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Schizophrenia: Explained And Treatments Essay, Research Paper

Schizophrenia: Explained and Treatments

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Jeffrey A. Hurt

Professor Leary

Abnormal Psychology 203

2 May 1996

Schizophrenia is a lay waste toing encephalon upset impacting people worldwide of all

ages, races, and economic degrees. It causes personality decomposition and loss

of contact with world ( Sinclair ) . It is the most common psychosis and it is

estimated that one per centum of the U.S. population will be diagnosed with it over

the class of their lives ( Torrey 2 ) . Recognition of this disease dates back to

the 1800’s when Emil Kraepelin concluded after a comprehensive survey of

1000s of patients that a “province of dementedness was supposed to follow

precociously or shortly after the oncoming of the illness.

” Eugene Bleuler, a celebrated

Swiss head-shrinker, coined the term “schizophrenic disorder,” mentioning to what he called

the “splitting of the assorted psychic maps” ( Honig 209-211 ) . Having a

“split personality” is frequently falsely associated with schizophrenic disorder.

Possessing multiple personalities on different occasions is a signifier of neuroticism

frailty psychosis ( Chapman ) .

Symptoms most normally associated with schizophrenic disorder

include psychotic beliefs, hallucinations, and thought upset ( Torrey 1 ) . Delusions

are irrational thoughts, routinely absurd and bizarre. A patient may believe

that he or she is possessed of great wealth, mind, importance or power.

Sometimes the patient may believe he is George Washington or another great

historical individual ( Chapman ) . Hallucinations are common, peculiarly auditory,

as voices in the 3rd individual or noticing upon the patient’s ideas and

actions ( Arieti ) . Persons may besides hear music or see nonexistent images

( Sinclair ) . Schizophrenic idea upset is the lessened ability to believe

clearly and logically ( Torrey 2 ) . Many times, schizophrenics invent new words

( called neologisms ) with alone significances ( Chapman ) . Often it is evident by

disconnected and nonmeaningful linguistic communication that renders the individual incapable of

take parting in conversation and lending to his disaffection from his household,

friends, and society ( Torrey 2 ) . There appears to be three major subtypes of

Schizophrenia: paranoiac, hebephrenic, and catatonic. Delusions, frequently of

prosecution, are outstanding in the paranoiac type ( Arieti ) . Hebephrenic

schizophrenic disorder is characterized by idea upset, helter-skelter linguistic communication, absurdity,

and giggling ( Eysenck, Arnold, and Meili 961-962 ) . In the catatonic signifier, the

individual may sit, stand, or prevarication in fixed positions or attitudes for hebdomads or months

on terminal. The individual may besides hold a symptom known as “waxy flexibleness” in which

the victim will keep places of the organic structure in which he is put for long

periods of clip, even if they are uncomfortable ( Arieti ) . There have been many

theories to explicate what causes schizophrenic disorder. Heredity, emphasis, medical

unwellness, and physical hurt to the encephalon are all thought to be factors but

research has non yet pinpointed the specific combination of factors that produce

the disease ( Sinclair ) . While schizophrenic disorder can impact anyone at any point in

life, it is slightly more common in those individuals who are genetically

predisposed to the disease ( Torrey 3 ) . Surveies have shown that about

12% of the progeny will be schizophrenic if one parent has the upset and

50% if both parents have the upset. This may be due to the fact that the

offspring are reared in an environment other than normal. Although statistics

from acceptance bureaus show that these rates are more affected by cistrons instead

than environment ( Chapman ) . Three-fourthss of individuals with schizophrenic disorder

develop the disease between 16 and 25 old ages of age. Onset is uncommon after age

30, and rare after age 40 ( Torrey 3 ) . Psychiatric patients are by and large

insulted by contentions that their problem was brought on by bad parenting,

childhood injury, or hebdomad character ( Willwerth 79 ) . Sigmund Freud has suggested

that schizophrenic disorder is developed from a deficiency of fondness in the mother-infant

relationship in the first few hebdomads after birth. Increased degrees of the

neurotransmitter Dopastat in the encephalon’s left hemisphere and lowered glucose

degrees in the encephalon’s frontal lobes have been coupled to schizophrenic episodes

( Chapman ) .

Treatment for schizophrenic disorder includes electroconvulsive intervention ( shock therapy ) ,

psychosurgery, psychotherapeutics, and the usage of antipsychotic medicines ( Torrey

5 ) . Shock therapy is the application of electrical current to the encephalon ( Long ) .

In 1937, daze therapy was foremost introduced and was the popular manner of

intervention until the late 1950’s ( Chapman ) . It is effectual in the most terrible

catatonic signifiers of schizophrenic disorder, but its usage in other signifiers is problematic

( Eysenck, Arnold, and Meili 964-965 ) . Psychosurgery became common in the 1940’s

and 1950’s but is now in discredit. Lobotomies, most frequently remotion of the

frontal lobes, was the most widespread signifier of psychosurgery. Scientists have

since found that by unnaturally making lesions in the country of the frontlet

lobes, one’s personality can earnestly be modified ( Baruk 196-197 ) . For the

most portion, society has condemned this signifier of intervention as inhumane.

Psychotherapy achieves the best consequences when the doctor listens carefully to

his client’s symptoms, diagnosing quickly and accurately, advises the individual of

the diagnosing, and so prescribes a successful intervention plan ( Humphrey and

Osmond, 189 ) . Psychotherapy can offer understanding, reassurance, and

suggestions for managing the emotional jobs of the upset and aid to

alleviate nerve-racking life state of affairss ( Long ) . The bulk of mental wellness

professionals believe that psychotherapeutics combined with drug therapy produce the

best intervention of schizophrenic disorder ( Walsh 103-104 ) . Since the late 1950’s,

schizophrenic disorder has been treated chiefly with medicines. Most of these drugs

barricade the action of Dopastat in the encephalon ( Chapman ) . These drugs can assist a

great trade in decreasing hallucinations and psychotic beliefs, and in assisting to keep

coherent ideas. But, they normally have serious side effects that contribute

to people non taking their medicine, and backsliding ( Long ) . Haldol is the most

normally prescribed antipsychotic drug to handle schizophrenic disorder. Abbott

Labs is soon in the procedure of proving the safety and efficiency of

a new drug, sertindole ( Torrey 8 ) . About ten old ages ago the first surveies of

Clozaril opened up a new line of medical research and it was hailed as a

miracle drug. Unfortunately, a little per centum of patients on Clozaril

develop a blood status known as agranulosis and have to halt taking the

medicine ( Long ) . Agranulocytosis is a upset noted by a monolithic decrease

in the numb

Er of white blood cells which normally consequences in the occurance of

septic ulcers on the tegument and pharynx, enteric piece of land, and other mucose

membranes. Agranulocytosis may do a bacterial infection to go fatal

since white blood cells are an of import defence against micro-organisms

( Chapman ) . A new medicine, olanzapine, may be the following miracle drug on the

market. Recent surveies have shown that olanzapine offers many of the same

benefits of Clozaril but seemingly without the side affects ( Torrey 8-9 ) .

Hospitalization is frequently necessary in instances of acute schizophrenic disorder to guarantee

safety of the affected individual, while besides leting induction of medicine

under close supervising ( Torrey 10-11 ) . In milder instances, household therapy has

been to be found helpful. With this type of therapy, household members learn to

unrecorded with the individual in an apprehension and accepting mode ( Chapman ) . In the

following extracts from her life narrative, Esso Leete describes her 20-year conflict

with schizophrenic disorder and her turning credence of her unwellness. She has committed

herself to taking the fullest life her disease will let and to educating

others about mental unwellness. She’s use full clip as a medical records

transcriptionist at a infirmary where she was one time committed ( Long ) .

“It has been 20 old ages since I foremost became mentally ill. As I approach 40, I

happen myself still fighting with the same symptoms, still crippled by the same

frights and paranoia. I am haunted by an evasive image of what my life could

have been, whom I might hold become, what I might hold accomplished. My

schizophrenic disorder is a sad realisation, a painful world, that I live with every

twenty-four hours. Let me state you a small about my history. I likely inherited a

sensitivity to mental unwellness; my uncle was diagnosed as holding dementedness

praecox”, an earlier term for schizophrenic disorder. In my senior twelvemonth of high school,

I began to see personality alterations. I did non recognize the significance

of the alterations at the clip, and I think others denied them, but looking back I

can see that they were the earliest marks of unwellness. I became progressively

withdrawn and sullen. I felt alienated and lonely and hated everyone. I felt as

if there were a immense spread between me and the remainder of the universe; everybody seemed

so distant from me. I reluctantly went of to college, experiencing entirely and wholly

unprepared for life off from place. I was isolated and had no close friends.

As clip went on, I spoke to virtually no 1. Increasingly during categories I

found myself pulling images of Van Gogh and composing poesy. I forgot to eat

and began kiping in my apparels. Performing even the most everyday activities,

such as taking a shower, seldom even occurred to me. Toward the terminal of my first

semester, I had my first psychotic episode. I did non understand what was

go oning and was highly frightened. The experience left me exhausted and

confused, and I began hearing voices for the first clip. I was admitted to a

psychiatric infirmary, diagnosed as holding schizophrenic disorder, treated with

medicines and released after a few months. During my late teens and early 20s,

when my age demanded that I day of the month and develop societal accomplishments, my unwellness required

that I spend my adolescence on psychiatric wards. To this twenty-four hours I mourn the loss

of those old ages. It was non until much later that I made a witting attempt to

develop a sense of control, recognizing that I had the power to make up one’s mind what signifier

my life would take and who I would be. For the following 10 old ages, I did non necessitate

hospitalization. During that clip, I was divorced from my first hubby and

married a community mental wellness centre head-shrinker. Although I experienced

some acute outbursts of symptomatology during that period, I had no return

of persistent, disenabling symptoms. When more serious symptoms returned approximately 10

old ages subsequently, I denied their being. Having discontinued medicines old ages

earlier and now retreating from other signifiers of support, I experienced more

symptoms. I decided to look into a private psychiatric residential halfway

house that one of the nurses at the infirmary had told me about. I sought and

gained admittance to the plan. Staff at this installation believed in my

possible, and I began to develop assurance in myself. I was now ready to take

control of my life. My alienated 2nd hubby and I moved into an flat

together, and I threw myself into the undertaking of happening employment. None of these

stairss were accomplished easy, but the pieces of my sporadically disrupted life

were coming back together. Like those with other chronic unwellnesss, I know to

anticipate good and bad times and to do the most of the good. I take my life really

earnestly and make every bit much as I can when I am experiencing good, because I know that

there will be bad times when I am likely to lose some of the land I have

gained. Professions and household members must assist the sick individual set realistic

ends. I would bid them non to be devastated by our unwellnesss and transmit

this hopeless attitude to us. I would press them ne’er to lose hope, for we will

non strive if we believe the attempt is futile. &#8221 ;

As one can see, schizophrenia is a extremely riotous disease that has no respect

for who it affects. Research workers and mental wellness professionals are perpetrating

huge sums of clip and energy to happening its cause and polishing its intervention.

Health attention and lost resources cost about $ 33 billion per twelvemonth in the

United States entirely ( Torrey 2 ) . Organizations of schizophrenic patients and

households across the state offer their members support and comfort.

Schizophrenia doesn’t impact one person-it affects whole households.

Plants Cited

Arieti, Silvano. “Schizophrenia.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1992 erectile dysfunction. Baruk,

Henri. Patients Are Peoples Like Us. New York: William Morrow and Company,

1978. Chapman, Loren J. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Release 6. Computer

Software. Creative Technology, 1993. IBM PC-DOS 3.3, 4MB, CD-ROM. Eysenck, H. ,

W. Arnold, and R. Meili. Encyclopedia of Psychology. New York:

Continuum Publishing Company, 1982. Hoffer, Abram and Osmond, Humphrey. How to

Live with Schizophrenia. Secaucus: Carol Publishing Group, 1992. Honig,

Albert. The Awakening Nightmare. Rockaway: American Faculty Press, 1972.

Long, Phillip W. Schizophrenia: Youth’s Greatest Disabler. Internet:

Internet Mental Health, 1996. Sinclair, Lawrence. High Performance Consultants.

Psyrix Corporation, 1995. Torrey, E. Fuller. Surviving Schizophrenia: A Family

Manual. National Alliance for the Mentally Ill Pamphlet. Arlington, VA:

Wilson, 1993. Walsh, Maryellen. Schizophrenia: Straight Talk for Family

Friends. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. , 1985Willwerth, James.

“The Souls that Drugs Saved.” Time Oct. 1994: 78-81.

Cite this Schizophrenia Explained And Treatments Research

Schizophrenia Explained And Treatments Research. (2018, Jun 23). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/schizophrenia-explained-and-treatments-essay-research/

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