MAPPING OF SUITABLE SITE FOR THE MINI HYDRO POWER PLANT USING SWAT MODEL AND GIS TECHNIQUE ABSTRACT Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in mountainous regions, for which large amount of data is required, which consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries.
Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT) hydrological Model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. Using ArcGIS various thematic maps were generated such as Digital elevation model (DEM), Stream order network, Land Use and Soil maps etc. for the hydrological analysis. Discharge is simulated from the SWAT hydrological model.
SWAT model is a conceptual, distributed, continuous-time hydrological model that can simulate the water, sediment, nutrients and pesticides cycle. To induce a level of confidence in the generated results, the catchment was modeled using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation and temperature datasets. The model was calibrated and validated with observed stream flows. The reconnaissance study using GIS techniques identifies suitable site in Malapraba catchment likely to yield useful sites for small scale hydropower development.
The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 in Bennihalla, tributary of Malapraba river is more suitable for small scale hydropower plant with a power potential of 7. 95 Mw. INTRODUCTION Water is a precious, finite and scarce natural resource. It is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a national asset. Clean and fresh drinking water is essential to human and other life forms. It is an essential natural resource for ecological sustenance, agriculture productivity, industrial growth, power production etc.
In the recent times the non-renewable and exhaustible sources of energy are getting depleted at a very fast rate, which has focused attention to the non-exhaustible and renewable sources of energy. Hydropower is one of the most common renewable sources abundantly available in the hilly region. However, large hydro power plants are not being taken up for execution in sufficient number as these involve huge amount of funds and also the planning and construction period is very high. Therefore, with the increasing demand for power, the activities on small hydropower projects have accelerated in recent times.
The small hydropower schemes are the appropriate solution to power demand as these require small capital investment and can be completed in a very short period of time. Small hydropower plant, one of the earliest energy sources, has recently caught the countrywide attention despite a history of 100 years behind it, mainly because it is eco-friendly, has a short gestation period. The economic viability can be improved by using cost effective designs and new technology based turbines, controls, equipment and materials.
In the present scenario of energy starvation, danger of global warming and depletion of fossil fuels and their rising prices, the small hydro has assumed significant complimentary role in the hydropower development, as means of environmental protection and socio-economic development of remote rural areas. Scope of the Study The result of the study is expected to boost the initiative for hydropower generation in the region considering the limitation of fossil fuels, increasing power demand and availability of untapped water resources. In this present study an attempt has been made to use GIS and SWAT model to rrive at various alternative sites available in the study area and finally to select the most suitable site. STUDY AREA Bennihalla is a tributary of Malapraba river, which is situated in Karnataka (Dharwad district) at latitude & longitude of 74:47:43. 6 to 75:36:14. 6 E, 15:49:33. 8 to 15:06:17. 02 N. METHODOLOGY Data Requirement for Modelling The data required for modelling of the Bennihalla catchment includes both, the static data and the dynamic data. A brief description of these data and its processing is described below: Spatial Data Spatial data used for the study area include: 1.
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) – Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90m resolution digital topographic database of Earth. SRTM data is developed by NASA and is in public domain. [pic] 2. Soil Layer Model: FAO Digital Soil Map of the world having scale of 1:5,000,000. [pic] 3. Land Use Layer: 1 km grid cell size & taken from University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility. [pic] Dynamic Data Dynamic Data used for the study area include 1. High resolution (0. 5° x 0. 5° Lat/Long) girded daily rainfall data for the period 1986-2004, developed by National Climate Centre IMD Pune, India. . High resolution (1° Lat x 1° Long) daily girded temperature data set for the period 1986-2004, developed by National Climate Centre IMD Pune, India. 3. In the absence of other daily weather data on solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity, long term statistics have been used to generate these weather parameters, developed by National Climate Centre IMD Pune, India. Model Set Up The SWAT hydrological model set up for Bennihalla basin was executed using IMD girded for the period 1990-1997. Results and Discussion
Suitable sites with respect to slope criteria [pic] Flow Duration curve (77 and last point) Flow duration curve for last sub basin [pic] The following conclusions are drawn from the present study: ? It is possible to identify and map the potential sites for small hydropower plant by GIS systematically. ? In this study, various topographical analysis is carried out using ArcGIS to generate the various thematic maps like, Digital elevation model (DEM), drainage network, contour map with 20m interval, stream order network, land use land cover etc. For the present study, sub-basin 77 in Bennihalla catchment is the most feasible site for hydropower generation with 1-2KW power for the peak discharge of 24. 023 m3/s during peak season that is June to September of the year. SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK Further investigation can be carried out by considering more criteria such as, topographical characteristics, economic efficiency, environmental factors, site accessibility, and proximity of electric grid connections for the optimal site for the small hydropower plant.