University of Phoenix Material Human Digestion Worksheet [pic] The Digestive System and its Functions Review the diagram located on p. 1. In the space provided below, write the name of each organ or part, and explain the function of each one as it relates to digestion and absorption. Explanations must be written as complete sentences. Please make sure that you identify each organ or part below with the corresponding number located in the diagram. |DIGESTIVE ANATOMY |FUNCTION | |1 |Mouth |Mouth is the beginning of the digestive system and digestion starts here before you even take the | | | |first bite of a meal. The smell of food triggers the salivary glands in the mouth to secrete | | | |saliva. |2 |Salivary Gland – Parotid Gland |Saliva is produced in and secreted from salivary glands. T here are three major pairs of salivary | | | |glands: the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands. The parotid glands, the largest | | | |of the pairs, are located at the side of the face, below and in front of each ear. |3 |Pharynx |Pharynx (also called throat) is passageway for food and air that is responsible for swallowing and | | | |receiving food from the mouth. | |4 |Esophagus |Esophagus is located in the throat near trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your | | | |mouth when swallowed.
By means of a series of muscular contractions, the esophagus delivers food to | | | |your stomach. | |5 |Epiglottis |Epiglottis prevents food and drink from falling down the airway. It is a flap at the base of the | | | |throat, touches the back of the tongue and opens when swallowing occurs. It allows food and drink to| | | |safely pass into our digestive system.
Failure of epiglottis functioning results in choking or drink| | | |”going down the wrong way. ” This simply means that food or drink has been taken into the respiratory| | | |system by mistake, and it must be coughed up. | |6 |Trachea/ Windpipe |Trachea is a tube-like portion of the breathing or respiratory tract that connects the larynx with | | | |the bronchial parts of the lungs. |7 |Cardiac Sphincter |Cardiac sphincter is a ring of muscle that tightens and relaxes as the need arises. It opens to | | | |allow the food matter into the stomach, then closes behind it to ensure that it cannot rise back up | | | |into the esophagus. | |8 |Stomach |Stomach is an organ in the digestive tract that mixes food and secretes gastric juice. |9 |Pylorus |Main functions of the pylorus are to prevent intestinal contents from reentering the stomach when | | | |the small intestine contracts and to limit the passage of large food particles or undigested | | | |material into the intestine. | |10 |Duodenum |The duodenum breaks down carbohydrate into sugar, with the use of enzymes from the pancreas, and | | | |liver.
Lipase from the pancreas breaks down fats in the duodenum to produce fatty acids. | |11 |Small Intestine |Small intestine is a tube-shaped organ of the digestive tract where digestion of ingested food is | | | |completed and the majority of nutrient absorption occurs | |12 |Liver |Liver is an organ in the abdominal cavity that secretes bile which is necessary for fat digestion | | | |and absorption. |13 |Gallbladder |The gallbladder’s main function is to store bile, a dark green digestive liquid produced by the | | | |liver. | |14 |Common bile duct |The duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the | | | |liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. Bile breaks fats down into smaller droplets so they can | | | |be worked on by fat enzymes. |15 |Pancreas |Pancreas is an organ that secretes digestive enzymes that bicarbonate into the small intestine | | | |during the digestion. | |16 |Villi |The function of the villi is to increase the surface area of the intestine so as to increase its | | | |capacity to absorb nutrients and liquid from food passing through it. |17 |Ileocecal Sphincter |The ileocecal sphincter has two main functions. The first is to prevent the backflow of fecal | | | |contents from the colon to the small intestine. The second is to prevent the contents of the ileum | | | |from passing into the cecum prematurely. | |18 |Large Intestine |Large Intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that includes the olon and rectum, | | | |where some absorption of water and vitamins takes place. | |19 |Rectum |Rectum is where feces are stored until they leave the digestive system through the anus as a bowel | | | |movement | |20 |Anus |Anus is the lower opening of the digestive tract through which the feces leave the body. |