ONKOPING INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL JO NKO PING UNIVERSITY Market ing Str ategic C hange in Expansion of D isneyland : Cases Study of Disneyland’s Overseas Expansion in Shanghai Master Thesis in Business Administration Author: Tutor: Jo ping nko Li Zhu & Dan Xu Tomas Mu llern August 2010 Master Thesis Acknowledgements First of all, we would like to take the opportunity to thank our tutor Mr. Tomas Mu llern. Thanks to his guidance and valuable suggestions, we correct our mistake on time and finish our thesis in the end.
From the first meeting to the last one, you are always concern us and the process of our writing. Every time, we handed in chapters, you always provided useful opinion to let us revise the thesis better and better. We thank you for patient guiding and providing us a good opportunity in our study to learn more and more. Secondly, we would like to thank Mr. Zhang and Edward. Thank you for taking time to find interviewees of our interview.
You are busy with your own job, but you still use your private time to help us. You also share your experience about contacting skills with us.
Last but not the lease, we are thankful to our families and friends who were helping and supporting us during this writing period. Li Zhu & Dan Xu Jo ping University nko 2010 i|Page Master Thesis Master’s Thesis in Business Administration Title: Marketing Strategic Change in Expansion of Disneyland Authors: Tutor: Date: Li Zhu & Dan Xu Tomas Mullern August 2010 Key Words: Theme Park, Disneyland, Marketing Strategy, Strategic Change Abstract Problem: The international theme park industry is growing but is also facing a series of bottleneck problems.
Disneyland as one of the most famous theme parks, is trying to expand its kingdom to China. With the success and failure of the three previous oversea Disneyland, marketing strategic changes are becoming crucial and critical in the expansion of theme parks. Recognizing the elements that lead to strategic changes and generate proper strategies are preconditions of any successful expansion of theme parks, especially to Shanghai Disneyland Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify the main factors affecting Shanghai Disneyland? s marketing strategic changes.
Through the empirical study, we are going to describe the strategic changes made in all oversea Disneyland and try to identify “the main drivers and motivations of strategic change for the future Shanghai Disneyland”. Method: In this thesis we have adopted the case study approach. Disneyland is one of the most famous theme parks over the world. The data was collected with the help of open ended interviews from high-level managers to ordinary employees in different Disneyland. Results: Disneyland is a successful example in its efforts to expand overseas.
However, Paris Disneyland and Hong Kong Disneyland are not as profitable as expected. In the year 2012, Shanghai Disneyland is going to open. Based on the analysis of strategic changes Disney made in Tokyo, Paris, Hong Kong and Shanghai, authors will get the main drivers and motivations for these strategic changes. ii | P a g e Master Thesis Table of Contents Master Thesis 1 Introduction In the introduction chapter, the background related to the subject is presented firstly; problems which will be researched in this thesis are explained secondly, as well as the purpose is followed. 1. Background Theme park presented a radical refinement and departure from the traditions of the amusement park. (Margaret, 2004) According to Tourism Research and Marketing (TRM, 1995), historically, marking a precise definition of the concept of theme park has been avoided due to the existence of multiple similar formats that hinder such a task. By now, many definitions that have been made are incomplete or inaccurate. In our thesis, we will try to form a comparatively objective overview of modern theme park through specific cases study. The first theme park, Disneyland, was built in the year 1955 in Los Angeles, USA.
The fancy world of cartons absorbed hundreds of millions of customers every year. Following Disneyland? s great success, theme parks were like mushrooms after the rain. In past decades, the theme park industry had undergone remarkable expansion worldwide (S. Anton Clave 2007). However, with the rapid growth of the number of theme parks, competi, tion of theme parks is also growing. Given an increasing number of parks and the expanding of their activities, the survival of theme park has become a serious problem. In Europe, the theme park business keeps on declining due to a raying population, visitors that demand higher quality and visitors that are more thoughtful and discriminating about how the available resources of free time and disposable income are used (Kemperman, 2000). The 2008 economic crisis drove theme parks in Western Europe to reach its saturation point and the parks have to cater for visitors who are getting more and more experienced and demanding. Under the harsh environment, most theme parks are considering remarkable strategic changes to regain customers. The data from Economics Research Associates (ERA, 2003) showed that in 2005 there were 362 theme parks in the world.
They are mainly located in Asia (35%) and the USA and Canada (31%). However, by 2009, the population of China is 1,331 millions and USA has 307 millions. (PRB, 2009), which means theme parks in Asia, especially in China, still have a good prospect. China is a country, which has attracted an enormous amount of foreign investment and international trade from a large number of foreign countries from all over the world. (Michella, Staffan & Annina, 2006) From being a poor country in the 1970s China has developed into being on its way to become one of the economic super-powers of the world (Selmer, 1998).
According to Lieberthal & Lieberthal (2003) on average, China? s real GDP has grown with about 9% a year since 1978; this is an aggregate increase of approximately 700%. The growth of foreign trade has a yearly average of approximately 15% during the same period, which make a total of more than 2,700%. Since 1978, thanks to the reform and opening-up policy, a group of foreign companies invested in Chinese market. By now, 30 years after, we can see their success. For example, Nokia established 1|Page Master Thesis trade relations with China in the 1950s.
In 1985, Nokia set up its first office in Beijing, kicking off its development in China for the first stage. In the mid-1990s, Nokia set up its joint venture in China to localize its production and developed it into the global manufacture centre for its business around the world. In the new century, Nokia enhances its cooperation with China in the latest telecommunication technology, and deepened its participation in the development of China’s information industry. It is also taking efforts to develop its Chinese establishment into the global personnel base for Nokia. CRI online) In Chinese entertainment industry, experts also hold the positive point of view. Global accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers forecasts, “China? s entertainment and media industries will see a 25. 2 percent compound annual growth rate through 2009, and surpass Japan to become No. 1 in Asia in 18 months. ”(Jeremy Goldkorn, 2005) Disneyland is also taking part in the gold rush in Chinese entertainment. The sixth Disneyland is going to open in Shanghai in the year 2012. Shanghai, as we known, is fast developing nowadays. It has become one of the largest international cities. This city presented the economics liftoff of China.
As people? s living standard rises, they ask for highquality entertaining activities. For Disneyland, it is a good chance to enter Shanghai with its world famous brand. As an increasing number of foreign companies are establishing in China today, they are faced with the problem of how to reach the Chinese consumer. The same problem also exists between American Mickey Mouse and Chinese people. Since the culture difference always exists between China and western countries, some relevant strategic changes are unavoidable when Disneyland comes into Chinese market. Thus, Chinese people are willing to accept their exotic entertaining products.
A successful global expansion is not a simple duplication of the original version. By now, there are five Disneyland located in California, Florida, Tokyo, Paris and Hong Kong. During Disneyland? s global expansion, they made success as well as failures. Take the three oversea Disneyland, Tokyo Disneyland proved to be a great success, while France and Hong Kong Disneyland keep on losing money. (SMG, 2009) The reasons are various both from outside and from Disneyland itself. Walt Disney Company has international strategies for each Disneyland theme park, but not all of them are successful.
In this thesis, authors will study the Walt Disney Company? s specific marketing strategies for each Disneyland theme park home and abroad. Based on the success and failure of the strategies of the previous three oversea Disneyland, authors want to find out the main elements affecting strategic changes in theme park industry and study Shanghai Disneyland? s strategic changes according to the characteristics of Chinese entertaining market. In this thesis, authors will focus on marketing strategic change in Disneyland, but not strategies which will be used, ecause there must be some reason to change original successful strategies used in US or other countries. What? s more, as one of the most aspects in top management, marketing strategies affect directly the profit and development of a company. For Shanghai Disneyland, marketing is also one of biggest problems; Since Chinese market is different from US, Japan and Europe. If Shanghai Disneyland would like to reach Chinese market like other successful theme parks, it should realize Chinese market clearly. Thus successful marketing strategies can be applied in Shanghai.
In this case, in the following whole thesis, when authors mention strategies or strategic changes, we mean marketing strategies or marketing strategic changes in most of time. 2|Page Master Thesis This thesis will apply several relative strategic theories and framework to analyze the empirical study. Firstly, authors will present clearly what strategy is. It is an important step before strategic change. Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations.
Strategic change is defined as the process of “changes in the content of a firm? s strategy as defined by its scope, resource deployments competitive advantage, and synergy”. (Hofer & Schendel, 1978) Secondly, The PESTEL framework is used to analyze macroenvironment. Disneyland was successful in US, which are because, the environment in US can accept Disneyland, but we are not sure whether Chinese market will accept this US culture. That? s why authors need this PESTEL framework to be a guide when we are analyzing Chinese macro-environment. The following framework is Porter? five forces framework, which is used to analyze the attractiveness of industries or sectors. Thirdly, authors apply CAGE framework for analyzing market characteristics. When Disneyland goes into Chinese market, it will face a totally different market from USA. It is necessary to realize Chinese market characteristics. Lastly, there are four types of strategic change: adaptation, reconstruction, revolution and evolution. Also changes might require different approaches: time, scope, preservation, diversity, capability, capacity, readiness and power.
Many elements have to be under consideration when thinking about strategic changes. Take culture for example, Europe Disney? s attempt to replicate the success of the Disney theme parks in the USA was termed “cultural imperialism” in the French media and has experienced difficulties, which resulted in a decline in visitors of 0. 3% a year between 1999 and 2005. Assuredly, the same situation will occur in Shanghai Disneyland. In a comparatively new market of China, the marketing strategic changes of the oldbrand Disneyland are going to attract great attention in the global entertaining industry. . 2 Research Questions Depending upon the problem authors have defined, one research question which is as follows, What are the main drivers and motivations of strategic changes for Shanghai Disneyland? 1. 3 Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to identify the main factors affecting the strategic change of Shanghai Disneyland in marketing function. Through the empirical study, authors are going to describe the strategic changes made in all oversea Disneyland and try to identify “the main drivers and motivations of strategic change for the future Shanghai Disneyland”. . 4 Outline of Thesis In order to provide an overview of the structure of the thesis, authors briefly introduce each chapter as following. Chapter 1 “Introduction” 3|Page Master Thesis This chapter provides the background that familiarizes the reader to the subject. The thesis? s research problem is formulated and defined, and followed by purpose. Authors gave a description of the previous theoretical researches. Furthermore, authors introduced general information about the industry and market of theme park, especially Chinese market. Chapter 2 “Theoretical Framework”
This chapter will present a theoretical review on the current literature on strategies and strategic change, as well as frameworks that has been chosen as a base for the empirical study. Chapter 3 “Methodology” This chapter will present an explanation of the method chose and used for the research. Then authors introduce how the information and data has been collected to fulfill the purpose. Chapter 4 “Empirical Study on Chinese Theme Park Market and Disney Cases” Authors presented Chinese theme park market in this chapter, which is important data prepared for next chapter “analysis”.
The second part of this chapter is about the interview result of Disney Cases. Authors introduced the general situation and development of three oversea Disney. Also, the most important part is about marketing strategies are used or to be used in those Disney. Chapter 5 “Analysis” This chapter demonstrated the retrieved empirical findings. The theoretical framework of chapter 2 helps to analyze and compare the results between different Disneyland; the methodology part (chapter 3) is served as a base for conducting the study. Chapter 6 “Conclusions” The chapter presents the results of this study.
Readers will realized which aspects will affect the marketing strategic changes in Shanghai Disneyland. Meanwhile, authors suggest future research in the same field. 4|Page Master Thesis 2 Theoretical framework This chapter will present a theoretical review on the current literature on strategies and strategic change, as well as frameworks that has been chosen as a base of empirical study. Strategy as a subject of study has come a long way in the fifty or so years it has existed. (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) Thus, a large number of models have been presented during the years to facilitate strategic choices and strategic change.
In next several years, Walt Disney Company will open their 6th Disneyland theme park in Shanghai, China. The situation Walt Disney Company will face is a totally different market from western countries and a group of Asian customers. Although it had successful experience in Japan, it still needs to consider more about Chinese market, which is somehow different from Japanese market. To analyze Chinese mainland market, and why some certain strategies will be changed, one or more framework will be referenced. Firstly, the definition of strategy is introduced.
From thousands of definitions of strategy, author will take Mintzberg (1987)? s “five ps” as a guide. Secondly, when top managers start to develop strategies, usually they would follow three different points of view, the competitive forces view, the strategic conflict view and resource-based view. Here, author will just briefly introduce what the three different points of view are, so it helps authors to analyze Shanghai Disneyland standing which one of these. Thirdly, author will bring out PESTEL framework and Porter? five forces framework to analyze the macro environment which Disneyland will enter into and strategic position in an industry. Then due to our empirical study, Disneyland go into Chinese market which must be some certain distance from US market, authors will introduce CAGE framework to analyze the differences between two markets. Last but not least, authors will introduce marketing strategy, because this thesis will focus on the strategic change on marking function. Lastly, some theory of strategic change will be provided, although author will not research when and how the strategies will be changed in Shanghai Disneyland.
In order to analyze why the strategies is changed, it is necessary to study what is strategic change and some relative theory, but here authors think it is not necessary to dig it deep, it can be left for future studies. 2. 1 Definition of strategy The word strategy has been around for a long time. Managers now use it both freely and fond. For this reason, many scholars studied strategy for about two decades. (Henry, Bruce, & Joseph, 2005) From the view of “top managers”, Wright (1992) provided the strategy is top management? s plan to attain outcomes consistent with the organization? s missions and goals.
However, Alexander & Campbell (1997) see strategy as a tool that a company uses to reach the universal objective of all firms: to develop and to sustain competitive advantage. Hawawini, Subramanian & Verdin (2003) presented the strategy was about positioning: finding spots in the market where competition was at a low level, whether it was with a low-cost advantage or a differentiation advantage. In our text book, Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations. Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) 5|Page Master Thesis Mintzberg (1987) mentioned the field of strategic management cannot afford to rely on a single definition of strategy, indeed the word has long been used implicitly in different ways even if it has traditionally been defined formally in only one. So he presents five definitions of strategy—as plan, ploy, pattern, position, and perspective—and considers some of their interrelationships. The following is explanations by Mintzberg (1987) of 5ps. Strategy is a plan—some sort of consciously intended course of action, a guideline (or set of guidelines) to deal with a situation.
By this definition, strategies have two essential characteristics: they are made in advance of the actions to which they apply, and they are developed consciously and purposefully. Strategy as a plan will be recorded into company? s formal documents; obviously, some of them are secret and controlled by top managers. (MBA lib) As plan, a strategy can be a ploy really just a specific “maneuver” intended to outwit an opponent or competitor. For example, a clothes design company published that they will have a new collection, but indeed not; its competitor may be threatened if they are going to have a new collection.
Then its competitor will think about to public the new collection later. Here the real strategy (as plan, that is, the real intention) is the threat, not the expansion itself, and as such is a ploy. Organizations develop plans for their future and they also evolve patterns out of their past. Pattern is realized strategy; however, plan is intended strategy (Henry, Bruce, & Joseph, 2005). Whether as general plans or specific ploys, strategies is intended, so we need a definition that encompasses the resulting behavior.
Strategy is a pattern – specifically, a pattern in a stream of actions. Strategy is consistency in behavior, whether or not intended. The definitions of strategy as plan and pattern can be quite independent of one another: plans may go unrealized, while patterns may appear without preconception. Plans are intended strategy, whereas patterns are realized strategy; from this we can distinguish deliberate strategies, where intentions that existed previously were realized, and emergent strategies where patterns developed in the absence of intentions, or despite them.
The fourth definition is that strategy is a position—specifically, a means of locating an organization in what organization theorists like to call an “environment. ” By this definition, strategy becomes the mediating force between organization and environment, that is, between the internal and the external context. Note that this definition of strategy can be compatible with either (or all) of the preceding ones: a position can be preselected and aspired to through a plan (or ploy) and/or it can be reached, perhaps even found, through a pattern of behavior. As a position, strategy can dispose company? recourse according to environment, so that, company will get powerful competitiveness. While the fourth definition of strategy looks out, seeking to locate the organization in the external environment, the fifth looks inside the organization, indeed inside the heads of the collective strategist. Here, strategy is a perspective, its content consisting not just of a chosen position, but of an ingrained way of perceiving the world. This fifth definition suggests above all that strategy is a concept. This has one important implication, namely, that all strategies are abstractions which exist only in the minds of interested parties–6|Page
Master Thesis those who pursue them, are influenced by that pursuit, or care to observe others doing so. Mintzberg says that one perspective does not rule out another in this model. They are all useful in a sense of adding width to the concept of strategy and to create a discussion around it. Meanwhile, they can be seen both as complements and alternatives to each other. (Mattias & Daniel, 2005) 2. 2 Strategy developing By now, we have already made a clear view of the definition of strategy, and then we need to know how to develop a successful strategy.
Since Shanghai Disneyland will change its strategies, it is better for us to know how the new strategies are developed, and then it is easier to analyze this action. However, while there seems to be an endless amount of theories regarding strategy there are only three different groups of models that are really applicable to reality. (Teece, Pisano & Shuen, 1997) These are the competitive forces view, the strategic conflict view and the resource-based view. The competitive forces view promotes that it is essential for a company to understand the environment since it is the industry that sets the rules of the competitive game on market.
The environment with its competition gives a company a choice of strategies that can be used to create a position that is superior to the one of the competitors. (Burnes, 1996) Michael E. Porter holds this perspective. Porter claims that there are three competitive forces for a company: low-cost, differentiation, and specialization. This point of view is based on Porter? s five forces framework, which will be introduced in the following sections. The strategic conflict view presents a company? strategic actions will influence a whole market environment, since every action made by the company leads to different actions taken by competitors. (Teece, Pisano & Shuen, 1997) The last view, resource-based view, sets focus on the internal resources in a company and puts the internal management as determinant of a company? s performance. (Teece, Pisano & Shuen, 1997) 2. 3 2. 3. 1 The PESTEL framework Global marketing environment Global marketing environment is defined as those variables, largely out of the organization? s control but which it must account for, within which it conducts its business globally. Kiefer & Steve, 2005) Kiefer and Steve (2005) also argued the global marketing environment comprises the intermediate environment and the macro environment. In this section, authors mainly focus on macro environment. The macro environment is made up of those factors which are generally uncontrollable, for example cultural and economic factors. Thus PESTEL framework is introduced. 7|Page Master Thesis 2. 3. 2 Introduction of PESTEL framework A company? s strategies or strategic change should base on its strategic position. The strategic position is concerned with identifying the impact on strategy of the external environment, an organization? strategic capability (resources and competences) and the expectations and influence of stakeholders. (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) The PESTEL framework helps managers to understand the strategic position of an organization in a macro-environment. PESTEL framework can be used to identify how future trends in the political, economic, social, technological, environmental (“green”) and legal environments might impinge on organizations. The PESTEL framework provides a comprehensive list of influences on the possible success or failure of particular strategies.
The PESTEL framework categorizes environmental influences into six main types: political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal. Politics highlights the role of governments; Economics refers to macro-economic factors such as exchange rates, business cycles and differential economic growth rates around the world; Social influences include changing cultures and demographics, for example ageing populations in many western societies; Technological influences refer to innovations such as the Internet, nanotechnology or the rise of new composite materials; Environmental stands specifically for „green? ssues, such as pollution and waste; and finally Legal embraces legislative constraints or changes, such as health and safety legislation or restrictions on company mergers and acquisitions. (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) 2. 3. 3 The importance of accounting for the global environment According to the competitive forces view, realizing environment clearly is necessary for a company to develop strategies; also, it is important to authors to analyze strategic change.
Industrial environment is changing all the time, the competitive forces of an organization can be influenced by macro-environment. Proponents claim that the industry sets the rules of the competitive game and indirectly therefore influence the range of strategies available to the competitors (Burnes, 1996) There are numerous reasons for taking the marketing environmental factors into account. These include the following: ? ? ? ? ?
Reduces risk of failure; Isolates the most important environmental variables to concentrate on those which need little or no attention; Aids international/global strategy planning decision-making; Aids decision-making on strategy implementation, which markets to enter and the appropriate marketing mix, hence saving time and money; Enables potential global businesses to assess the risk of conducting business between and within different countries. Review of PESTEL framework 2. 3. 4 A number of checklists have been developed as ways of cataloguing the vast number of possible issues that might affect an industry.
A PEST analysis is one of them, merely a framework that categorizes environmental influences as political, economic, social and technological forces. Sometimes, two additional factors environmental and legal will be 8|Page Master Thesis added to make a PESTEL analysis … (Byars, 1991; Cooper, 2000). However, some studies don? t need all the elements to analyze. PESTEL framework varies to PEST, PEST-E, SLEPT and others as such (Kotler & Armstrong, 2004). When a company decided to enter its business operations into new markets and new countries, it is necessary to analyze the macro-environment.
As Tsiakkiros (2002) claims, the radical and ongoing changes occurring in society create an uncertain environment and have an impact on the function of the whole organization. In analyzing the macroenvironment, it is important to identify the factors that might in turn affect a number of vital variables that are likely to influence the organization? s supply and demand levels and its cost (Kotter & Schlesinger, 1991; Johnson and Scholes, 1993). Thus PESTEL framework is used to analyze the macro-environment.
The use of PEST analysis can be seen effective for business and strategic planning, marketing planning, business and product development and research reports. PEST also ensures that company? s performance is aligned positively with the powerful forces of change that are affecting business environment. (Porter, 1985) Also, Kotler (1998) claims that PEST analysis is useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Advantages of PEST Simple and only costs time to do.
Provides an understanding of the wider business environment. Encourages the development of strategic thinking. May raise awareness of threats to a project. Can help an organization to anticipate future difficulties and take action to avoid or minimize their effect. Can help an organization to spot opportunities and exploit them. Disadvantages of PEST Usually a simple list and not critically presented. The rapid pace of change in society makes it increasingly difficult to anticipate developments that may affect an organization in the future.
Collecting large amounts of information may make it difficult to see the wood for the trees and lead to “paralysis by analysis. ” The analysis may be based on assumptions that prove to be unfounded. PEST analysis only covers the external environment and the results need to be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the organization itself, competitors and the industry in which it is operating. (Duncan) 9|Page Master Thesis 2. 4 Porter’s five forces framework Following macro-environmental analysis, the industry itself should be concerned.
An industry is a group of firms producing the same principal product or service (Porter, 1980). Porter? s five forces model was first published in the Harvard Business Review in 1979. The model considers the competition within a line of business and how this competition is meeting. Michael (1980) further described deeper, the nature and degree of competition in an industry hinge on five forces: the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of customers, the bargaining power of suppliers,, the threat of substitute products or services (where applicable), and the jockeying among current contestants. See Figure 1)To establish a strategic agenda for dealing with these contending currents and to grow despite them, a company must understand how they work in its industry and how they affect the company in its particular situation. Figure 1-The five forces framework (Porter, 1980) 2. 4. 1 Competition within the industry Standing the centre of the five forces, the rivalry among competitors is diversity and intensely. Porter (1980) classified some commonly used factors: ? Number of and diversification between competitors 10 | P a g e Master Thesis
The more companies that compete for a customer, the more competition there is (Karl & Christoffer, 2006). ? Product differentiation Competition within an industry is not only affected by the number of competing companies, but also by how similar they offered products are. The more similar they offered products or services are, the more competition exists between companies (Karl & Christoffer, 2006). ? Low switching costs The easier it is for a customer to switch from one product/service to another, the wider the market gets (Karl & Christoffer, 2006).
Customers can choose a new product or service freely with little cost. Thus, competition within an industry increases. 2. 4. 2 Threat of new entrants New entrants to an industry bring new capacity, the desire to gain market share and, often, substantial resources (Michael, 1980). The entrenched companies, of course, will be threaded by new entrants, so before it will be affected from harmful side, it must take some reactions which are barriers to entry to new entrants. The seriousness of the threat of entry depends on the barriers present and on the reaction from existing competitors that the entrant can expect.
If barriers to entry are high and a newcomer can expect sharp retaliation from the entrenched competitors, obviously he will not pose a serious threat of entering (Michael, 1980). Threat of entry depends on the extent and height of barriers to entry. Apparently, the higher barriers to entry, the more competitors are there. In another words, more competitors means more profits (See table 1). For an organization, to entry into an industry, it is necessary to weight whether it is profitable to pay the cost of barriers. Table 1-Barriers and industry profitability (Anders, 2009)
There are six major sources of barriers to entry: (Michael, 1980) ? Economies of scale. These economies deter entry forcing the aspirant either to come in on a large scale or to accept a cost disadvantage. Some companies entered into industry earlier usually enlarge scale of economies in production, research and devel11 | P a g e Master Thesis oping, marketing, and service to cut down cost of each product. Thus they have a stronger pricing competitive force than the companies who entry later and who don? t have strong financial support to enlarge scale economies in a short time. Product differentiation.
Brand identification creates a barrier by forcing entrants to spend heavily to overcome customer loyalty. Advertising, customer service, being first in the industry, and product differences are among the factors fostering brand identification. Capital requirements. The need to invest large financial resources in order to compete creates a barrier to entry, particularly if the capital is required for unrecoverable expenditures in up-front advertising or R&D. Capital is necessary not only for fixed facilities but also for customer credit, inventories, and absorbing start-up losses. Some companies can? avoid huge capital requirement for starting-up, such as theme park. Cost disadvantages independent of size. Entrenched companies may have cost advantages not available to potential rivals, no matter what their size and attainable economies of scale. These advantages can stem from the effects of the learning curve (and of its first cousin, the experience curve), proprietary technology, access to the best raw materials sources, assets purchased at good prices, government subsidies, or favorable locations. To a new entrant it takes time and cost to reach these advantages. Access to distribution channels.
As an industry developing intensively, many supply or distribution channels have been controlled over by previous entrants. Porter argued the more limited the wholesale or retail channels are and the more existing competitors have these tied up, the tougher entry into the industry will be. Sometimes this barrier is so high that, to surmount it, a new contestant must create its own distribution channels, as Timex did in the watch industry in the 1950s. Government policy. The government can limit or even foreclose entry to industries with such controls as license requirements and imits on access to raw materials. Especially to a foreign company, government prefers to protect local companies, so that it may create higher barriers to a new entry foreign company. Threat of substitutes ? ? ? ? ? 2. 4. 3 Substitutes are products or services that offer a similar benefit to an industry? s products or services, but by a different process. It can reduce demand for a particular „class? of products as customers switch to the alternatives (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008). Managers put most of their time on the competitive advantage, but they neglect the threat of substitutes.
There are two important points to beat in mind about substitutes: ? The price/performance ratio is critical to substitution threats. Nowadays, with raising quality of life, price is not the first thing people will consider when purchasing. They care more about quality and performance of products and services. By placing a ceiling on prices it can charge, substitute products or services limit the potential of an industry. Unless it can upgrade the quality of the product or differentiate it somehow (as via marketing), the industry will suffer in earnings and possibly in growth (Michael, 1980).
Extra-industry effects are the core of the substitution concept. Manager should not only focus on their own industry, but also follow new information from other industries to prevent the threat of substitutes. (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) ? 12 | P a g e Master Thesis 2. 4. 4 Bargaining power of buyers Buyers are the organization? s immediate customers, not necessarily the ultimate consumers. (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) We had experience that the stronger bargaining power of buyers, the less profit the producers will attain.
Here, a company may be a supplier in one industry, but it may be a buyer in another industry, which means there are not subjective buyers and suppliers. However, in one industry, a company plays one role, either buyers or suppliers. Buyers likewise can force down prices, demand higher quality or more service, and play competitors off against each other-all at the expense of industry profits. (Michael, 1980) Buyer power is likely to be high when some of the following conditions prevail: ? Concentrated buyers and large-volumes buyers.
The bargaining between concentrated buyers or large-volumes buyers and suppliers cut off the profit of products or services, which mainly attain from variable costs, in condition of the industry of heavy fixed costs. In other words, the larger volumes suppliers sell, the less profit he will get. Low switching costs. Where buyers can easily switch between one supplier and another, they have strong negotiating position and can squeeze suppliers who are desperate for their business. Buyers sure that they can always find alternative suppliers with little cost.
Buyer competition threat. Buyers do not depend on supplier? s special facilities, but they can also develop their own (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008). Unfortunately sometimes the special facilities take the main cost of suppliers, but buyers are willing to purchase selectively to save more money. ? ? Consumers tend to be more prices sensitive if they are purchasing products that are undifferentiated, expensive relative to their incomes and of a sort where quality is not particularly important (Michael, 1980). 2. 4. 5 Bargaining power of suppliers
Suppliers are those who supply the organization with what it needs to produce the product or service. As well as fuel, raw materials and equipment, this can include labor and sources of finance. Suppliers can exert bargaining power on participants in an industry by raising prices or reducing the quality of purchased goods and services. Powerful suppliers can thereby squeeze profitability out of an industry unable to recover cost increases in its own prices (Michael, 1980). Supplier power is likely to be high where there are: ? ? Concentrated suppliers.
Only a few companies offer the products or services. Buyers do not have many choices; suppliers of course can rise up price. High switching cost. It doesn? t allow buyers to switch between one supplier or another. The products or a service is unique but popular among buyers. Sometimes, a company cooperates with a supplier many years in one industry, where good relationship was built up. If the company changes a supplier, it takes more time and cost to switch. Supplier competition threat. Suppliers? control some facilities that others don? t know (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008). ? 3 | P a g e Master Thesis 2. 4. 6 Positioning the company Porter? s five forces framework helps strategists to position the company in an industry based on the existing competition. The first approach takes the structure of the industry as given and matches the company? s strengths and weaknesses to it. Strategy can be viewed as building defences against the competitive forces or as finding positions in the industry where the forces are weakest (Michael, 1980). 2. 4. 7 Review of Porter’s five forces framework Porter? s five forces framework emphasizes the importance to choose the ptimal position in the line of business based on the existing competition. The model further emphasizes that the company or organization needs to widen the competition concept and not only include the competition within the industry, between companies, but also include the variables suppliers, customers, substitutes and threat of new entrants (Karl & Christoffer, 2006). Michael Porter? s five force framework is used to understand what the attractiveness of particular industries or sectors are and where potential threats from the set of competitors lie.
Awareness of these forces can help a company stake out a position in its industry that is less vulnerable to attack (Michael, 1980). ? Advantage Porter? s five forces framework describes the state of competition in an industry. These forces assist in identifying the presence or absence of potential high returns. The weaker are Porter? s five forces, the greater is the opportunity for firms in an industry to experience superior profitability (Fathi, 2009). By analyzing these forces influence in an industry, managers can make clear the position of organization and make an effective strategic decision in its specific position.
The model is easy to use at the same time as it gives the company a powerful tool to understand the line of business it operates in (Grant, 1995). Porter (1980) brings up three strategic questions: ? ? ? Identify key success factors— these factors are the key to success and thus also survival. Predict the profitability in the line of business and thus knowing where and how much to invest and how much the company has to diversity itself from the competition. To identify if the company can influence the line of business it operates in to minimize the competition and maximizing the own profitability. Porter? five forces framework can help to answer these strategic questions. ? Disadvantage The model is too static—the company forms the industry it operates in. the industry is thus under constant change and no equilibrium can thus ever be achieved. Porter? s five forces model is too static and that it does not take into account the fact that the environment the company operates in is under constant change. (Grant, 1995) 14 | P a g e Master Thesis The model is too simple—it only looks at the relationship between the buyer and the seller (Frankelius, 2001). Other factors exist—other factors exist in the companies? nvironment that have great influence on the company and thus are more important to identify and observe (Frankelius & Rose 1993). n, 2. 5 2. 5. 1 Market difference—CAGE framework Introduction of CAGE framework Since this thesis focus on strategic change in marketing function, it is necessary to analyze the differences between new market and original one to see if there is some influence to strategic change from marketing distance problem. The larger the distance between the countries, the greater the uncertainty and the costs firms will face in overcoming and integrating these distances will be (Shavin, Sivakumar & PengCheng, 2009).
Market uncertainty is often described as a perceptual phenomenon derived from the inability to assign probabilities to future event, a lack of information about the cause and effect relationship and the inability to predict the outcome of a decision (Milliken, 1987; Miller and Shamsie, 1999). More specifically, Robert & Michael (2001) defined market uncertainty as the state of not knowing or a lack of knowledge about the future direction of a given market. A company, especially, a foreign company who will enter into a new market must face market uncertainty. For example, advertisement, target group and pricing.
Usually these market uncertainties come from the foreign companies are not familiar with the local market, which is market differences. However, distance between two countries can manifest itself along four basic dimensions: cultural, administrative, geographic, and economic (Ghemwat, 2001). Ghemawat (2001) offers a „CAGE framework? , which helps managers identify and assess the impact of distance on various industries. (See Table 2) The upper portion of the table lists the key attributes underlying the four dimensions of distance. The lower portion shows how they affect different products and industries. 15 | P a g e Master Thesis
Table 2—CAGE framework (Ghemwat, 2001) Cultural Distance Different languages Different ethnicities; lack of connective ethnic or social networks Different religions Different social norms Administrative Distance Absence of colonial ties Absence of shared monetary or political association Political hostility Government policies Institutional weakness Geographic Distance Physical remoteness Lack of a common border Lack of see or river access Size of country Weak transportation or communication links Differences in climates Products have high linguistic content (TV) Products affect cultural or national identity of consumers (foods) Product features vary in terms of: ? ? ? Size (cars) Standards (electrical appliances) packaging Government involvement is high in industries that are: ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Producers of staple goods (electricity) Producers of other “entitlements” (drugs) Large employers (farming) Large suppliers to government (mass transportation) National champions (aerospace) Vital to national security (telecommunications) Exploiters of natural resources (oil, mining) Subject to high sunk costs (infrastructure) Economic Distance Differences in consumer incomes Differences in cost and quality of: Natural resources ? Financial resources ? Human resources ? Infrastructure ? Intermediate inputs ? Information or knowledge Nature of demand varies with income level (cars) Economies of standardization or scale are important (mobile phones) ? Attributes creating distance Industries or products affected by distance
Products have a low value-to-weight or bulk ratio (cement) Products are fragile or perishable (glass, fruit) Communications and connectivity are import(no financial services) Labor and other factor cost differences are salient (garments) Products carry country specific quality associations (wines) Local supervision and Distribution or busioperational requireness systems are differments are high (many ent (insurance) services) Companies need to be responsive and agile (home appliances) ? 16 | P a g e Master Thesis 2. 5. 2 Review of CAGE framework In the past several years, scholars used to apply cultural and geographic measure to illustrate international difference.
These useful studies cannot be denied; however, thinking deeper, we can find that they do not offer a comprehensive and more insightful perspective of different types of inter-country distances; therefore, they may overemphasize the importance of geographic and cultural distances in their models. (Mitra and Golder, 2002; Ojala and Tyrvainen, 2007) Frankel and Rose (2002), based on a large data of economic and geographic variables for over 200 countries, found that while a 1% increase in intercountry physical distance decreases international trade by 1. 1 %, a common currency and a common membership in a trading block increases trade between countries by as much as 340% and 330% respectively. Other distance factors may even be more important than geographic distance. Thus, Ghemawat (2001) provides CAGE framework is relative comprehensive.
CAGE framework can be used to measure the differences between countries and to help users understand which differences matter the most in their particular industry. The types of distance influence different businesses in different ways (Ghemawat, 2001). The CAGE framework can also be used to accomplish specific objectives, namely: making differences more visible, understanding the liability of being a foreign entity in a local market, comparing foreign competitors, comparing markets, and assessing markets taking into account the impact of distance(Ellen). 2. 6 Marketing strategy “Marketing is merely a civilized form of warfare in which most bottles are won with words, ideas, and disciplined thinking. ” ——Albert W.
Emery Since this thesis will focus on strategic change in marketing function mainly, authors introduce what marketing strategy is as a part of theoretical framework. American Marketing Association defined what marketing is in 1985. Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchange and satisfy individual and organizational objectives (AMA, 1985). In its strategic role, marketing focuses on a business? s intentions in a market and the means and timing of realization those intentions. Within a given environment, marketing strategy deals essentially with the interplay of three forces known as the strategic three Cs: the customer the competition, and the corporation.
Marketing strategies focus on ways in which the corporation can differentiate itself effectively from its competitors, capitalizing on its distinctive strengths to deliver better value to its customers. (See Figure 2) (Subhash, 1999) 17 | P a g e Master Thesis Figure 2—Key Elements of Marketing Strategy Formulation (Subhash, 1999) Three Cs which form the marketing strategy triangle are dynamic, living creatures with their own objectives to pursue. If what the customer wants does not match the needs of the corporation, the latter? s long-term viability may be at stake. Positive matching of the needs and objectives of customer and corporation is required for a lasting good relationship. But such matching is relative, and if the competition is able to offer a better match, the corporation will be at a disadvantage over time.
In other words, the matching of needs between customer and corporation must not only be positive, it must be better or stronger than the match between the customer and the competitor. Marketing strategy, in terms of these three key constituents, must be defined as an endeavour by a corporation to differentiate itself positively from its competitors, using its relative corporate strengths to better satisfy customer needs in a given environmental setting (Subhash, 1999). 18 | P a g e Master Thesis 2. 7 Strategic change Strategic change is often considered as a necessity for companies to survive in a turbulent environment (Hamel & Prahalad, 1994).
According to Nandini & Gretchen (1996), the literature on strategic change can be classified into two schools of thought. Researchers in the first school, the “content” school, have focused o the antecedents and consequences of strategic change, utilizing large samples and statistical methods (e. g. , Gibbs, 1993; Ginsberg & Buchholtz, 1990; Oster, 1982). In contrast, researchers in the second school, the “process” school, have focused on the role of managers in the strategic change process, utilizing in-depth case studies spanning several years (e. g. , Webb & Dawson, 1991; Whipp, Rosenfeld, & Pettigrew, 1989). 2. 7. 1 Definition of strategic change Strategic change is defined as the process of “changes in the content of a firm? strategy as defined by its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantage, and synergy” (Hofer and Schendel, 1978). Strategic change can also be defined as a difference in the form, quality, or state over time (Van de Ven & Poole, 1995) in an organization? s alignment with its external environment. 2. 7. 2 A theoretical framework of strategic change Nandini & Gretchen (1996) provided a comprehensive review of the strategic change literature from the perspective of three theoretical lenses: the rational, learning, and cognitive lenses. The framework they worked out provided a more comprehensive understanding of strategic change than any perspective by itself, called a multi-lens framework (see figure 3).
Figure 3 — Strategic Change: A Multi-Lens Framework (Nandini & Gretchen, 1996) 19 | P a g e Master Thesis In the rational lens perspective, changes in strategy must match the requirements of a firm? s external and internal context (Links 1&2) in order to be successful (Link 3). Thus, the rational lens perspective reflects a crucial aspect of the reality facing managers, namely, that changes in strategies must match the requirements of a firm? s environmental and organizational contexts in order to be successful. However, when changes in strategy do not match the requirements of the context or do not lead to positive organizational outcomes (economic and/or noneconomic) the rational lends perspective is of little help. The cognitive lens perspective indicates that gaps between “objective reality” and managerial cognitions (Links 12 & 13) can result in firms choosing not to change their strategies and /or making inappropriate choices that may ultimately lead to organizational decline. These managerial cognitions form the theoretical basis for the managerial actions (Link 14) emphasized in the learning lens perspective. Furthermore, the learning lens perspective is used to identify the crucial role played by managerial actions in creating an organizational (Link 7) and environmental (Link 5) context, which is more conducive to the context of the firm? s new strategies (Link 8) and thus maximizes the likelihood that implementation of the strategic change is effective (Link 10).
Although the rational lens perspective is used to link changes in the content of strategy alone to organizational outcomes (Link 3), we draw upon the learning and cognitive lens perspective to highlight that the effectiveness of such changes in the content of strategy may also depend on that environmental (Link 20) and organizational (Link 21) changes that precede or accompany changes in strategy. Finally, Nandini & Gretchen identified how managers learn during the strategic change process. Managerial learning occurs in a continuous reshaping of cognitions as changes in strategy are implemented (Link 16), as organizational outcomes begin to emerge (Link 17), and as managers make sense of the effects of their actions (e. g. , bargaining, negotiating, and coalition building) (Link 15).
These learning links are crucial because they not only affect outcomes during a discrete change process, but they also affect the future adaptive capability of organization. (Nandini & Gretchen, 1996) 2. 7. 3 Types of strategic change According to Julia (2001), there are four main types of strategic change. Change can be classified by the extent of the change required, and the speed with which the change is to be achieved: the speed of change is about the way that change is implemented. It ranges across a continuum from an all-at-once, big bang type of change to a step-by-step, stageby-stage incremental kind of change. The extent of the change required ranges across a spectrum from transformation to realignment. See Table 3) (Julia, 2001) Table 3-Four types of strategic change (Julia, 2001) Extent of change Transformation Speed of change Incremental Big bang Evolution Revolution Realignment Adaptation Reconstruction Combining these two axes suggests four types of strategic change: ? Adaptation is change that can be accommodated within the current culture and oc20 | P a g e Master Thesis ? ? cur incrementally. It is the most common form of change in organizations. Reconstruction is change that may be rapid and involve a good deal of upheaval in an organization, but which does not fundamentally change the culture. Revolution is change that requires rapid and major strategic but also culture change.
This could be in circumstances where the strategy has been so bounded by the existing culture that, even when environmental or competitive pressures might require fundamental change, the organization has failed to respond. Evolution is change in strategy that requires culture change, but over time. (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) The importance of context ? 2. 7. 4 Following the theories of strategic change above, the implement of strategic change come. Johnson et al. provided top managers and readers the context of strategic change, which helped top managers and readers to realize when the change shall be started; what should be done or what should be avoided. Figure 4- The importance of context (Johnson et al. , 2003)
As we seen in the figure 4, the context of strategic change include time (how quickly change is needed? ), scope (how much change is required? ), preservation (what organizational resources and characteristics need to be maintained? ), diversity (how homogeneous are the staff groups and divisions within the organization? ), capability (what is the managerial and personal capability to implement change? ), capacity (what is the degree of change resource available? ), readiness (how ready for change is the workforce? ), and power(what power does the change leader have to impose change? ). (Gerry, Kevan & Richard, 2008) 21 | P a g e Master Thesis
Since this thesis focus on the influence of market change on strategic change, authors don? t have to dig deeper on the theory and the process of strategic change. 2. 8 Theme park “Sightseeing is substitute for religious ritual. The sightseeing tour as secular pilgrimage. Accumulation of grace by visiting the shrines of high culture. Souvenirs as relics. Guidebooks as devotional aids. ” — David Lodge, 1991 “They are temples to modernity, our secular churches in which the values of play, health, fun, travel, leisure, and the American way are sanctified in a painless liturgy that draws together entertainment, information, and an effortless hint of instruction. ” — B. J.
Barber, 1996 “The aim of a theme park is to offer a unique experience to each of its effective consumers. This experience is constructed on the basis of the existence of tangible elements like attractions ,shops and restaurants, service activities supplied by the staff of the park, each visitor’s own expectations, behavior and attitudes and a set of other factors that condition the experience at the time it takes place, ranging from the number of visitors at the part at the time it is visited by an individual consumer to the weather or characteristics of the place where the park is located and its accessibility. ” — Clave2007 , 2. 8. 1 Definition of theme park
In this chapter, authors will introduce the definition of theme park to the readers, in order to build an understanding on the subject in generally. To study the driving forces of strategic change in theme parks, it is needed to understand the definition of theme park. Historically, marking a precise definition of the concept of theme park has been avoided due to the existence of multiple similar formats that hinder such a task. By now, many definitions that have been made are incomplete or inaccurate. In this thesis, authors are going to list several representative definitions of theme park and then to compare them, thus readers can build a comprehensive idea about definition of theme park. The concept of themes is crucial to the operation of the parks.
Pearce (1988) summarizes this by defining theme park as “extreme examples of capital intensive, highly developed, user-oriented, man-modified, recreational environment”. Theme park is a construction of virtual environment which has the purpose of meeting the diversified recreational needs of tourists. Theme park is different from natural landscape and historical heritage. It comes out of people? s mind and attracts tourists with its creativity and unique experience (Bao, 1994). Theme parks are expected to have different themes to create an environment of another place and time. Different themes are orchestrated by different architecture, landscape, rides, shows, food services, etc. Kemperman, 2000). Margatet J. King (2004) states that theme park presented a radical refinement and departure from the traditions of the amusement park. The environment, architecture and landscaping of different section present different themes. A single themed attraction is not enough for a theme park. 22 | P a g e Master Thesis 2. 8. 2 Development of theme parks The type of theme parks nowadays available to the public covers a wide variety of businesses ranging from the well known large scale theme or leisure parks with „whiter knuckle? rides, to historic properties, museums and art galleries, religious sites, industrial plants, zoos, and wildlife parks. Kemperman, 2000) According to Kemperman, there are three different origins for the type of theme parks that are always available to the public: (1) parks that are updated versions of the old amusement parks; (2) commercial theme parks that are totally new leisure centers, specially designed by big businesses for the mass tourism market; and (3) historic parks or outdoor museums that have origins in the interests of conservation, preservation and public education groups. Forerunners of theme parks were the amusement parks, which were developed at the beginning of 20th century and consisted of a mixture of entertainment, rides, games, and tests of skill provided at fairs, carnivals, circuses, and frequently they had an outdoor garden for drinking (Pearce, 1988). In 1930? s, the traditional amusement park began its declining due to the impact of economic depression, the rise of movies, and the advent of World War Two. Kemperman, 2000) In 1955, with his extraordinary creativity, Walt Disney established the first theme park Disneyland in Los Angeles, California. Different entertaining activities were combined to create a dramatic and fancy world, which attracted numerous tourists from all around the world. An image was presented where attention was paid to cleanliness, visitor comfort and quality. This was all reinforced by the famous Disney cartoons. (Kemperman, 2000) With the success of Disneyland in LA, from 1980s, the number of theme parks began to increase all over the world. By 1980, there were 18 theme parks in the U. S. A, which accepted 60 million tourists per year. In the year 1983, Tokyo Disneyland opened.
The theme park industry began its prosperous period in the next ten years. By 1990, Japan had 14 large-scale theme parks. (Wang, 1994) However, after 1980s, the theme parks grow slowly in the U. S. A. In 1990s, theme parks got popular in Asian countries. According to Zoltak (1998), many of the Asian countries such as China, Thailand and Malaysia are now actively promoting the construction of major theme parks. And many international theme parks have aimed at these potential markets. Due to the differences of the economics, social, culture, consumer behaviors, and other factors from different countries, the development of theme parks has been different in every country.
As authors mentioned above, US started this industry, but Asian countries fall behind almost 50 years. Swarbrooke (1995) pointed out the differences in a number of factors including: ? ? ? ? ? The level of economic development and the distribution of wealth; The transport system; The natural culture and built heritage; The national culture; The degree to which tourism is a matter of incoming foreign visitors rather than domestic demand. 23 | P a g e Master Thesis 2. 8. 2. 1 Internationalization of theme parks For most giant players, internationalization is usually a good choice. Back to 1980s, the development of theme parks became internationalized.
The following table 4 (Clave , 2007) illustrates different processes of evolution being experienced of theme parks under the internationalization trend. Table 4- Dynamics of theme park development by world region USA-Canada 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Start Development Expansion Maturity Concentration Diversification Start Development Expansion Adaptation Repositioning Start Development Expansion Selective growth Start Development Expansion Europe Asia/the Pacific Rest of the world According to Clave(2007), in USA and Canada, the maturity of the market has brought about the concentration of a great many of the theme parks in the hands of just a few operators and the rise of diversification and international expansion strategies among the main corporations. In Europe, here a state of market maturity has not yet been attained, there currently exists a dynamic of adjustment and repositioning of the system of theme parks which is linked to its population singularity, social singularity and economic singularity. In Asia, an intense expansion process is being produced in which only certain areas and certain park formats are participating. In the rest of the world, the development process is not yet significant and though expanding, its scale will be minimal during the next decade. Even so, tendencies hint at significant growth in countries like China, India, Mexico and Brazil and the most dynamic in the Indochina peninsula and Indonesia. (Clave 2007) , Currently, the development of theme parks is being shaped by a mixture of global and local influences.
Asia/the Pacific is a clear example of how globalization allows a mixture of strategies, capital and know-how of multiple origins (Clave 2007). In fact, consultants , have to take into account the specificities that are characteristic of Asiatic consumers (Kazdoy, 2005). 2. 8. 3 The importance of theme parks Theme parks are star players in the tourism industry, and play a special and an important role in generating tourism demand. They are also one of the main motivators for tourism trips to many destinations and core elements of the tourism product (Kemperman, 2000). In recent decades, the theme park industry has undergone marked expansion worldwide.
The changes in productive processes that took place during the last decades of the 20th century have led to significant changes in the ethics of the population of developed 24 | P a g e Master Thesis countries in such a way that it has ceased to focus on the world of work and its attention has shifted to play, leisure and culture (Rifkin, 2000). A new social and cultural order has been forming; one of whose main traits are the commercialization of leisure time and the production of specific places for its consumption (Miller et al. , 1999). And, as one of the factors of this new society is the development of theme park. Theme park industry has become a contributable part of modern economy.
The contribution made by theme parks to regional economy is significant. Clave(2007) summarized the significance as following: ? Rational allocation of resources. The investment and management of theme park should be based on the need of local market. In order to provide visitors with highquality service and achieve sustainable development, the existing resources could be rationally allocated according to different time periods and areas. Scientific and rational allocation of resources could play a positive role in local market through stimulating market reaction and improving market efficiency. Enhancing regional core competitiveness. Competition occurs since the first day tourism came into existence.
Theme park is playing a more and more important role within the competition of tourist industry. Many cities have established a good tourism reputation for owning famous theme parks, which could further enhance the core competitiveness of these cities. The formation of new regional industrial chain. For a city or a region, theme park does not only mean a new entertaining product or service, but a highly intensive industrial management model. In this model, theme park is a leader for a brand new industrial chain, which can be a driving force for a large number of related industries. What is more, the industrial structure could be optimized. ? ? 25 | P a g e Master Thesis 3 Methodology
This methodology chapter will exam different research methods, such as qualitative versus quantitative, and explain the reason of choosing one of them. Then authors introduce the research study process, especially on interview. 3. 1 Qualitative and Quantitative methods The two basic approaches to research can be classified in qualitative and quantitative studies (Nyberg, 2000). The difference between the two pure approaches is understandable; as the qualitative approach implies general guiding questions for the study, a loosely structured design and that the data does not get prestructured (Punch, 1998). On the other hand, the quantitative approach implies „prespectified research questions, tightly structures design and prestructured data? nd the results would often be presented in numerical form (Punch, 1998). James Neill (2007) compares the features of two methods as following: (see Table 5) Table 5- Features of Qualitative & Quantitative Research (James Neill, 2007) Qualitative The aim is a complete, detailed description. Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for. Recommended during earlier phases of research projects. The design emerges as the study unfolds. Researcher is the data gathering instrument. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. Subjective – individuals interpretation of events is important ,e. g. , uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc.
Qualitative data is more ‘rich’, time consuming, and less able to be generalized. Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. Quantitative The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for. Recommended during latter phases of research projects. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. Objective seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e. g. , uses surveys, questionnaires etc.
Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail. Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter. 26 | P a g e Master Thesis For the empirical study, authors need a complete and detailed description of the strategies and strategic changes in Shanghai Disneyland. The data needed is not only numbers and statistics, but also words and pictures from managers of Disneyland, visitors and government officers, such as what they have done in Disneyland or what they have changed for some special strategies, so that the data is subjective. Authors cannot judge the strategies are right or wrong.
The only thing authors can do is catching as much information as we can. Besides, the purpose of this thesis is to find the drivers and motivation of strategic change in Shanghai Disneyland, so that authors need the views of managers from Disneyland which only can be done through interview. Based on the above comparison, authors chose qualitative research as main guide in this thesis. According to Walker, Cooke and McAllister (2008), the qualitative research methods are rich and help in analyzing the complexities and in analyses and understanding of the concepts holistically. Lundahl and Ska rvad (1999) further argue that the qualitative research method is used to understand the respondents? iew and perspectives, which is not necessarily and objective truth. 3. 2 Research Strategy: case study Qualitative researchers generally agree upon the assumptions attached to constructivism and interpretive, but there are many nuances, traditions and specifics which cause the qualitative research practice to be very diverse. Some traditions the fall within this category are ethnography, phenomenology, biographical research, grounded theory, narrative analysis, case-studies and participatory research. (Hennie, 2010) The purpose of this thesis is to find out the main drivers and motivations of strategic change in Shanghai Disneyland. Obviously, authors choose case study as the research method.
The case study is one of many different approaches to research strategy just as experiment, history and survey strategies are, and the boundaries between these strategies are not always sharp (Yin, 1994). Case study is the best strategy when questions like “what”, “why” and “how” is asked for any event (Chetty, 1996) Chetty (1996) also states case study as a very natural and suitable option when the exploration of an issue is required. Although authors haven? t gone to Shanghai Disneyland, authors traveled to US Disneyland and Pairs Disneyland. Based our own experience and feelings, authors also interviewed some key positions in Walt Disney Company, visitors, government officers to got the primary useful information.
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2007) also support the idea that case study strategy has natural ability to generate answers to the research questions in detail. The case study can be performed either as single-case or as a multiple-case study (Mattias & Daniel, 2005). They both have their strengths and weaknesses and where the singlecase study is more appropriate to use when going deeper into a special case, the multiplecase study is often argued to be more robust and able to provide more compelling evidence (Yin, 2003). For this reason, he further states, that if a research have to choose one of them, the multiple-case study is preferred, even though it is asking for more time and resources.
For Shanghai Disneyland, the strategies change is not only based on Disneyland in US, but also on other three overseas Disneyland theme parks. Authors have to treat every Disneyland as a single case (There will be three total. ), so that authors could get more data than if authors only treat Walt Disney Company as a single case. 27 | P a g e Master Thesis 3. 3 Research Process First of all, authors defined the research field which is theme park. Nowadays, the demand of entertainment industry is increasing. With the increasing living standard, people ask for not only the quantity of entertainment, but also the quality of entertainment activities.
Theme park as one of new industries can be researched deeper and be improved a lot. As we know, the most famous and representative theme park in the world is Disneyland, so authors chose Disneyland as the research object. Then authors thought about strategic change as our topic, because the 6th Disneyland will be opened in Shanghai. Due to the different culture and market and others reasons, the strategies must not be the same as those in US or other countries. However, authors thought it is meaningless to research what the strategies should be used, because the company must have decided the strategies and they should not be wrong though a lot of marketing research. Authors? esearch narrowed to the drivers and motivations of strategic change in Shanghai Disneyland. Meanwhile, it will be cost time if authors research all strategies, so the marketing strategic change is finally decided as the topic. By then, the first step is completed. Authors clarify the research questions of this thesis, which is what is the main drivers and motivation for Shanghai Disneyland. The second period is literature review, which is to collect previous research and to find out the model which is suit for this research. Authors read a lot of previous research articles and theories from scholars in different time and different schools. Finally, authors decided some theory and model, and secondary data to support this research.
The third period is empirical study. Authors interviewed some key positions in Walt Disney Company, visitors and government officers to get the primary data. These will be introduced more in following. Then combining authors? theoretical framework, authors analyzed the cases and got the final result as conclusion. 3. 4 Data Collection Data are necessary in empirical research to give evidence or justification for everything you present later on as your findings, such as descriptions, new ideas, relationships between subjects, interpretations and explanations (Hennie, 2010). In qualitative research, there are many ways in which data may be collected.
To make it easier, authors gathered and applied both primary and secondary data. 3. 4. 1 Secondary data When authors built our own theoretical framework, secondary data from previous researches, articles, books and internet is mainly used Then, according the needs for the Disneyland cases, authors chose some suitable theories and frameworks and built them logically to support the empirical study. Some part of Chinese theme park industry data is secondary data from previous studies as well as. These secondary data saved authors a lot of time during the whole process of research. 28 | P a g e Master Thesis 3. 4. 2 Interviews This thesis is mostly inspired by and dedicated to the qualitative interviewing.
Though interviewing with some managers in different Disneyland theme parks, as well as with visitors and government officers, authors gathered the primary data for the research. Maso (1987) provided a definition of an interview which is … a form of conversation in which one person — the interviewer — restricts oneself to posing questions concerning behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and experiences with regard to social phenomena, to one or more others — the participants or interviewees — who mainly limit themselves to providing answers to these questions. (Hennie, 2010) The origin of the interview is sometimes traced to the journeys of Herodotus (Bailey 1995, 7) or the dialogues of Socrates (Kvale 1996, 21) However, nowadays the interview is widely used in many times and many situations.
Darlington and Scott (2002) explain that interview study gives deeper understanding of the subject and in-depth interview is the most used technique for data collection in the qualitative approach and takes the belief that people are specialists in their own experience. Yins (1994) also has considered interview to be most suitable to qualitative and case study based researches. Interviews may be conducted face-to-face, over the telephone (Shuy, 2002), or on the internet (Mann and Stewart, 2002) Due to the real limitation, author can? t face-to-face interview those managers of Disneyland and Shanghai government officers. It is impossible to fly to US, Japan, HK, France and Shanghai to interview them one by one.
Even if authors can go to Walt Disney Company, it is still hard to find a key position who knows strategies and strategic change to interview. So authors chose internet based interview. Internet-based interviews may be synchronic (the researcher and respondent use the connection simultaneously) or asynchronic (the connection is used at a different time) (Carol & Tracy, 2010). This characteristic provided us more flexible time frame. However, in this research, authors prefer semi-structured interview. Ryen (2004) described the semi-structured interview we will have a frame of main questions and a comprehensive theme, but with a number of openings for more detailed and spontaneous questions as the interviews advance.
Asking open-ended questions where the respondents will answer in both terms of facts as well as own personal reflections, is the essence of the semi-structured interview (Yin, 2003). 3. 4. 2. 1 Interview process The interview process is keeping developing. A lot of scholar provided their opinion on interview process. Here authors quoted Darlington and Scott (2002)? s idea: the interview process consists of five different stages: 1) Finding and selecting participants, 2) Making a connection (establishing rapport), 3) The initial contact, 4) The interview and 5) Ending. Preparation This stage included two: 1. Finding and selecting participants; and 2. Preparing interview questions.
Obviously, authors have to find someone realizes the strategies issue in Disneyland, but they must be top managers who are hard to be contacted. Fortunately, we have a friend who is a supervisor in Hong Kong Disneyland. He is responsible for authors to reach some key positions in both US Disneyland and Hong Kong Disneyland. On the other hand, our parents know an officer in Shanghai government, so he can be our interviewee of Shanghai Disneyland program which is cooperated by Shanghai gov29 | P a g e Master Thesis ernment and Walt Disney Company. However, due to the sensitiveness of strategies issue, all of them prefer us not to mention their name. Moreover, we promised not to disclose this content to other business organizations.
Some interviewees are generously willing to publish their position and name, thus authors believe their words could make empirical study more powerful and trustful. As soon as authors found the right persons, authors started to prepare interview questions. Authors would adopt internet-based and semi-structured interview which means authors contact interviewees by e-mail, therefore, we have to pose the questions as detail as we can, then we can get enough information not just only a simple sentence. The following is our interview questions: Questions to Walt Disney Company: Disneyland in Tokyo, Paris and Hong Kong: 1. 2. 3. What is the motivation of Disneyland to decide to expand overseas? Why Tokyo is the first oversea city to join Disney Empire?
What is the difference of strategies between Tokyo Disneyland and the previous two in America? And why? 4. What is the most important factor affecting the development of new strategies of Tokyo Disneyland? 5. Have any new strategies introduced to Euro Disneyland? Why? 6. What is the main reason of failure of Euro Disneyland? 7. What are the rescue strategies of Paris Disneyland after it kept on losing money? 8. Why chose Hong Kong as the second Asian destination? 9. What strategies Hong Kong Disneyland take to attract visitors from mainland China? 10. Is there any lessons can be learnt from Tokyo and Hong Kong Disneyland? The 2012 Shanghai Disneyland: 11.
Since HK Disneyland is not as good as expected, why do you decide to go into China mainland market and chose Shanghai? 12. Is there going to be significant strategic changes when Mickey Mouse enters this exotic culture? 13. What is the main concern when you make new strategies for Shanghai Disneyland? 14. Comparing the former Disneyland international sites, is there any problem in Shanghai Disneyland? Such as culture distance, managing style? 15. How can you deal with the political and legal problem with Shanghai government? 16. Who will be your competitor in Shanghai? How will you face them? 17. As a new entrant of entertainment industry of Shanghai, what are your advantages and how can you present your strong competitive forces? 8. Who will be your marketing target and who will be your suppliers for equipment? Is there any difference between US? 19. Based on cultural web, could you provide some stories, symbols and so on for us? 20. What? s the expectation on SH Disneyland? Making a connection and interview 30 | P a g e Master Thesis Thanks to the convenience of e-mail and internet call, we don? t have to spend too much time on asking questions, just send the list to the interviewees. However, we spend a lot of time on making a connection. In the end of April, 2010, it is the first time authors contacted the officer of Shanghai Government, let? s call him Mr. Zhang.
Before that he told my father, it would not be any problem to help me to do an interview about Shanghai Disneyland program, but when we call him, he said he is too busy to prepare Shanghai Expo 2010 those days, which means he don? t have time to interview until the end of May. During this period, we sent several e-mails to him, and we explained why we were doing this research, what we had then, and what else we would need to do in the future. Till mid of July, he replied us with some useful information and answers of our questions which are from two persons, because we tried to be objective. For the Hong Kong aspect, in the middle of June, we got the e-mail address of the man who was a supervisor in Hong Kong Disneyland. Let? s call him Edward.
Like the same with Shanghai Government, we told him why we were doing this research, what we had then, and what else we would need to do in the future. Also we sent our questions to him and asked for more than two versions of answers from top managers of Disneyland. After that, we waited one and a half month, sometimes he said his manager is out of office for business trip, sometimes he said his managers is unwilling to answer these sensitive questions. But he never said no to us, as he was very kind and nice to help us. Luckily, we got the answers from US Walt Disney Company in the beginning of August. The interviews with visitors are contacted by those friends author meet in Disneyland. At that time, we change both email.
At first, we just tried to contact them with a lot of uncertainty. Some of them are willing to answer our questions, but some are not. To visitors? interview, the questions we mainly prepared are about their own experiences and feelings. By now, we got all the first hand data from interviews. Ending and interview report After a long period of email interview, we built a nice rapport with Mr. Zhang and Edward, we knew before we finished our research we still need them to help us, because they were the only channel we connected with our cases directly or indirectly. It is good for us that we didn? t have to write interview report just like face-to-face interviewers did.
They have to take a record during interview and then to transfer voice data into text. However, the e-mails we received were clear enough; we can use them directly when we need to do empirical analysis. When we started to clear up interview e-mails, we arranged them by time, but later we didn? t think it was a good method, because those email didn? t follow the logic as we wanted to, we must rearrange them logically based on our own research. Then, we classified them by different Disneyland theme parks. Tokyo goes first, then Paris, Hong Kong and Shanghai. Based on this primary information, we wrote Disneyland cases directly which is in Chapter 4. 3. 5 Empirical Analysis
Qualitative analysis requires a large quantity of thickly descriptive data, good organizational skills and interpretive ability. Unlike quantitative data, that condense huge amounts of information into files that can be maintained, analyzed, and summarized numerically, qualitative data generate pages and pages of text, images, or video (Carol & Tracy, 2010). 31 | P a g e Master Thesis On the one hand, qualitative analysis will not be right or wrong, but quantitative analysis will be. For example, in quantitative analysis, a little mistake of number will affect the final result, and then the researcher may find something wrong and do it again.
But for qualitative analysis, if there is some data turns to be a little subjective, researcher are difficult to discover, then unfortunately the final result will not be so objective and accurate. So facing a lot of qualitative data, like text, images and video, we will need a logical way to order; and then it must be very helpful to our analysis. 3. 5. 1 The Analysis Process A useful first step in the process of analysis is to have some idea where you want to end up (Carol & Tracy, 2010). In the beginning of our research, we thought about our purpose as “what strategies will be suitable for Shanghai Disneyland”, with tutor? s suggestions, we realized that it is impossible to work out the strategies, because we are not CEO of Disneyland and we can? control what will happen before Shanghai Disneyland opening. Thus, it turned out meaningless to us to research what strategies will be used. Somehow, we change our topic to strategic change. We would get the strategies from interview, so we just need to know why they change strategies for Shanghai Disneyland. Then we needed to find out a logical way to order all of our data. As we did in theoretical framework, we firstly analyzed the macro-environment for Shanghai Disneyland also included the Chinese market description. Secondly, we analyzed the amusement park and theme park industry itself, combining Porter? s five force framework and some previous research.
Thirdly, what is the most important part, we analyzed strategies of five existing Disneyland and compared these strategies. The least but not last, we listed the possible strategies of Shanghai Disneyland which are got from interviews. We analyzed one by one why the strategies of Shanghai Disneyland is changed or not, based on the previous environmental and industrial analysis. At last, we gave our result of the question which showed in the introduction. 32 | P a g e Master Thesis 4 Empirical Study on Chinese Theme Park Market and Disney Cases In this Chapter, authors will introduce the current theme park industry situation in Chinese market for entertaining consumption, which helps to better understand why Disneyland chose Shanghai as their next member.
As well as these are the most important empirical study base for the analysis why Walt Disney Company change their strategies for Shanghai. 4. 1 The theme park industry in China Due to the large population and increasing living standard of Chinese people, there is a huge potential market for entertainment in China. Many international companies take the chance to enter into this total new market. However, the international society is not so familiar with Chinese domestic market. In this section, authors will specially give a general introduction of the theme park industry in China, including the data from previous studies and interview with Jingwang Liu, the vice president of Chinese Amusement Parks Association. 4. 1. 1 The growth of theme parks in China
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