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Seed Germination EEI

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Germination in plants is the process in which dormant seed begins to grow and sprout under certain growing conditions. The English pea, also known as the garden pea, is a member of the legume family and is known to grow roughly three to four inches long. Research shows that it only takes approximately 1 week for the seed to start to germinate. There are many things that can affect, the growth of the pea seed such as; temperature, moisture, planting depth and sunlight.

The pea grows best in temperatures between 7˚C -14˚C, any lower or higher temperatures may affect the seed germination. Often it is recommended for the seed to firstly be planted indoors, where there is a controlled environment. Similar to most living things the English pea needs moister to survive. Pea seeds deprived of water shrivel and die, while those that receive too much water become water-logged and start to decay.

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Proper watering ensures that the soil around the bases of the pea vines is damp but not saturated, with additional watering scheduled during dry weather.

A seeds proper planting depth depends on its size, the larger the seed is the more food and energy it contains to get a good head start to its germination. When planted about an inch deep in loose soil rich in organic matter such as aged compost or manure the pea seeds are able to germinate best. By planting the seeds to deeply it forces them to strain during germination, long stagy, weak vines are often the outcome of this. If the pea is planted to shallowly it doesn’t provided enough of a base to keep it anchored to the soil. While dormant, pea seeds store food in their endosperms, or inner tissues, and in their cotyledons, or first leaves.

As they absorb water, this food is released and converted into energy needed; this is known as cellular reparation. Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of food molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved, [http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cellresp/intro.html]. To start their growth it is unnecessary for the English pea to be introduced to sunlight because often it is underneath the soil. A small route will extend from one end of the seed, followed by a small sprout bearing two small leaves called a cotyledon. Once the cotyledon rises above the soil, light becomes a crucial factor in the pea plant’s proper development. At least 6 hours of direct sunlight are needed at this stage to encourage the plant to produce its own food through the process known as photosynthesis. The pea seed is the mature, fertilized ovule. After fertilization, the haploid cells of the embryo sac disintegrate. The maternally resulting diploid cells of the ovule develop into the hard, water-resistant outer covering of the seed, called the testa, or seed coat. The diploid zygote develops into the embryo, and the triploid endosperm cells multiply and provide nutrition. The testa usually shows a scar called the hilum where the ovule was originally attached to the funicle. In some seeds a ridge along the testa called the raphe shows where the funicle originally was pressed against the ovule.

The micro Pyle of the ovule usually survives as a small pore in the seed coat that allows passage of water during germination of the seed. During this experiment, several amounts of salt will be added to deionized water and results will be recorded of the pea’s growth. Salt is a very common substance in the soil as well in the sea. However, the amount of salt in most soil is very, very low. Plants need a small amount of salinity to survive, since salt is one of the nutrients necessary for plants to grow, so the presence of some salt is necessary. However, saltwater is saturated with the substance, which is why it can be poisonous to most plants. When saltwater enters the soil, the plant tries to absorb it throughout its roots like normal water. However, saltwater does not allow for osmosis through the plant tissues. It is so dense that the salt solution actually draws water out of the plant, dehydrating and eventually killing it. (http://www.ehow.com/about_6587256_happens-put-saltwater-plants_.html#ixzz2SkH0iONG)

Hypothesis
It has hypothesized that the pea seeds with a higher amount of salt will not grow at the same speed or have equal health as the pea seeds with less or no amount of salt. Each of the experiments received a different amount of salt mixed with distilled water and the assumption was made that the higher the salt levels, the higher risk of no growth.

Aim
To investigate the germination of the Garden pea over a seven day period, changing the measurements of salt in distilled water, given to each of the seeds. According to [http://www.burpee.com/vegetables/peas/all-about-peas-article10250.html] it only takes around a week to show signs of germination.

Safety Issues
Within every experiment there are some dangers. During this particular experiment it is recommended to have sunscreen and a hat on when out in the sun with the seed. Without sunscreen on there is a likely chance of burns to the skin.

Materials
 1x Beaker (to measure the amount of water)
 12x Pea seeds
 4x Cotton wool ball
 Sunlight
 1x Ruler (measure how much it grows each day)
 4x Pipette
 Measuring Scales
 Salt
 Distilled Water
 3x small containers (to measure the salt)
4x water bottles (to measure the amount of deionized water)

Method
Firstly, cotton wool buds were spread across four separate petri dishes and three peas were places on each of the petri dishes. The lid was then placed back on the petri dish and the amount of salt was labeled using a whiteboard marker. Four bottles of 100ml were filled with deionized water. 0.3g of salt was mixed in with one of the bottles of 100ml of deionized water, a few drops of this mixture was placed on the first seed using a pipette. The second bottle of 100ml of deionized water was mixed with 0.6g of salt, a few drops of this mixture was placed on the second seed using a pipette. In the third bottle, 100ml of deionized water was mixed with 0.9g grams of salt. A

Cite this Seed Germination EEI

Seed Germination EEI. (2016, Oct 30). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/seed-germination-eei/

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