1.1 Summarise entitlement and provision for early year’s education? Every child matters agenda and the childcare act 2006, it become an entitlement of all 3-4 year olds in England to receive a free part time early years education of up to 12.5 hours per week for 38 weeks of the year. Early year’s provision in school is about supporting very young children it is distinct from key stage 1 in each country within the UK and is best on the concept of learning through play rather than more formal education Play has been show to be an important part for children learning. In Scotland the curriculum is focused around the document curriculum for excellent. This document concerns the curriculum for 3-4 years old and the early primary phase (primary 1) are presented as one level.
1.2 Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stages and schools governance? There are four main types of mainstream state schools which will all be funded by local authorities and are known as maintained schools. They all have to follow national curriculum and include: Community schools- these are run and owned by the local authority (or education and library Bored in Northern Ireland) this will also support the school through looking to develop links with the local community, and by providing support services. They will also usually determine the admissions policy. They may develop the use of the schools facilities by local groups such as adults education or childcare classes Foundation and trust schools- foundation stage school are run by their own governing body, which determines the admission policy in consultation with the local education authority. The school land and buildings will also be owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation. A trust school, although a type of foundation school, will from a charitable trust with an outside partner, such as a business. The school will have to buy in any support services. The decision to become a trust school will be made by the governing body in consultation with parents. Voluntary schools- these come under two types: voluntary –aided school are mainly religious or faith school although anyone can apply for a place. They are run by their own governing body in the same way as foundation school, although the land and buildings are normally owned by a religious organisations or charity. They are funded partly by the charity and partly by the local education authority, which also provides support services.
Voluntary-controlled school are similar types of school to voluntary- aided schools. Although they are run and funded by the local authority which also employs the staff and provides support services? The land and buildings are usually owned by a charity. Which is often a religious organisation? Specialist schools- these are usually secondary school which can apply for specialist status to develop one or two subject specialism’s. They will receive additional government funding for doing this. Around 92 percent of secondary schools in England have specialist status (source teacher net: April 2009). Special schools can also apply for specialist school status to be given for an SEN specialism under one of the four areas of the SEN CODE OF PRACTICE 1.3 Explain the post-16 options for young people and adults? The opportunities for pupils aged 16 and over have traditionally been either to leave school and start employment, or to stay and continue with their studies. Although many pupils do still choose one of these options it is likely that there will be more opportunities available as there has been an increased government focus on and funding of education for 14-19 year olds, and in particular a focus on reducing the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) post-16. At the time of writing, the government guarantees that by the end of September of the year that each young person leaves compulsory education, they will have a place in further learning available. The September guarantee
Under that last labour government, the guarantee was as follows: Full or part-time education in school, sixth form, college independent learning provider or further education(FE) college An apprenticeship or programme-led apprenticeship, which must include both the training element and a job or work placement Entry to employment (E2E)
Employment with training to NVQ level 2
2.1Explain the strategic purpose of:
School governors- are usually a team of 10 to 12 people though, although there can be up to 20 who have the responsibility of running the school. They will be made up of a variety of people who will have links with the school and local community. There should be at least one parent governor and at least one staff governor, in addition to the head teacher. There may also be a support staff governor. In addition there will be a local authority governor, appointed by the local authority (LA) and local community governor who will usually work or live in the community served by the school. Governors will work closely with the head teacher and senior management team, although you may not see them around the school often during the school day. Governors will be based on different committees which are responsible for various areas of school management – for example the school site personnel issues or community cohesion. They will meet in these committees and then report back to the full governing body. Their main duties are: To set aims and objectives for the school
To adopt new policies for achieving the aims and objectives
To set targets for achieving the aims and objectives
Senior management team- the school’s senior management or senior leadership team will work closely with the head teacher. The team will usually be made up of more experiences staff who have management positions – in a primary school this will probably be the deputy head teacher, year group leaders (if the school has more than one from entry), SENCO (special educational needs co-ordinator) and foundation stage leader. In a secondary school they may also be year group leader and SENCOs but may also be subject area leaders. They will usually meet once a week or on a regular basis to discuss issues which have come up and to make decisions concerning the running of the school or around the implementation of the school implement plan. They will discuss how this information will be spread to teacher and support staff. Other statutory roles- there will be other staff roles in school which are legally required to be fulfilled in terms of starting apart from the head teacher and deputy, the two main others are SENCOs and in primary schools the foundation stage manager. The SENCO is responsible for managing and monitoring the provision for those with special educational need within the school. This includes: ‘ensuring liaison with parents and other professionals in respect of children with special educational needs Advising and supporting other practitioners in the setting
Ensuring that appropriate individual education plans are in place Ensuring that relevant background information about individual children with special educational needs is collected, recorded and updated Teachers- All the teachers have a responsibility for the planning and preparation of the curriculum for pupils in their class. In primary school, this will usually be for all subjects under the national curriculum. As well as being responsible for their own class, teachers will generally also have another area of responsibility in school. This may be as a member of the senior management tam but in primary school it could also be a subject area. In all schools each subject will need to be represented so that there is a person responsible for it, this means that in smaller schools with fewer teachers, staff may each be responsible for two or three subjects. Support staff roles- the number of support staff in schools has risen dramatically in recent years. The DFE’S statistical first release in my 2010 shows the total number of teaching assistants across all LA maintained schools in England was 79,000 in 2000 and rose to 181,600 in 2009(source: DFE: May 2010). This has been due to an increase in government funding which was based on the reduction of responsibilities on class teachers and a gradual increase in initiatives to raise pupil progress, many of which have been carried out by teaching assistants Types of support staff may be:
Breakfast, after-school or extended school staff
Midday supervisors and catering staff
Office or administrative staff
Caretakers or site managers
Individual support assistants for SEN children
Specialist or technicians(ICT)
Learning mentors and parent support workers.
The roles of each of these members of staff may be different and their job description should reflect this. 2.2 explain the roles of external professionals who may work with a school e.g. educational psychologist Educational psychologist- allocated to them through the local special education needs department. They will support the SENCO in providing assessments and observations to pupils each year and plan the provision for pupils who have additional needs. They also may lead meetings with parents and make recommendations for work with individual pupils. Speech and language therapists- work with people who have speech, language and communication problems, in both producing and understanding language. There should be a number of STLs working in your local area who have links with the school and in some cases are based there. However, most will work from an alternative location and will come into school to work with children, parents and teachers. Specialist teacher-offers advice and support to pupils with a range of needs. These may be: Behaviour support needs
Social and communication needs such as autism
English as an additional language needs.
The educational welfare officer-will usually is based within local authorities. They will visit schools and work with the head teacher to monitor pupil’s attendance and to provide support with issues around absenteeism. They will also work alongside parents to support excluded pupils on their return to school. The school improvement partner-will come into school to advice and support the head teacher for three to five day each year. They will have previous experience of the school leadership and/or have worked in a senior advisory role in a local educational authority and will support the head teacher in looking for developments in self-evaluation. Physiotherapists/occupational therapists-may work with pupils outside of school, but may also be asked to come in for meetings and discussions to support pupil’s progress. 3.1 Explain how ethos mission, aims and values of a school may be reflected in working practices? The Ethos of the school should be recognisable when entering the school setting as it is part and parcel of the environment of the school and the daily practice of the staff and pupils there. I am aware that all adults that work and are part of the setting have an important responsibility in modelling standards of behaviour, both in their dealings with children who attend the school and amongst colleagues, as their own example has a momentous influence on the children. Good associations and strong collaborations between adults will encourage the good behaviour in children. All adults within the school should aim to create an optimistic and positive environment that holds high but reasonable expectations of every child who attends the school, emphasise the significance of being respected as an individual within the school. Encourage, through example, truthfulness and politeness while encouraging children to have relationships based on fairness, kindness and understanding of the needs of the other children within the school. Mission
3.2 evaluate methods of communicating a schools ethos, mission, aims and values? The ethos and mission of a school is often referred to as the same thing, however, they are both very different. The mission of a school is based upon what the school intends to achieve in a more physical and academicals way as set out by the head teacher. This is often seen as a motto and slogan as you enter a school. The Ethos of a school is more related to the beliefs and feelings of a school. The Ethos of the school should be recognisable when entering the school environment as it is part of the nature and daily practice of the staff and pupils who work there. The ethos is set out for the whole school to be aware of and is reinforced through daily activities. 4.1 Summarise the law and codes of practice affecting work in school.? Data protection act 1998- The data protection act 1998 means that schools need to keep and use information only for the purpose for which it was intended it also needs to be kept securely on site either locked in filing cabinets or on password-protected computer system. If you ask to update any pupil information you should do this well you are on school premises and not take any information of site. You should consider all information about pupils as confidential and ensure that you do not share it with others without parental consent. Education act 2002- There has been a number of educational acts and these will continue to be updated with the corresponding year the 2002 act brought in several changes to school regulations. Staffing and governance and was further amended in 2006 to include a duty of schools to promote community cohesion. This means that schools are required to work alongside other community-based organisations Human rights act 1998-There are a number of equalities laws which may affect schools. These are designed to ensure that inequalities do not exist and that all children will have the same entitlements to education. The human rights act 1998 is linked to the 1950 European convention on human rights. This came in after the end of the Second World War, and although it was a binding international agreement, it was not law. Under the human rights act individuals in the UK have particular rights and freedoms, but these must be balances against the rights and freedoms of others. 4.2 Explain how legislation affects how schools work.?
Schools as with any other organisation, are obliged to operate under current legislation. Although you may not need to know about these in depth, it is helpful to have some idea about why schools will need to work in a particular way, or why they have to draw up particular policies or documents. Some of the key pieces of legislation which you should know about are the Data protection act 1998
UN convention on rights of the child 1989
Education act 2002
Children act 200
Childcare act 2006
Freedom of information act 2000
Human rights act 1998
4.3 Explain the roles of regulatory bodies relevant to the education sector which exist to monitor and enforce the legislation frame work including (general bodies) (school specific regulatory bodies) The health and safety executive (HSE)
The health and safety executive provides guidance and monitors the legislative framework for all organisations whether these are industrial, business or education based. Schools are required to comply with health and safety at work act (1974). This means they will need to comply with health and safety law in a number of ways. The employer is responsible for health and safety and this will depend on the type of school and is required to –Carry out risk assessments and appropriate measures put in place in new situations or those which may pose an increased risk to adults or children such as on school trips –Complete and hold appropriate paperwork(such as accident recording) which may be requested for inspection under the act
–Have a school health and safety policy and alert all staff to this. School-specific regulatory bodies
Ofsted (the office for standards in education, children’s services and skills) was brought in to regulate and inspect the provision and education of children and young people, and to report their findings. They report directly to parliament and all school inspections are obtainable through their website. All registered teachers in England are required to be members of the general teaching council (GTC). Its functions are that of a regulatory role of the teaching profession. There is a code of conduct and practice to which teachers are required to adhere. 5.1 Explain why schools have policies and procedures?
All schools, as with other organisations, are required to have clear school policies and procedures, this is so that parents, staff, governors and others who are involved in the running of the school are able to work from comprehensible set of guidelines. There are likely to be a large number of policies and you should know where to find them in your school so that you are able to refer to them when necessary. Although each school will have a slightly different list or they may have varying titles, each will need to outline its purpose and aims, and the responsibilities of staff 5.2 Summarise the policies and procedures schools may have relating to: Area
performance management policy
health and safety policy
drugs awareness policy
behaviour management policy
personal social health and economic education policy
Teaching and learning.
Curriculum policies (a policy for each subject, such as history, maths, art) early years policy
teaching and learning policy
planning and assessment policy
Equality, diversity and inclusion.
Equal opportunities policy
Race equality and cultural diversity policy
Special education needs (or inclusion policy)
Gifted and talented policy
Disability and access policy
5.3 Evaluate how school policies and procedures may be developed and communicated? Schools need to ensure not only that policies are in place, but also that they are revised and updated on a regular basis. It is likely that each policy will be dated and also have a date for its revision. There are a large number of ‘model’ policies available through local education authorities as well the internet to assist schools in drawing them up, as this can be a time-consuming process. Depending on the policy, the school’s senior management team or person responsible for a curriculum area (for example, the literacy co-ordination) may draft a policy and then have it checked by other staff during a staff meeting it will then need to be arranged or ratifies by the governing body before it takes effect. Although you will not be required to know the contents of every school policy, you should have read and know your responsibilities, in particular regarding the Safeguarding policy
Health and safety policy
6.1 Summarise the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice. National government- the role of the DFE (department for education) is to be responsible for education and children’s services. This means that as well as being responsible for drawing up education policy – for example, in setting the national curriculum and early years foundation stage from which school and nurseries operate – it is also looking into new ways of developing the quality of services available to children under the fire outcomes of every child matters. It has also set up and administers the schools’ league tables. Funding research into education-based projects and those which are concerned with children and young people Developing workforce
Promoting integrated working for all those who work with children and young people Developing the role of the third sector (those who are non-governmental) – voluntary and community organisations, charities and others who work with children) Local government- departments for education will provide services to schools in the area in the form of advice and support. The local education authority is responsible for providing accessible local services for: Staff training and development
Special educational needs
The curriculum, including early years
Promoting community cohesion
School management issues
The development of school policies
Local authorities will need to provide documentation which outlines their own vision and plans for the development of government-based initiatives. 6.2 Explain the role of schools in national policies relating to children young people and families. Schools are expected to know about and show that they are working from national policies which relate to children, young people and families. An example of this is the every child matters frame work, which has had a wide-ranging impact on provision from children and young people nationally? As part of this and community cohesion, schools have been developing their central role in local communities though projects such as the extended school programme, and ofsted will also inspect against this criterion. Schools need to develop their own policies in line with national requirements, such as child protection and safeguarding children, following guidelines from local education authorities. 6.3 Explain the role of other organisations working with children and young people and how these may impact on the work of schools Since there is a wide range of organisations which work with children and young people, it makes sense that they should liaise with one another and share their knowledge and experience. As well as developing links with one another for pupil support and community cohesion, it is likely that meetings will also be held between different services. Although they will work with and alongside schools, they may work in different way, and all parties will need to be aware of this. However the impact of a closer working relationship between organisations can only be benfical to all concerned and is in the best interests of the children.