SOC 310 – Final Exam

Intergroup hostility refers to prejudice by:
minorities toward other minorities
Members of a minority or subordinate group
share physical or cultural characteristics that differ from the majority group
In 2009, the median family income of all Whites with college degrees was over $97,000, while all Black families with college degrees earned a median family income of approximately
All of the following are characteristics of an authoritarian personality except
disrespect for authority
The 1964 Civil Rights Act led to the establishment of the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

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The conflict perspective emphasizes
all of these
Glass ceiling describes
barriers that block the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership.
Environmental justice refers to
the right to live in communities free from the threat of hazardous waste
Minorities are discriminated against by redlining when
mortgages are denied for houses in minority neighborhoods
The development of solidarity among ethnic subgroups is called
The charge that affirmative action programs unfairly penalize White males leads to the view of
reverse discrimination
The landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in public accommodations and publicly owned facilities on the basis of
all of these
People with authoritarian personalities:
accept authority uncritically
The exploitation theory of prejudice is based on the works of
Karl Marx
Between the year 2010 and 2050, the proportion of the U.S. population that is Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American will likely
Increase from 36% to 54%
Ethnocentrism is
the tendency to assume that one’s culture is superior to all others
Given segregation patterns, many _____ in the United States have limited contact with people of other racial and ethnic backgrounds
Ethnic Serbian extermination of Bosnian Muslims was called
ethnic cleansing
Stereotypes are applied to
all of these
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding hate groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, in the U.S.
all of these
In 2003 the Supreme Court made a ruling in the Grutter v. Bollinger case that race
can be a limited factor in admissions at the University of Michigan Law School
Being forced to leave areas or vacate a country is
The deliberate systematic killing of an entire people or nation is called
A Hispanic college student from the southwest U.S. arrives at college to find that her roommate is a Jewish woman from New York. As they get to know one another, they are able to overcome their initial prejudices and grow to appreciate each other’s strengths and talents. This is an example of the
contact hypothesis
World systems theory addresses the conflict between
nations who control wealth and nations who provide natural resources and labor
The U.S. group with the highest median income are
Asian men
African American sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois said in 1900 that the century’s major problem would be
the color-line
Stereotyping is related to self-fulfilling prophecy in that
all of these
U.S. Whites have shown the least amount of social distance towards people from
northern Europe
All of the following statements about environmental justice are true EXCEPT
experts agree about the ill effects of environmental hazards.
A simplistic view of the people and history of the Orient without recognition of cultural diversity and change over time is called __________.
Research has identified which of the following perspectives as supported by Muslim women in the United States and other settlements outside Islamic countries?
all of these
The term Middle Eastern can include
all of these
Which Muslim group is predominant in Iraq and Iran?
All of the following are rituals of Islam EXCEPT
a once in a lifetime pilgrimage to Jerusalem
Orientalism refers to
a simplistic view of the people and history of the Orient without recognition of cultural diversity and change
After 9/11, which of the following increased significantly?
all of these
Arab Americans have tended to do which of the following?
operate stores in low-income areas
Surveys conducted since 2001 show _____believe a number of anti-Muslim stereotypes such as the idea that Islam teaches violence and hatred.
In which of the following ways are Arab Americans diverse?
all of these
Scholars have observed that mosques are taking on the characteristics of a __________.
The most visible Arab American in U.S. politics has been
Ralph Nader
Who was Muhammad, according to Muslims?
the last in a line of prophets
Muslim Americans reflect a blended identity which includes
all of these
In countries that are predominantly Muslim, the
separation of religion and the state is not seen as necessary.
A pilgrimage to the holy land is called __________ by Muslims.
Which of the following statements is true about Arabs and Muslims?
all of these
About __________ of all African Americans are Muslim.
Your text offers which of the following critiques of Muslim and Arab images in popular culture?
all of these
The single most unifying force among Arabs is
the Arabic language
Which of the following accurately describes what is remembered about Malcolm X?
He taught Blacks that they must resist violence with “any means necessary.”
Some school districts now recognize _____, the day marking the end of Ramadan, as an official school holiday for all students.
Eid al-Adha
A unique development in the history of Arab immigration has been the growth and continuing vibrancy of an Arab community in
Dearborn, MI
Muslim Americans form their identity by bringing together their
faith, homeland, and the U.S.
Sociologists use which of the following when trying to understand how ethnicity is viewed and evaluated in terms of an ideal ethnic type?
deficit model of ethnic identity
Islam’s authority rests with
the scripture and teachings of the Prophet
There are large percentages of Muslim Americans who are
all of these
What percent of African Americans are Muslim?
about 5%
Which of the following statements is true about gender, marriage, and Islam?
Traditionally, Islam permitted men to have multiple wives only if they could economically and emotionally support their wives.
Arab retail centers can be found in all of the following EXCEPT
Dayton, OH
Chinese American refers to
diverse ethnicities and nationalities.
The first Filipino immigrants were mostly
agricultural workers
Native Hawaiians’ term for Caucasians is
What percentage of marriages performed in Hawaii are exogamous?
Which of the following is evidence that assimilation does not mean an absence of protest?
all of these
The lack of significant Filipino social organization is due to
time consuming obligations to the family and the church
In 1882, Congress enacted legislation prohibiting the immigration of
Both ___________ and Chinese Americans depend on the tourist industry at the cost of hiding community problems like poverty.
Among Filipino Americans, __________ of the population speak English only.
Acculturation of Chinese Americans in family life is evidenced by
children questioning the authority of parents
The term yellow peril captured which of the following characterizations of Asian people?
all of these
First generation Japanese immigrants to the U.S. are known as
What is meant by the annotation no north in Chinese job listings in the U.S.?
people north of the Fujian Province are not welcome
The 1913 California Alien Land Act
prohibited anyone ineligible for citizenship from owning land
Korean ethnic churches in Chicago and Los Angeles are the fastest-growing segment of
The gook syndrome refers to negative attitudes held by Americans about
According to the textbook, all of the following are true about the success of Asian Americans EXCEPT
their acceptance as a group indicates growing pluralism in the U.S.
The Japanese Americans were finally released from the evacuation camps as a result of
a Supreme Court decision
Order 9066, which resulted in the forced confinement of Japanese Americans in evacuation camps, involved which of the following?
none of these
How did the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001 affect New York’s Chinatown?
It led to a decline in tourism
Compared to Whites, Japanese Americans as a group have
higher wages and more education.
The second largest group of Asian Americans is
Asian Indians
In 1944, after hearing Endo v. U.S., the Supreme Court ruled the detainment of Japanese Americans
1990 census data showed that two-thirds of all children born to a Japanese American had
a parent of a different race
The first checks issued to Japanese American internment camp survivors were issued in
First generation American-born Japanese are known as the
Mistaken identity by the media occurs when
American citizens of Asian descent are presented as if they are foreigners.
The first person murdered in a racially motivated attack following the events of 9/11 was of __________ ancestry.
Asian Indian
The ________ movement is the effort by the indigenous people of Hawaii to secure a measure of self-government and restoration of their lands.
How was the Japanese American community of the 1950s very different from that of the 1930s?
They were more widely scattered
In which of the following professions do women constitute more than half of the workers?
According to the research of sociologist Patricia Adler, boys achieve high status on the basis of their
athletic ability
According to some theorists, men may have become powerful in preindustrial society as a result of their
all of these
The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution
gave women the right to vote.
The view that sex differentiation has contributed to overall social stability is maintained by
The idea that gender roles come from lifelong socialization is an example of
__________ founded the National Organization for Women (NOW).
Betty Friedan
In a formal sense, the American feminist movement was born in upstate New York in a town called _______ in the summer of 1848, where the first women’s rights convention began.
Seneca Falls
Although they eventually came to endorse the women’s movement of the 1960s, __________ initially resisted the concerns of feminists.
all of these
The idea that men and women can be both aggressive and expressive describes
If women are to successfully redefine their gender roles, men must redefine their role as
all of these
Both African Americans and women have been stereotyped as
all of these
Women were granted the right to vote in national elections beginning in
Which of the following statements describes the properties of a subordinate or minority group?
all of these
Betty Friedan founded and was active in which of the following organizations?
National Organization for Women
In 1872, __________ was arrested for attempting to vote in that year’s presidential election.
Susan B. Anthony
The same wages for different types of work that are judged to be comparable by such measures as employee knowledge, skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditions is known as
pay equity
Society’s view of a woman as only her children’s mother and her husband’s wife is the
feminine mystique
The feminine mystique refers to
society thinking of women only in their roles as mothers and wives.
The unanimous Supreme Court decision in Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson declared that
sexual harassment by a supervisor violates the federal law
The feminist movement in the United States
normally began at the first women’s rights convention in 1848
Feminization of poverty refers to the fact that
women account for a growing proportion of people living in poverty
Women have made the largest gains in elected positions for which of the following?
state legislature
Title IX called for
all of these
In ______ a federal law made it a crime to use force or threats or to obstruct, injure, or interfere with any one providing or receiving abortions or other reproductive heath services.
Nancy works in marketing. Though her ad campaigns are the most successful in the firm, she has never been offered a management position, though she’s seen many younger, less talented men promoted to management over her 30-year tenure. Sociologists describe this phenomenon with the term
the glass ceiling.
About __________ of counties in the United States have an abortion provider who is able and willing to perform abortions.
Which of the following statements about race and gender is true?
all of these
Male liberation would mean
that men free themselves of the constraints of the masculine value system
Which term refers to behaviors, attitudes, and activities prescribed for males and females?
gender roles
According to sociologist Robert Bellah, civil religion today is
becoming more conservative
In the early 1970s, the five mainline churches (Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian) accounted for about 65% of the total Protestant membership. In 2006 that rate had
dropped to 58%
For the ___________ man, the priesthood was viewed as a desirable and respected occupation.
Irish American
The largest denomination in the United States is
the Roman Catholic Church
Civil religion describes
belief systems incorporating many religions, but no single one.
In the United States, the Roman Catholics and Presbyterians are examples of
Several examples of Conservative “theological camps” include:
American Lutherans and American Baptists
According to survey data, which of the following denominations has a higher proportion of affluent members?
all of these
All of the following are true of the Roman Catholic Church in the U.S. EXCEPT:
It has been an anti-Americanizing influence
By far, the largest single denomination in the United States is
What is Intelligent Design?
a perspective accepted by Creationists
In terms of the proportion of college graduates, the least educated religious group is
Creationists favor
literal interpretation of the Bible
In 1995, the Supreme Court ruled that privately sponsored religious displays are permitted on public property if
other forms of expression are permitted in the same location
Which of the following faiths has the largest membership in the United States?
the Roman Catholic Church
South Africa’s first universal election in 1994 resulted in the election of __________ as president.
Nelson Mandela
Diaspora refers to
the exile of Jews from Palestine
The visible minorities of Canada include Blacks and the
nonwhite immigrant population
Most of modern history of minorities has seen a pattern of assimilation and domination of minorities. __________ are a notable exception.
Israel’s Law of Return grants entry and citizenship to any of the world’s
Which term describes South African laws that place curfews on the Bantus and limit their geographical movement?
Pass laws
Quebecois in Canada have sought to put __________ culture on equal footing with English Canadian culture.
Apartheid in South Africa ended with a referendum in
The criollos are
all of these
Israel became an independent country and a Jewish homeland in
With regard to the color gradient, mestizos
occupy the middle status
When Israel was recognized as a nation, conflict broke out, causing __________ of Arabs to flee
The 1993 agreement between Israel and the Palestinians was called the
Oslo Accords
The White rule in South Africa can be understood only as a product of a historical tradition rooted in
Mestizos are becoming increasingly identified with Mexico’s
middle class
Mexican women received the right to vote
not until 1953
The majority of Quebecois
speak French as their first language
The sociological perspective on relations between dominant and subordinate groups treats race and ethnicity as
social categories
Nelson Mandela and ________ were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
F. W. deKlerk
A 2000 survey in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil found that __________ of the population believes that racism exists in their country.
The Intifada refers to
civil unrest led by Palestinians in the occupied territories
The Aboriginal People of Canada are the
all of these
Race relations in Brazil are best understood as
a result of the legacy of slavery
Mexican Indians are __________ more likely to be illiterate than Mexican adults in general.
four times
Mexican Indian culture has been stereotyped as
all of these
The largest group in South Africa are
Black Africans
Which of the following challenges still face South Africa?
all of these
The Intifada is accomplished through which of the following?
all of these
New residents of Quebec are required to
send their children to French schools
The contemporary Black Canadian population is about __________ of the nation’s population.
The Supreme Court ruled in 2008 that employers have the burden to prove laying off older workers is not based on age but __________.
“some reasonable factor”
Older workers are an asset to employers in which of the following ways?
They have lower rates of absenteeism
Homosexuality became visible in the U.S.
in the 1920s and 1930s
he Older Women’s League (OWL) focuses on which of the following
all of these
Intergroup tensions between older and younger Americans include
dissatisfaction among the young in paying social security they will never benefit from
In 2003 in Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court _________ Bowers v. Hardwick in a _________ vote.
reversed; 6-3
The perception of “elderly” and ______ is practically synonymous has changed in recent years.
The American with Disabilities Act prohibits bias in which of the following?
all of these
The National Committee to Preserve Social Security and Medicare, founded in 1982, unsuccessfully lobbied Congress to
keep Medicare benefits for the ailing poor elderly.
The term transgendered refers to
people whose self-identified gender doesn’t match their assigned sex
Which is FALSE regarding the melting pot?
It meshed well with the reality in the early 20th century when the “tired, huddled masses” were warmly welcomed
Compared with the rest of the population, the elderly are more likely to be female, ______, and living in certain states in the United States.
Fear and prejudice toward homosexuality is called
Ageism is the phrase coined by Robert Butler to refer to
prejudice and discrimination against the elderly.
In 2000, the Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts of America
could exclude gay members
AARP represents one out of every__________ U.S. voters.
As homosexuality has become more visible, efforts to suppress it have become more
The aged most likely to experience poverty are
all of these
AARP stands for the
American Association of Retired Persons
The Stonewall Inn in New York was the location of
a gay bar raided by police
According to the text, which of the following is true about homophobia today?
all of these
Compared with the rest of the population, the elderly are more likely to be
The elderly share the characteristics of minority groups in which of the following ways?
unequal treatment in employment
The early disability rights movement followed the example of the _________ at the University of California at Berkeley.
Rolling Quads
Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are more likely to be
The term _________ refers to building private homes to be accessible for people with disabilities.
The Supreme Court in Bowers v. Hardwick ruled that the Constitution
does not protect homosexual relations even in the privacy of one’s home
The Americans with Disabilities Act
prohibits bias in transportation against people with disabilities
In 2011, an estimated __________ million Americans had a disability.
Mass media perpetuates a stereotype of people with disabilities as
all of these
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