceptance questionnaire (SAQ) 4. Post-questionnaire interview Technology Acceptance Questionnaire. Both CRT TV and LCD TV includes a medium to high level electronics technology with their embedded software and menu structure which is a reflection of this software and its functionalities. Hence dealing with their interface effectively requires at least a medium level of technology based product experience or a level of acceptability to these products.
This questionnaire aims at determining the participants having the expected level of acceptability for technology. Questionnaire on Interaction Level. This questionnaire aims at defining the interaction level of each participant with TV, remote control and TV menu. The data gathered would be an important source of information while analyzing the SAQ about satisfaction. These questions are built for gathering information about: Purchasing information TV watching frequency Menu usage frequency Remote control usage frequency Expectations from a TV SAQ (System Acceptance Questionnaire).
After obtaining the technology acceptance level, the interaction level of the participants with the TV and their expectations from a TV, 10 participants are selected from LCD TV users (LU) and 10 from CRT TV users (CU). The selected participants are required to fill in system acceptance questionnaire which includes questions related to usefulness, clarity, efficiency, support/help, satisfaction and visual qualities. The questions are adapted according to the subject of the study.
Except the satisfaction and visual quality based questions, the questions about usefulness, clarity, efficiency and support are related with the menu system and remote control of the TV. Post-questionnaire Interview. After the SAQ, a post-questionnaire interview is carried for taking the in-depth information. And participants are asked about for their expectations from the TV they own. They are asked to compare these two groups of TVs in terms of satisfaction criteria. 3 Results Carrying out technology acceptance scale revealed that the participant scores ranged between 4,7 to 6 for CU.
Since our minimum acceptable score is 4 all the participants are selected for the following steps of the study. Ages of the participants ranged between 20 to 45. After the technology acceptance questionnaire, the second questionnaire inquiring the ownership information and interaction level of each participant with TV, remote control and TV menu is applied. Rare TV users are not evaluated in this study. Selected participants are given an SAQ that is prepared for the evaluation. TV, remote control and TV menu are evaluated separately.
Remote control and menu questionnaires are composed of 6 dimensions, usefulness, clearance, efficiency, help/support, satisfaction and visual qualities whereas TV questionnaire only covers usefulness, clearance and visual qualities dimensions. After each part an interview is carried out to reveal out the underlying aspects of the choices. The mean scores of each dimension, and personal mean scores of each participant for each dimension are also calculated at the end. These mean scores are used to find the correlations of the participant comments for each score and to assess the underlying reason for these correlations. Discussion In general the average scores given for the TV, remote control and menu on defined dimensions are parallel in the two groups of CU and LU. When the results of the SAQ are evaluated it is seen that score of usefulness is at a satisfactory level for all the three units (TV, remote control and menu). However it is revealed that this satisfaction roots from the low expectation level of users from the TV functionally. It is declared by 90% of the CU and 80% of the LU that their expectation from TV is to function well and their interaction with it is composed of only main functions.
In terms of these expectations they assess the TV successful on usefulness dimension. This attitude matches with disconfirmation of expectations theory. However in the post-questionnaire interview it is revealed that expected level of usefulness also depends on the technology level of the product. Even the users with the high technology acceptance level who could have extreme expectations of usefulness from the product have scored high for the usefulness dimension for CRT TVs since they evaluate the product as a low-technology product.
However the users in the post-questionnaire interview reflected their complaints and negative feelings about the interaction style of their remote control intensively. Remote control as an element that elicit the whole interaction of the user with the TV should provide ease of use at the highest level. The participants all emphasized their expectation of clarity, physical fit of the product with their hand and ease of use. Since their remote controls didn’t fulfill these aspects successfully the terms fun and enjoyment were peculiar terms for them.
Usefulness and usability issues on remote controls in the market should be studied intensively. TV menu is used by the participants with a rare occasion. 90% of the CRT TV users and 100% of the TFT LCD TV users stated that they use the menu very rarely. Postquestionnaire interview exposed that it was because they didn’t want to use it unless it is very necessary. One of CRT TV users stated that “I really don’t want to use this menu if I didn’t really need to”. The usefulness scores were high for both groups because of the low expectations again.
However when they need to use it they have very serious problems in interaction. In remote control since the participants got used to the commonly used functions they are not as frustrated as while using the rarely needed functions of the menu. Although its usage is rare in common, users have concrete higher expectations on usability and usefulness of the menu. 60 % of the CU and 50% of the LU scored higher than satisfactory level for the statement that “I would like to learn more about using the menu”.
However they stated that they are at the same time afraid of using it. In terms of visual qualities of the menu both group of participants gave considerably unsatisfactory scores (2. 8 for CU and 3 for LU). Inspite of their rare usage frequency they repeatedly complaint about the unsuccessfulness of visual quality of their menu. Both CU and LU matched their expectation of high technology to be reflected on the visual qualities of the menu also. Different from their expectations from the remote control they have mentioned about fun and enjoyment aspects more insistently.
Animated icons, more colored and detailed figures in the interface, feedback with movement, color or sound are repeatedly declared expectations. Some participants told that the menu could be designed similar to the interface of the interactive mobile phones. Since menu is hidden aspect of the TV and usually not visible during the purchase of the product, marketing departments don’t take care much about its usability and visual appeal but it is apparent that users have higher expectations on it and this expectation increases with the electronic products getting higher in technology.
Since the electronic products are getting more complicated with the added functions the success of the interaction of the interface will be of more and more vital for the success of the product. Acknowledgements. This paper is based on the research carried at Vestel Electronics R&D division and it is a part of the requirement for the course ID 705 Application of Usability Testing & User Centered Design (Middle East Technical University – Department of Industrial Design – Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cigdem ERBUG). References 1. Anderson, Eugene W. , & Suillivan, M. 1993). The antecedents and consequence of customer satisfaction for firm. Marketing Science, 12(2), 25–43. 2. Cadotte, E. R. , Woodruff, R. B. , Jenkins, R. L. (1987). Expectations and Norms in Models of Consumer Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 24 (August 1987), (pp. 305-314) 3. Giese, J. , Cote, J. A. , (2000). Defining Consumer Satisfaction. Academy of Marketing Science Review (online), Available: www. amsreview. org/articles/giese01-2000. pdf. 4. Han, S. , Yun, M. H. , Kwahk, J. , ong, S. W. , (2001). Usability of Consumer Products.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 28, (pp. 143-151) 5. Hassenzahl, M. , Beau, A. , Burnester, M. , (2001). Engineering Joy. IEEE Software, Jan/Feb, (pp. 2-8) 6. Swan, J. E. , Combs, L. J. , (1976). Product Performance and Consumer Satisfaction: A New Concept. Journal of Marketing, 40 (April 19/6), (pp. 25-33) 7. Wirtz, J. , Mattila, A. , (2001). Exploring the Role of Alternative Perceived Performance Measures and Needs-Congruency in the Consumer Satisfaction Process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 11(3), (pp. 181-192)
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