The State and federal levels

At both the State and federal levels, legislators looked at the high cost of long-term psychiatric hospitalizing - The State and federal levels introduction. Social scientists guaranteed them that community-based care would be in the best interests of all concerned: the mentally ill and the general, tax-paying public. ” It was believed that a social breakdown syndrome would develop in chronically mentally ill persons who were institutionalized. The characteristics of this syndrome were submission to authority, withdrawal, lack of initiative, and excessive dependence on the institution (Seeds).

Schizophrenia is the most common psychoses in the United States affecting around one percent of the United States population. It is characterized by a deep withdrawal from interpersonal relationships and a retreat into a world of fantasy. This plunge into fantasy results in a loss of contact from reality that can vary from mild to severe. Psychosis has more than one acceptable definition. The psychoses are different from other groups of psychiatric disorders in their degree of severity, withdrawal, alteration in affect, impairment of intellect, and regression I insight).

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In psychotic disorders, the intellect is involved in the actual psychotic process, resulting in derangement of language, thought, and judgment. Schizophrenia is called a formal thought disorder. Thinking and understanding of reality are usually severely impaired. The most severe and prolonged regressions are seen in the psychoses, regression. There is a falling back to earlier behavioral levels. In schizophrenia this may include returning to primitive forms of behavior, such as curling up into a fetal position, eating with one’s hands, and so forth.

The symptoms of schizophrenia usually occur during adolescence or early adulthood, except for paranoid schizophrenia, which usually has a later onset. The process of schizophrenia is often slow, with the exception of catatonia, which may have an abrupt onset. As an adolescent, a person who later develops schizophrenia is often antisocial with others, lonely, and depressed. Plans for the future may appear to others as vague or unrealistic (Seeds). It is possible that there may be a prescriptions phase a year or two before the disorder is diagnosed.

This phase may include neurotic symptoms such as acute or heroic anxiety, phobias, obsessions, and compulsions or may reveal dissociation features. As anxiety mounts, indications of a thought disorder may appear. An adolescent may complain of difficulty with concentration and with the ability to complete school work or job-related work. Over time there is severe deterioration of work along with the deterioration Of the ability to cope with the environment. Complains such as mind wandering and needing to devote more time to maintaining one’s thoughts are heard.

Finally, the ability to keep out unwanted intrusions into one’s thoughts becomes impossible. As a result, the person finds that his or her mind becomes so confused and thoughts so distracted, that the ability to have ordinary conversations with others is lost (Insight). The person may initially feel that something strange or wrong is going on. He or she misinterprets things going on in the environment and may give mystical or symbolic meanings to ordinary events. The schizophrenic may think that certain colors hold special powers or a thunderstorm is a message from God.

The person often mistakes other people’s actions or words as signs of hostility or evidence of harmful intent. As the disease progresses, the person suffers from strong feelings of rejection, lack Of self-respect, loneliness, and feelings Of worthlessness. Emotional and physical withdrawal increase feelings of isolation, as does an inability to trust or associate with others. The withdrawal may become severe, and withdrawal from reality may be noticeable from hallucinations, delusions, and odd mannerisms. Some schizophrenics think their thoughts are being controlled by others or that their thoughts are being broadcast to the world.

Others think that people are out to harm them or are spreading rumors about them. Voices are usually heard in the form of commands or belittling statements about his or her character. These voices may seem to appear from outside the room, from electrical appliances, or from other sources (Insight). There are many different factors that lead to schizophrenia. The main way to acquire schizophrenia is through heredity. A person has a 46% chance of getting schizophrenia if his or her mother and father has it. One identical twin has a chance of getting schizophrenia if the other twin acquires it.

There are also some environmental factors that lead to schizophrenia. One is if the mother test the flu during the second trimester of pregnancy causing brain damage to the unborn child. Another factor is complications at birth that could affect the child mentally. Another factor causing schizophrenia is stress because the mind is overworked and eventually can’t function properly. An important factor concerning schizophrenia is how a child is raised. If the child has abusive parents, he or she will have serious mental problems in the future (Cognitive).

Early in this disease, there may be obsession with religion, matters of the supernatural, or abstract causes of creation. Speech may be characterized by unclear symbolisms. Later, words and phrases may become puzzling, and these can only be understood as part of the person’s private fantasy world. People who have been ill with schizophrenia for a long time often have speech patterns that are disoriented aimless and deficient of meaning to the casual observer. Sexual activity is frequently altered in mental disorders. Homosexual concerns may be associated with all psychoses but are most prominent with paranoia.

Doubts concerning sexual identity, exaggerated sexual needs, altered sexual performance and fears of intimacy reorient in schizophrenia. The process of regression in schizophrenia is accompanied by increased self-fixation, isolation, and masturbatory behavior (Insight). The schizophrenic person finds himself or herself in a painful dilemma. He or she retreats from personal intimacy or closeness because of the intense fear that closeness will be followed by ensuing rejection or harm. This retreat from intimacy leaves the person lonely and isolated. This dilemma often becomes the nurse’s dilemma.

The nurse wishes to form a productive emotional bond but at the same time seeks to lessen the client’s anxiety. For the schizophrenic person, moves toward emotional closeness will eventually increase anxiety (Cognitive). The dopamine theory of schizophrenia is based on the action of the narcoleptic drugs, better known as antispasmodic drugs. Narcoleptics are the drugs of choice for treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. The narcoleptics are believed to block the dopamine receptors in the brain, limiting the activity of dopamine and reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia. Amphetamines, just the opposite, en hence dopamine transmission.

Amphetamines produce an excess of dopamine in the brain and can revoke the symptoms of schizophrenia in a schizophrenic client. In large doses, amphetamines can simulate symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia in a incomprehension person. Some symptoms Of schizophrenia are due basically to hypoallergenic activity. Other symptoms, such as apathy and poverty of thought, are related to neuronal loss (Insight). Although the therapy and drugs help the schizophrenics deal with their problems tremendously there is not enough to go around because States are closing their mental institutes for financial reasons.

Even though the cost of mental institutes are sigh, the schizophrenics are better off being kept in them because they could cause a huge uproar on the streets. Without the mental institutes the schizophrenics will get worse because they are unable to live independently. Many schizophrenics might even be harmful to society because their brain is out of control. The paranoid could go on a rampage and try to kill everyone in sight because they think everyone is out hurt them. This could be the future of our world if we don’t take time to treat these schizophrenic CICS who desperately need it no matter what the cost (Cognitive).

Schizophrenia Research Paper Essay

Research Paper III I chose to write my research paper over Schizophrenia - Schizophrenia Research Paper Essay introduction. It is a psychological disorder that I have always found fascinating. It is a serious disorder that consumes a person’s life and is nearly impossible to control. In this paper, I will talk about the definition of Schizophrenia, the diagnosis of Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia in children, suicide, sexually related characteristics of the disease, sleep disorders caused by the disease, differences in the disease on different ethnicities, and insensitivity to pain.

Schizophrenia is a disorder that is characterized by a broken thought process and poor emotional responses. Typical symptoms of this disorder include delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, social dysfunctions, disorganized thinking, and erratic behavior. It is most common in young adults, but can also be found in children and the elderly. Schizophrenia can affect more than just the person diagnosed. The criteria for diagnosing Schizophrenia is always changing, and professionals may use many different methods for diagnosing patients with this disorder.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association gives the most widely used methods of diagnosing Schizophrenia. This DSM approach gives a set of criteria for Schizophrenia, although it is still being finalized. The criteria described include: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, social and occupational dysfunction, a duration of 6 or more months of active phase symptoms, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

Although many may believe that getting an early diagnosis may help deal with Schizophrenia, and the federal government has even started a program to optimize early-illness care, there is no evidence that points to this being true. This may mean that by the time the first episodes of psychosis come around, it is already too late for prevention. Although Schizophrenia appears in people of all ages, it is very rare in children. It is about 50 times less frequent in children than it is in young adults.

Between September 1989 and May 1991, a study was conducted on 60 children with Schizophrenia between the ages of five and twelve at Bellevue Hospital Center’s Children’s Psychiatric Inpatient Unit. Every child in the study reported auditory hallucinations, which seems to be the main hallucination surrounding childhood Schizophrenia. These hallucinations were usually some sort of command, given to them by a wide range of sources, such as animals, people they actually know, fictional characters, malevolent forces, or people they have made up.

Visual hallucinations were less prominent than auditory hallucinations, but still apparent in over 50 percent of the children. Tactile hallucinations were reported in only 25 percent of the children. These hallucinations were comparable to those that young adults with Schizophrenia experience, but were much less complex and only lasted between one week and one and a half years. Every child in this study also experienced delusions, which were sometimes linked to their hallucinations. These were also somewhat simple in nature compared to the delusions adults experience, but not so simple as the hallucinations.

One vivid example of a delusion experienced by a child was his belief that there was a baby in his throat that was telling him to kill himself, leading him to eventually reach down his throat to try to remove this baby. These delusions also seemed to last for a shorter span of time than the hallucinations. With Schizophrenia comes a significant risk of suicide. Approximately nine to thirteen percent of all Schizophrenic patients commit suicide. It is not surprising to me that the symptoms of this disorder may lead to someone contemplating suicide.

These symptoms can be a huge burden and suicide may seem to be the only escape. A study found that many people with Schizophrenia that commit suicide do so at times of inpatient care, especially young adult males. Although often overlooked, it is not surprising that Schizophrenia may lead to changed sexually related characteristics. Based on a study conducted on adults ages 18 to 39 in Canada, Schizophrenia may lead to sexual disorders in both males and females. Common dysfunctions include less sexual desire, inability to ejaculate, and problems with sexual arousal.

I do believe there is a problem with this study, however. It is a possibility that these sexual disorders may be side effects of the medication used to treat Schizophrenia. Another thing that is significantly affected by Schizophrenia is sleep. A study performed on 321 untreated patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia and 331 healthy subjects showed that patients with Schizophrenia have an increased sleep latency, which is the time it takes to transition from full wakefulness to sleep, decreased total sleep time, and decreased Stage 2 sleep time.

Since the patients were untreated, I find this study to be much more trustworthy than the study about sexual characteristics in Schizophrenia, since drugs are not a factor. A study has lead me to believe that cultural background plays an important role in how a person will deal with Schizophrenia if diagnosed. The study that has convinced me of this is one that was performed on Korean-Americans diagnosed with Schizophrenia. They were interviewed and examined, and were later compared to people of other ethnicities with Schizophrenia.

When compared, the hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms and characteristics were very similar, but there were significant differences, such as a lower social initiation, a stronger familial association, and an overall lower satisfaction in life. I think this shows that the severity of Schizophrenia correlates with the type of culture one grows up in. In the movie A Beautiful Mind, a scene has always remained in my mind: John Nash is being kept in an isolation room and everyone panics because he is digging into his arm, looking for the “codes”.

It is somewhat of a grotesque scene, but it is not far from the truth. People diagnosed with Schizophrenia are sometimes insensitive to pain. It is a phenomenon that is often overlooked. People with Schizophrenia may sometimes suffer third degree burns and not feel any pain. Sometimes someone may even go as far as self-mutilating. But in a way it makes sense that someone with Schizophrenia may not show the emotional aspects of pain, since all of their other emotions are also very much distorted.

I would like to conclude by saying that I believe Schizophrenia is among one of the most fascinating psychological disorders, for many reasons. It completely distorts a person’s thought process and behavior. Schizophrenia is a challenging disorder to diagnose, with an ever-changing criteria. Once diagnosed, it becomes virtually impossible to control. It affects people of all ages, sometimes in different ways. It extremely heightens the risk of suicide in a person suffering from this disorder. Schizophrenia will affect many different characteristics, such as sexual drive, sexual arousal, total sleep time, and sleep latency.

Not only does it affect people of different ages in different ways, but also people of different cultures in different ways. But the thing that I find most fascinating about Schizophrenia is how it can distort how a person expresses emotions such as love, anger, fear, and most surprising of all, pain. Bibliography Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 20 (4) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 713-725 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 19 (2) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 199-214 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 30 (4) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 03-811 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 29 (3) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 559-572 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 20 (4) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 957-967 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 28 (4) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 703-717 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 17 (1) US: National Institute of Mental Health pp. 27-49 Schizophrenia Bulletin. Vol. 20 (2) US National Institute of Mental Health pp. 235-248 Buckley, Peter F. “Q & A on early diagnosis of schizophrenia. ” Psychiatric Times. Mar. 2012. 19 Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 28 Nov. 2012

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