Science and Technology Essay
Science and technology (S&T) is widely recognised as an important tool for fostering and strengthening the economic and social development of the country. India has made significant progress in various spheres of science and technology over the years and can now take pride in having a strong network of S&T institutions, trained manpower and an innovative knowledge base.
India is amongst the top-ranking countries in the field of basic research. Indian Science is one of the most powerful segments for growth and development, especially in the emerging scenario and competitive economy.
India has the third largest scientific and technical manpower in the world; 162 universities award 4,000 doctorates and 35,000 post-graduate degrees and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research runs 40 research laboratories which have made some significant achievements. India has also made remarkable strides achieving 98 per cent indigenisation in launch vehicle technology and 60-70 per cent in satellite technology, according to Mr M Y S Prasad, Director, Sathish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR at Sriharikota.
Market SizeIndia ranks ninth globally in the number of scientific publications and 12thin the number of patents filed. The composite annual growth rate (CAGR) of Indian publications is around 12±1 per cent and India’s global share has increased from 1. 8 per cent in 2001 to 3. 5 per cent in 2011.
By 2020, the global share of publications must double and the number of papers in the top 1 per cent journals must quadruple from the current levels.According to the Global Science Report of the UNESCO, India’s current global ranking is commensurate with its number of full-time equivalent (FTE) of R&D personnel. It is imperative that the total number of FTE of R&D personnel will increase by at least 66 per cent of the present strength within the next five years. Recent DevelopmentsSome of the recent developments in Indian science and technology sector are: * The Department of Space/ Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has established an endowed fellowship at the Graduate AerospaceLaboratories of the California Institute of Technology, California, USA * ISRO plans to launch the country’s first navigation satellite – Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System-1A (IRNSS-1A), on July 1, 2013 * The ISRO Navigation Centre (INC), established at Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) complex at Byalalu, about 40 km from Bengaluru, was inaugurated by Mr V Narayanasamy, Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Government of India * Tata Industries and Ramot at Tel Aviv University (TAU) have entered into a strategic memorandum of understanding (MoU) to fund and generate leading-edge technologies.
The MoU will fund technologies in fields like engineering and exact sciences, environment and clean technology, pharmaceuticals and healthcare * Ahmedabad has launched a first-of-its-kind Heat Action Plan, making it the first city in South Asia to create a comprehensive early warning system and preparedness plan for extreme heat events fueled by climate change * Karnal-based National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) has produced the world’s second cloned male calf. The calf, named Swaran, was born through the new and advanced ‘hand-guided cloning technique’ * Koppert, a Dutch company specialising in biological crop protection, has partnered with Namdhari Fresh to develop crop protection solutions suitable to Indian conditions