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Sigmund Freud: One of the Most Famous Psychologists

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    Sigmund Freud is one of the most famous psychologists to

    ever hit the study of psychology. His name alone

    symbolizes the importance of his theories, and the name

    that comes to most people’s heads when saying the word

    psychology is Sigmund Freud. Freud was a psychodynamic

    psychologist and came from the conservative point of view

    which states that man is bad and society is good, which I

    do not agree with 100% because not all man’s actions are

    necessarily bad and with bad intentions.

    Freud was a real pessimist when it came to human nature.

    He identifies man’s weaknesses in saying that man is a

    biological creature with biological drives. He reflected these

    ideas off of Darwin’s original ideas. I do agree with this

    theory because man’s drives are survival and

    self-preservation. Freud also stated that mankind’s

    aggression helps him to survive, he says that man has an

    innate sense of survival. I also agree with this theory

    because aggression and dominance guarantees our survival.

    He also believed that over the many thousands of years that

    man has been alive man developed rational thought. Freud

    stated that people do not have to live like animals because

    overtime we developed a society that has rules and

    regulations in order to keep our animal nature in check. I

    agree with Freud on this because of many cases when a

    person has some bad intentions in mind but let’s them go

    Another thing Freud said was the idea of Opposing

    Instincts which when comes to mind creates conflict. The

    first of the two opposing instincts is the Eros, which is the

    life instinct, which also ensures the organisms life. The ID

    presses us to survive and pushes us to produce. The Eros

    seeks pleasure and then we rationalize it. Next comes the

    Thanatos, which is the death instinct, and this instinct says

    that all organisms have a death wish towards themselves

    and I agree completely. This he says becomes our own

    destruction. Freud says it is natural to move towards death

    and this I think is obvious. The feelings we have must be

    expressed and released and we direct our feelings outward.

    This becomes our aggression toward others. Freud’s view

    on the mind is in the shape of an iceberg. He believes that

    mankind’s mind works in the unconscious, which I do not

    agree with at all I feel that man is mostly conscious when it

    comes to behaviors. Every choice that mankind makes he

    is aware of, but maybe the consequences of our action

    The Structure of Personality which is another interesting

    part of Freud’s theory basically states that we have an ID, a

    Superego and an Ego. The ID is a biological reservoir of

    urges and impulses that need to be gratified. He says the ID

    does not have a conscious, it acts on instinct. It seeks out

    gratification and pleasure. It is the pleasure principle. The

    Superego is the Morality Principle, and the Superego

    knows the difference between right and wrong. The

    Superego is a bunch of learned internalized morals and

    values of society. This is basically the thing that keeps the

    ID in check. Freud said that Superego is our conscious,

    and that the Superego is the most powerful tool (guilt and

    pride). Last but not least is the Ego, which is the reality

    principle. The Ego finds socially acceptable ways to satisfy

    the ID. It finds the balance between the ID and reality. The

    functions of the Ego is to find a compromise between the

    ID and the Superego. The Ego must also learn to deal with

    anxiety, and it also helps to boost the self-esteem. Without

    the Ego there would be no mental health. I completely

    agree with Freud’s theory of the Structure of Personality

    because I feel we have different parts of our behavior that

    we can control and that we are conscious about and there

    are other behaviors that come directly from our

    unconscious. Our ego lies to us, denies, falsifies, and

    distorts reality which in turn causes us to create what Freud

    likes to call the seven defense mechanisms.

    The first of the seven defense mechanisms is Repression.

    Repression pushes the problem to the subconscious. It is

    the exclusion of impulses and thoughts from the conscious

    mind. Next comes Denial, and denial is the cutting of the

    conscious mind from external threats. An example of this

    would be when you are walking in the mall with your

    girlfriend and a beautiful woman walks by and you look but

    when your girlfriend asks you say, “I wasn’t looking at her.”

    Next there is a defense mechanism called Sublimation

    which is the changing of bad behavior and impulses into

    socially acceptable behavior and impulses. One example of

    this could be playing football for a scholarship in order to

    go to college. Another defense mechanism is Reaction

    Formation which is a development of behavior opposite of

    that which brings you anxiety. Somebody saying that they

    hate homosexuals would be a clear example of this defense

    mechanism. The next mechanism is called Projection which

    is when the unconscious attribution of your thoughts and

    feelings is brought onto others. Finding flaws in others is a

    good example of Projection. Displacement is the next

    defense mechanism, and this is when an urge is placed onto

    another object. Taking out anger onto others when you

    really should be mad at yourself. Last but not least is the

    defense mechanism of Rationalization which is giving a

    good reason in place of the true reason. A great example of

    this would be when a person fails a test and they blame it

    on work, or some other corny reason instead of saying that

    they were to lazy to study. With all the different defense

    mechanisms of the ego I feel that we use all of them some

    time or another in order to hide our true instincts. Even

    though I agree with a majority of what Freud says I do not

    believe that man is completely bad and that society is good.

    Both man and society play a big role when it comes to

    Another well known psychologist which is actually a

    student of Freuds’ is Carl Jung who is also a

    psychodynamic psychologist which means he also comes

    from the conservative point of view which I mentioned

    earlier meant he felt man is bad and society is good. Carl

    Jung went a little deeper than Freud did in his theories and

    he challenges some of his ideas. One that I agree with the

    most is that Jung’s iceberg is right side up and at the top of

    the iceberg is the ego, and the level underneath that is the

    personal unconscious, and the final level of the iceberg is

    finally the collective unconscious which is almost the exact

    opposites of Freud’s. What I mean by deeper is that he

    feels that man is not just sexual but spiritual as well. He

    says that the major difference in man is based on the Libido

    which is your sex drive. As you can see Jung has a much

    broader level of human interest. Jung theories are strongly

    based on Darwin’s theory of Evolution. Jung thinks we

    evolved behaviorally which has allowed us to prosper and

    move forward in order to keep up with society. I do not

    agree once again that man is bad and society is good, I feel

    both play a big part in human behavior. Another part of

    Jung’s theory as well as Freud’s theory that I don’t like is

    that I don’t feel that man is mainly sexual. The part of Jung’s

    theory that I do agree with is that man has evolved

    behaviorally overtime because if we didn’t we would still be

    behaving like the cave men did thousands of years ago. It’s

    clearly obvious that man has evolved behaviorally.

    The next part of Carl Jung’s theory is the Archetypal

    Complex, which are common ways of dealing with the

    world. In other words it’s a genetically transmitted response

    strategy. It ensures survival. There are two examples of

    Archetypal Complexes and they are the enemy archetype

    and the social archetype. The enemy archetype means that

    something that is different is threatening to us which I could

    not agree with more. There are examples in everyday life

    when a person does not know what something is they

    immediately show some sort of aggression or frustration

    which proves they are afraid of what is different or what

    they do not really know or understand. The social

    archetype basically means strength in numbers. Also the

    social archetype is what we look to for support and look to

    interact and socialize with. The response strategy is to

    develop a need to conform. With the whole idea of

    Archetypal Complexes I agree that different people use

    different ways to deal with the world’s problems, and I also

    think the enemy archetype could not be more precise about

    mankind being threatened by something that is different.

    The next part of Jung’s theory is the idea of Individuation

    which is the integration of our conscious perceptions of the

    outside world with our unconscious archetypal experiences.

    Polarities, which are opposite extremes, which ties in the

    Principle of entropy which, is a state of disorder and a

    randomness of energy. The last thing Jung states in his

    theory is the idea of Wholeness which is having both

    polarities of our life met. Carl Jung’s theory challenges

    much of Freud’s, but in some ways is similar. Jung gets

    more into man being more spiritual than sexual which is

    almost the opposite of Freud. I probably only agree with

    Jung’s theories of the Archetypal Complexes and the

    The next psychologist that I will mention will be a social

    psychodynamic psychologist by the name of Alfred Adler.

    Adler came from the liberal point of view in which he felt

    man is good and society is bad. He was much less of a

    pessimist than Freud was; Almost a complete opposite

    from Freud. Adler believed that society impedes humans.

    His view of the mind is much like Carl Jung’s, but instead of

    having the ego at the top he has the conscious alone at the

    top with the unconscious on the bottom, which I probably

    agree with the most. He felt that social interests drive

    motivation, which is an innate drive to be social and to

    belong. He also stated in his theory that mankind is

    dependent on others and their reactions and their

    acceptance which in turn leaves mankind very vulnerable.

    The main idea of this theory is that he feels that mankind is

    more social than biological. I mostly agree with this

    because humans these days try to be something there not.

    They go to the extremes to try to fit in. A great example of

    this would definitely be that in today’s schools there are

    cliques and clans of different people that feel that they are

    cooler or better and than the people who are not as

    popular do whatever they can to fit in with a certain group.

    Teenagers nowadays are probably the best example there

    is of Adler’s theory of social interest.

    Another part of Adler’s theory that he brings up is the idea

    of the creative self which he says drives us toward human

    nature. There are two parts to this theory and they are the

    superiority complex and the inferiority complex. First the

    superiority complex states mankind tries to better

    themselves in order to overcome our weaknesses. I agree

    with this because I am living proof. In everything I do I

    always try to make myself better. I don’t give up until I feel

    I have completely given it everything I have got. On every

    weakness that I have especially when it comes to fitness I

    kill myself everyday to look my greatest and to feel the best

    that I can feel. This takes much hard work and dedication,

    but I do not even think about it when I think about how I

    am going to feel and look when I accomplish my goals. The

    second part of this theory is the inferiority complex which is

    when society measures us up to their standards. This is also

    when we begin to avoid our weaknesses instead of trying

    to overcome them. I have many examples when there is

    person who is not so good at an activity whatever the case

    may be, and completely get frustrated and give up instead

    of bettering themselves. I have even probably done this as

    well as most mankind which I feel is going to be the

    downfall of our society and our race. Alfred Adler’s entire

    theory I feel is a great one and I feel he has a great

    perspective on human behavior and I would agree with

    Adler on almost all of his theory. I feel he is the most

    accurate in his interpretation of human behavior.

    B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist which means he is neutral

    in his theories; all men start as blank slates. He believed

    that men are controlled by their environment and they can

    be molded. All behavior is learned and conscious.

    Operant Conditioning is the idea that man is shaped by

    repetition and/or reinforcement. Reinforcement can be

    broken down into many different categories. First is

    primary reinforcement which meets biological and

    psychological needs. Next comes secondary reinforcement

    which is a conditioned reinforcer and it is a learned value.

    An example of this would be money. Positive reinforcement

    is the next part, and it is anything someone wants that

    increases positive behavior. Negative reinforcement is

    oftenly mistaken for punishment which it is not. Negative

    reinforcement is basically avoidance or behaving in a way

    to avoid a negative stimulus or consequence. Escape is

    another part of negative reinforcement which is avoiding

    something that is already there. Punishment which

    decreases the likelihood of a negative behavior. Examples

    of this could be jail or other sorts of consequences.

    Punishment has limited effects. There are short-term

    Another part of Skinner’s theory is something by the

    name of Beyond Freedom and Dignity which says that man

    does not have free will. He is a product of reinforcement.

    Skinner says free will is an illusion and that man should

    have no pride. He also says that whatever mankind

    accomplishes he accomplishes because of a system which

    B.F. Skinner says that “Man’s Biggest Problem” is that

    mankind’s behavior is more easily influenced by small or

    immediate reinforcers than it is by large but distant and

    uncertain reinforcers. In other words Skinner feels that we

    will take immediate gratification and not look at the

    long-term results. He feels man is very short cited.

    The part of Skinner’s theory that I do not agree with

    completely is that he thinks that man is a blank slate and he

    can be shaped and molded by his society. I feel that society

    should not take full credit for all of mankind’s behavior.

    Also I do not fully agree that all behavior is learned. I feel

    some is genetically inherited. Operant Conditioning is the

    part of Skinner’s theory I feel is pretty accurate because in

    daily life the more you do an activity the more it gets

    processed in your mind and becomes almost automatic.

    The idea that man has no free will I do not agree with

    because I believe all of mankind has freewill. When Skinner

    says that Man’s Biggest Problem is that he will take

    immediate gratification before looking into long term effects

    I completely agree with him on that. People these days only

    think about what is going to happen now without thinking

    about what will happen in the future. Skinner’s theory of

    Man’s Biggest Problem is probably one of the most

    accurate theory’s I that I could ever agree with.

    Erich Fromm who is a liberal social psychodynamic

    psychologist who was also a student of Freuds’. He

    believes that man is innately good and society is the thing

    that corrupts him. He also feels that the conscious mind

    dominates over the unconscious. Fromm says man is a

    social creature and he believes that mankind has social

    needs. He says life is a struggle and society makes our lives

    Fromm feels that the four needs of mans’ social life are

    relatedness, frame of reference, identity, and

    transcendence. Relatedness is a basic need and it states

    that man needs to feel connected to humanity whether it be

    friends, family, or activities. It also states that man has to be

    interacted with other in order to belong. The problems start

    when a person feels that they are not a part of something.

    Relatedness is probably the most powerful need. Frame of

    Reference are common ideas and beliefs of looking at the

    world. This is when we seek out a belief system or a value

    system. We receive our frame of reference from where we

    find our relatedness. Without frame of reference there is no

    meaning to life. Identity is the next out of the four needs of

    mans’ social life which is when you know who you are and

    what you stand for. With identity you have to establish your

    own uniqueness or identity. Recognizing differences in

    others help you to find your own identity. Next comes

    transcendence which is rarely achieved and this means to

    rise above societies conformities in order to be an

    individual. With transcendence there is a risk of losing your

    relatedness, and for this not to happen relatedness must

    allow you rise above society. A conflict of freedom and

    loneliness means that the more that we become

    transcendent the more we lose the relatedness. I agree with

    Fromm when he states that society corrupts man. I also feel

    that the conscious mind dominates over the unconscious. I

    do not agree that man is 100% social either. When Fromm

    says that the four needs of social life are relatedness, frame

    of reference, identity, and transcendence I could not agree

    with more. Everyday you see people that have to be well

    connected in the social pipeline and without it I do not think

    they would function normally. There are plenty of people

    that have to be liked and be in a certain group in order to

    be mentally stable. People think it is a bad thing when you

    are not in the popular group or not cool enough to be liked

    and accepted by a certain group. I also do feel that there

    are some people who know who they are and what they

    stand for. These are the people that survive the longest is

    the long run because they know who they are and they will

    not change for anything. Realizing other people’s

    differences also helps to boost your identity which in turn

    causes a person to create their own uniqueness. I think that

    I am a perfect example of a person who has all four needs

    met at all times and that I know exactly what I am and who

    I stand for. I would not change who I am and my behavior

    just to fit into the social pipeline. I have to plenty of parties

    where there has been everything from drinking to sex and I

    have never given in to the peer pressure of drinking,

    smoking or anything else while I was there, but I still had all

    the fun in the world. The reason why I don’t give in is

    because I care about my health I have set values for myself

    and I like to follow them exactly like I planned. This way I

    will never do something that I would regret. All of Fromm’s

    theories are very accurate when it comes to social needs,

    but when it comes to human behavior in general I don’t feel

    Michael Itsines is the next psychologist which is a

    mixture between a psychodynamic psychologist and a

    behaviorist. I feel that behavior is an upside down iceberg

    and consciousness is at the top and the unconscious is on

    the bottom. I think that most behavior is conscious. Neither

    man or society is bad just at times it seems like one of the

    two influences a little more of behavior. I feel that man is

    both biological and social. The part that I think is biological

    is the part of Freud’s theory where he states there is an ID,

    Superego and an Ego. Another thing that I agree with is

    Freud’s theory of the Defense Mechanisms. I feel that

    mankind uses each one of them in everyday life. Another

    thing that is a great example of man being biological is that

    at sometimes man can have animal drives and desires. The

    only thing that keeps us from behaving like an animal is the

    thing that man developed thousands of years ago and that is

    rational thought. This is the difference between human and

    animal behavior. That’s what separates man from animal.

    We do this in order to curb our human nature. Another

    reason why I think man partially biological is because of

    Carl Jung’s theory of Archetypal complexes which are

    genetically transmitted response strategies and I feel that

    On the social side I feel that man is partially motivated by

    social needs such the four needs of man’s social life which

    are relatedness, frame of reference, identity, and

    transcendence. I agree with Fromm on this theory. This is

    probably on the most accurate examples of man being a

    social creature. Also Adler stated in his theory that social

    interests motivate us. Social Interest is an innate drive to be

    social and to belong. B.F. Skinner states in his theory that

    behavior is driven by external rewards. Also he says that

    reinforcement plays a huge role mankind’s behavior. I feel

    that man is also driven by the idea of free will which to

    Skinner seems to be an illusion. I think mankind has free

    will but maybe takes it for granted. Overall I feel that man

    can be both good and bad at times but then again so can

    society. Sometimes society has a great deal of influence on

    human behavior. An example of this would be that man

    pushes himself in order to be the best he can be and to

    reach the top. Mankind will stop at nothing in order to be

    number one. Selfishness and greediness are probably going

    to be the downfall of the human race. If mankind could

    actually see differences in other people instead of making

    them look like something there are not everybody and

    everything would be much happier and they would live a

    much more fuller life. In my theory I think that mankind

    should be much more grateful and appreciative for the

    environment that is created and for what they have become

    due to their environment. Man’s behavior just can not be

    either biological or social because I feel that mankind also

    passes on behavior through genetic inheritance. Man has to

    be both according to my own theory and I stand by it.

     

    Sigmund Freud: One of the Most Famous Psychologists. (2018, Jul 08). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/sigmund-freud1-essay/

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