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Science Lab

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All living organisms are made up of cells, (Humans, plants, etc). Without cells, humans couldn’t function. There are over 37 trillion cells in the human body, and each cell nee ds every single organelle within it to function, if one Stops working, the entire cell would stop working. The Animal cell has a very irregular shape, and the Plant cell has a regular shape (rectangle), and are extremely similar, the plant cell just has a few more organelles, like the cell wall (which provides extra protection for the cell because the plant cell needs it), and the chloroplasts (which makes the food for the plant).

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Animal cells generally tend to be smaller than plant cells. Both cells are vital for us in our day to day lives, because without plant cells, there would be no plant life, and without animal cells, there would be no humans. Purpose The purpose of this lab was to analyze and compare human cheek cells, onion cells, and various plant cells such as thin slices of carrots, mushrooms, celery and c ucumber.

Hypothesis If we compare the cells of onions (plant cell) and the human cheek (animal cell), we believe that we will see the formation of each.

We hope to see the different organelles and the layout of the cell as well as the structure. Materials Onion Human Cheek Cell Mushroom Carrot Redpepper Celery Cucumber Safety Goggles Procedure Tweezers Toothpick Microscope/Electronic Microscope Microscope Slides Cover Slips Lens Paper Paper Towel 1. Remove 2cm from the onion 2. place the onion skin in the centre of the slide 3. Place a coverslip on top Look at it under the microscope 4. Take a picture Cheek Cells 1 . Scrape inner cheek with toothpick 2. Smear it on the slide 3. Look at it under the microscope 4.

Take a picture 1. Get a thin slice of a carrot 2. Place it on the slide 1. Get a thin slice of celery 1. Get a thin slice Of mushroom Observations Throughout the experiment we ran a series of tests consisting of Cheek cells, Onions, Red Bell Peppers, Cucumber, Celery, Carrots and Mushrooms. The observatio ns are as following: The sample of Onion was filled with cells formed in arrays. Each cell has nucle us’s showing scattered differently throughout each onion cell. Each cell is packed t ightly with the next and there are clear cell membranes as well as cytoplasms.

The samp le was moist with clear lines going through the thin layer of onion. This sample in par ticular had a pungent odour to it. Cheek Cell The Cheek Cell Sample was coated In saliva with pink spots sprawled across t e cytoplasm. The cells itself is rounded off in various ways along the cell membr ane while there are lines going throughout the cell. There is a nucleus in the middle of t he cell and there are also darker spots along the area of the cell. The sample looked like a sticky liquid because it is covered in saliva. This also caused the effect for it to get st uck on the microscope slide with ease.

Red Bell Pepper The Red Bell Pepper Sample was moist due to the juices held inside of the pe pper and was a thicker sample. This also caused the red bell pepper to stay on the micr oscope slide. The sample consisted of many cells packed together in a orange/ red colour. Within this cluster there are definitive lines dividing each cell. The cytoplasm h as small lines going throughout each cell, with a spot that represents the nucleus. The cytoplasm was a lighter colour than the cell membrane and cell wall. The Cucumber Sample was damp in a watery fluid.

The cucumber sample was thin as well as had seeds in the middle of it. Under the microscope the sample had 3 large area that were lighter and had lines and spots spread across them. In between the areas there were dark lines forming a Y shape. Within this dark area there were ligh ter spots and lines. Roughly in the middle there was a squiggly line figure with a dark ce membrane and nucleus. The cytoplasm was a lighter colour making it more di stinct. Each cell was spread out and showed various designs within and around the The Celery Sample was in a dense brick design.

It had green outline on every c membrane making it a moss coloured sample. The cells are ordered in straigh t lines across horizontally and are light coloured as well as green. The celery was moi st and cut thin. The nucleus was more difficult to locate but the cytoplasm was a ligh coloured area with spots and white lines going through out. The Carrot Sample was in horizontal lines, with spots and lines throughout. T his cell was in a deep orange with dark orange to show the cell membranes. The cyto plasm is a light orange. The spots are big and are in between some of the lines as well as having darker area than others.

The sample was cut thin but was hard and slightly we t. The cell show the cytoplasm and cell membrane clearly but the nucleus is harder to s pot. The mushroom sample had cells sprawled across it in a random formation. T he cells were spread out and were shaded darkly. In between the cells there were whi te areas. It had a black cytoplasm and had a dark cell membrane and cell wall. The nucle us is not clearly seen. Outside of the cells there were other black spots and lighter colo ured areas. The sample itself was dry and a creamy white colour but under the cap was black with white lines going across.

Conclusion In conclusion, this was an interesting lab and we learned a great deal Of useful information. The cheek cells looked like honeycombs while the onion cells looked like a bunch of rectangles. Some of the challenges of this lab included getting the cells out of your cheek, taking pictures nd trying to get thin layers of the vegetables. Some of the things that went well in the lab included the cooperation between our group members, getting the pictures taken and examining all of the specimens in the amount of time we had. So we used our time very wisely.

We didn’t really make any errors but the thing that slowed us down the most was trying to cut the vegetable thin enough. Overall this lab was very fun and exciting! Discussion 1. Describe how the onion and cheek cells were similar in observed parts. What parts did they have in common? When observing both the onion and cheek cell, it becomes pronounced hat they both have many different visible organelles. The cheek cell had less of them visible and was a different layout and where both in clusters. They were also very interesting to look at and examine. 2.

Describe how the onion and cheek cell were different in observed parts? When observing both the onion and cheek cell, we observed that they have completely different structures. The onion cell as you can see is made up Of a nonliving transparent cell wall which gives it a distinct shape (fixed rigid rectangular shapes). The cheek cell on the other hand, does not have a distinct form and/or part to it. It s only visible that they aren’t laid out and don’t look like the onion cell. A factor to this would be that because animal cells don’t have an extra layer of protection that plant cells do, called the cell wall.

In this case it is mostly made up of cellulose. We observed that the cheek cells were a pink colour unlike the onion cell which was a bright pink col our. 3. Why must the specimen you observe be very thin? The specimen that we observe must be very thin so that all the organelles and parts of the cell would be clearly distinguishable. TO summarize, it is thin so that you c an see the cell better through the microscopes. Extra) 4. Were there any obvious signs of experimental error? Throughout the experiment, we tried our best to avoid error by following the procedure closely.

There were definitely some spots where we could have made a mistake such as not cutting the vegetable thin enough and not getting a clear look at it, or in the case of the cheek cell, not applying or putting enough spit onto the slides. If the was the case, then the impact would not have been huge, we would have just not been able to get a close enough look at the cells. 5. How did the onion cell compare to other plant cells (i. e. ushroom, celery, carrots, cucumbers, red bell pepper)? The onion cell was very similar to the celery and carrot with them both having a pronou nced and distinctive rectangular shape due to the nonliving cell walls.

The rest of the vegetables had a different layout and formation throughout. The cucumb er did not any visual representations of cell walls like the celery, carrot and onion. The bell pepper looked a bit more similar but from what we saw, it was unclear if it had the same structure. 6. Real world Application for this observation and experiment? The only realworld application for this experiment would be if u were interested n examining cells as it does not serve any sufficient and realistic reason. (Extension) 1. Why do you think the onion cells lacked chloroplasts?

Cite this Science Lab

Science Lab. (2017, Jul 21). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/science-lab-42837/

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