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Social networking exposure

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
It has been observed that online social media is the prevalent internet based technology that has been phenomenal and people are using them everywhere (Asiedu, 2010; Ahmed, 2011; Foote, 2011). Hence, social networking activities are increasingly becoming the topic of research. Various researchers have begun to investigate the impact of social network exposure on education of students (Pierce, 2008). In foreign countries like Ghana and Taiwan, researches on social networking activities have established the fact that social networking engagement of students results in low academic performance (Yang,et.

al. 2003; Asiedu, 2010 &Ahmed, 2011) Social networking also being used by teachers and students especially those in universities and in private School as their communication tools not only here in the Philippines but most especially to other countries. The use of social networking website has become so extensive in the Philippines that the country has been tagged as social networking capital of the world (Tinio, 2002).

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Social networking is becoming increasingly important in school – Social Networking Sites are often used by teachers that can further explore topics that they are interested in online social networking (Asiedu, 2010).

By making connections with other people have the same interest; students can learn and exchange knowledge with others they may not have had the opportunity you interact with teacher often take advantage of students’ social networking abilities to create class blogs, discussions, forums, videos and more. By collaborating with other students are able to build stronger school community (Asiedu, 2010; Foote, 2011).

As per observation, most of the students of CFCST are exposed in different social networking sites that may affect their school’s performance and communication skills. With the observation stated, the researchers encouraged to conduct this study to determine how often students exposed to social networks and how it affects their communication skills in school. Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine social network exposure and communication skills among freshmen student of Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology. Specifically it will aim to answer the following problem: 1. To determine the demographic profile of CFCST freshmen college students; 2. To determine the level of social network exposure of freshmen college students; 3. To determine the level of perceived communication skills in social networking sites of the respondents; 4. To determine the significant relationship of social networking sites exposure on the communication skills of the freshmen college students; and 5. To determine the significant influence of social networking sites on the perceive communication skills of the respondents. Significance of the Study

The results of this study will give additional information to the students on the effects of social networking sites exposure to their school performance particularly to their communication skills.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study was conducted at Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology, Doroluman, Arakan, Cotabato, school year 2012-2013. This focuses on social network exposures and communication skills of CFCST freshmen college students.

Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
Various readings from different books, theses and internet sources which have
a bearing to the present study are presented in this section. The researchers focused on the social network exposure and communication skills of students. Social Networking Sites

In the era of social media our networks are much larger than they have ever been, and people have more ways to communicate with those in them. Even if they are not very active in any social networking sites, the guess is that our sphere of communication has expanded significantly in recent years. Whom to communicate with and how to communicate has changed radically.

Socializing via Internet has become increasingly important part of young adult’s life (Gemmill & Peterson, 2006). Relative to the population, adolescents and young adults are the heaviest computer and internet users, primarily using it for completing school assignment, e-mail and/or instant messaging and playing computer games (DeBell & Chapman 2006). Social networking sites (hereafter SNS) are the latest online communication tool that allows users to create a public or private profile to interact with people in their network (Boyd & Ellison 2008).

Social networks allow individuals to be connected by one on more specific topic or field education, financial exchange, common interest, political discourse, political party, belief, knowledge, or academic field. Social networks operate on many levels from the levels of members up to the level of nation of participating in society organization, and a key role in solving the problem in public, how organization run, and the degree to which individual succeed achieving their goals. Consequently, a social network in its simplest form is a network map of specified topics, which helps individuals to contact and build their community through internet websites. With the creation of the virtual world, individuals have the opportunity to interact with others, both known and unknown, in a variety of ways. With the change in nature of these relationships, it has been of interest to gauge the perceived quality of online relationships. Because Internet sites, such as America Online (AOL) and Facebook, allow groups of users to 8 connect with other groups, users engage in group forming activities that are comparable to face-to-face groups (Kirschner, et. al., 2010). Age differences in using social networking sites

In terms of age range, bloggers under 19 years old comprised 58 percent of the total. Internet users aged 20 to 29 came second as they made up 36 percent .The other age groups accounted for the remaining 5.8 percent. As to gender, statistics from Live Journal reveals that females (68 percent) account for more than twice as many bloggers as do males. This percentage does not include who remains anonymous and withhold their gender from the profile information. Gender Differences in using social networking sites

The early days of internet adoption indicated a gender divide 73% of both men and women currently are online (Musa, et.al., 2012; Rouis, 2012;). However, their usage motivation differs. Nothing that communication and information are the dominant motivators driving internet usage, Kirschner and colleagues (2010) found that college women were more likely to use e-mail, whereas college men were more likely to engage in web searches. Davies, et. al., (2008) finds that even women conduct searches, they tend to treat information gathering online as a more textured and interactive process-one that includes gathering and exchanging information through support groups and personal email exchanges.

Seventy-four percent of women names facebook as their favorite web site compared with 60% of men (Ellison, et. al., 2007). Not surprisingly, women use SNS more than men (Rapleaf.com 2008) although both genders equally use social media to stay in contact with friends and family (79%), college women update their profiles (82%) and post pictures (46%) more frequently than do their male counterparts (65% and 39% respectively). They are also more likely than men to comment on someone else’s blog (27% versus 18%) (Ellison, et. al., 2007).With regard to gender differences in information disclosure, men provide their telephone numbers and addresses on the SNS profiles more often than women. However, women post their preference about movies, books, and religion more often. In addition, college women disclose personal information on facebook at a greater level than do men across several areas, including the “About Me” section; photo albums; mean number of the photographs; images of the self in a central photograph; any reference to
alcohol, drugs, and partying; and photographs of alcohol (Henderson, 2008)

Several studies have identified differences regarding online privacy concerns and subsequently privacy protection behaviors. In general, women perceive more risk online and report more privacy concerns than men. In terms of privacy protection, women were more likely than men to provide incomplete information when registering for a web site and notify their internet service provider about unsolicited e-mail. However, they also read unsolicited e-mail and registered for web sites (i.e., provided personal information) with greater frequency than men. Milne and Culnan (2004) find that men less likely than women to read privacy notices and trust web sites notices.

Frequency of exposure on Social Networking Sites
According to a new report in Asia, Philippines enjoy the greatest amount of freedom on the internet. Filipinos use the internet two (2) to three (3) times a week. Close to two (2) out of five (5) Filipinos spend one (1) hour to less than three (3) exposed on the internet. Social networking is one of the most active web based activities in the Philippines with Filipinos being declared as the most active users on a number of web based social networking sites such as facebook, twitter, friendster and other SNS. The use of social networking website has become so extensive in the Philippines that the country has been tagged as social networking capital of the world (www.wikipedia.com).

A study by the USC-Annenberg Digital Future Project (2006) on Internet usage found that 43% of Internet users who are part of online communities feel as strongly about their online communities as they do about their real-life communities (Brooks, 2010). In another research study among adolescents, a prominent finding was that participants who had developed friendships and relationships online consider them to be as real as relationships in their actual lives. Further, these online friendships were described as being long-term, trusting, and very meaningful (Henderson, 2008). Because of potential attached meaning to these virtual relationships and the possibilities that human interaction may become volatile and unpredictable, it is of explicit interest to investigate how users, specifically adolescents and young adults, manage to communicate and resolve conflicts within these communities. Therefore, more research is needed in this area. Influence of exposure on social network and communication skills among students It has been found that participation in social network sites provides a number of potential benefits for adolescents. Cited by Abell (2009), it was found that benefits of online interaction include that it provides a means in which to learn the ability to relate to others, tolerate differing viewpoints, express thoughts and feelings in a healthy way, and practice critical thinking skills. In addition, Bartlett (2002) states that communicating with others on the Internet is an opportunity to explore self-identity and enhance self-discover, however, it is in contradict of the findings of the study of Kirschner, et. al., (2010) that social networking sites, Facebok in particular, states that users spend fewer hours per week in studying their lesson in results of having low grades than those who claimed nonusers of the social networking site.

Another perceived benefit is that the Internet increases the possibility to contact peers, thus enhancing self-esteem and feelings of well-being (Davies, et. al., 2008). Further in regards to social networking, the Internet provides a virtual place to spend time and share thoughts and objects with personal meaning, such as pictures and stories, and remain closely connected with friends regardless of geographic distance (Boyd,et. al., 2008). Also, it is believed that individuals may feel empowered when using social networking to establish relationships that provide information, mutual assistance, and support (Henderson, 2008). Finally, it was found that teens with difficulties may use online relationships as temporary bridges that bring them into safe and comfortable face-to face relationships (Wolak, et. al., 2008). All of these mentioned benefits to participants, especially to adolescents who are attempting to practice social skills and explore who they are as individuals; add to the justification of including social networking into the current developmental perspective. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

This study is anchored to Mark Prensky’s (2006) theory of Adopt and Adapt.
The premise of Prensky’s idea is that there are four stages in incorporating technology to one’s practice: dabbling, doing old things in old ways, doing old things in new ways and doing new things in new ways. Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework with its variables. Independent variables is the level of social network exposure in terms of (i) knowledge on social networking sites and (ii) frequency of exposure on social networking sites; for dependent variable is the level of communication skills of the freshmen college students with the intervening variables of (i) age and (ii) gender. Null hypothesis

1. There is no significant relationship on social networking sites exposure and communication skills of the respondents. 2. There is no significant influence of social networking sites on the perceived communication skills of freshmen college students. Operational Definition of Terms

1. Social networking sites (SNS) – is web based services that enable students to construct a semi- profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share connections. 2. Frequencies of exposure on SNS- a number of time spend by the students in engaging social networking sites. 3. Communication skills- is the ability of students to convey information to another effectively and efficiently by means of social networking sites. 4. Freshmen College Students- is group of students in first year level and the respondents of the study. 5. Facebook- top most favourite social networking sites of the respondents.

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design, respondents, research instrument, data gathering procedure and statistical procedure used in this study. Research Design
Descriptive survey method will be used in this study. In this method, the present condition will be focused. It provides essential knowledge about the nature of objects and persons. According to Calmorin, et.al, (2007) this measure is concerned with conditions, relationships that exists, practices that prevails, beliefs, processes that are going on, effects that are being felt or trends that are developing. In this view, the descriptive survey method is appropriate for the present investigation for it deals with the descriptions of mathematics teachers towards dropout reduction program.A descriptive survey method was used to determine social network exposure and communication skills among the respondents. Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study were 200 freshmen college students of Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology officially enrolled for the school year 2012-2013. Locale of the Study
This study was conducted at Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology, Doroluman, Arakan, Cotabato, main campus in January 23, 2013.

Sampling Procedure
Purposive sampling was used as sampling procedure to determine all the freshmen who have an account in any social networking sites and became the respondents of the study. Research Instrument
The researchers used a modified survey questionnaire adopted from the study of Asiedu (2010).The first part consist of the demographic profile of the respondents and second part are composed of questions on social network exposure and communication skills among the respondents. The researchers used a scale with description presented below in the interpretation of responses of the respondents. Scale MeanDescription

54.50-5.00Strongly Agree
43.50-4.49 Agree
32.50-3.49Neutral
21.50-2.49Disagree
11.49- belowStrongly Disagree
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers have undergone the following steps in gathering data for the study. 1. Asking permission to conduct the study. The researchers made a formal letter of request to the Dean of every college to allow the researcher to conduct this study. 2. Distribution and Retrieval of the Questionnaire. With the approval from the Deans, the researchers will administer the survey questionnaire to the targeted respondents of the study. 3. Collation and Tabulation of data. The researchers will then collect the data. The instrument will then be collated, tallied and subjected to statistical analysis.

Statistical Procedure
The data gathered through survey questionnaires were tallied and treated using the following statistical tool: Frequency and percentage. This tool was used in determining the demographic profile of the respondents. Mean. This tool was used to determine social network exposure and perceived communication skill among the respondents. Pearson regression analysis. This tool was used to measure the significant relationship and influence of social networking sites exposure and perceived communication skills of the respondents in the level of social network exposure and the significant influence of exposure on social network and communication skills of freshmen college student. Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Table 1 shows the demographic profiles of freshmen college students of Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology officially enrolled for the school year 2012-2013. The data shows that there were 81 male and 119 female with the total of 200 respondents. It implies that majority of the respondents of the study were female. It is supported by Ellison et. al. (2007) in his study found out that 94 percent of their sampled college students had a Facebook account with seventy-four percent of women name facebook as their favorite web site compared with 60% of men. There are one hundred one (101) freshmen students belong to the ages 14-17; ninety three (93) belong to ages 18-21 and six (6) belong to ages 22-25. It implies that majority of the respondents were minors with age of 17 below. Table 1.Demographic profile of freshmen college students

Characteristics
Frequency N=200
Percentage 100%
Gender
Male
Female

81
119

40.5
59.5
Age
14-17
18-21
22-25

101
93
6

50.5
46.5
3

Level of Social Network Exposure of Freshmen College Students Table 2 shows the level of social network exposure of freshmen college students in terms of frequency of exposure on social networking sites. It reveals that most of the respondents exposed on Facebook have highest frequency of 188 with a percentage of 94. Although there are numbers of social networking sites available for Facebook and it is the one that began as a tool for those in academia (Foote 2011; Tinio, 2002). According Westermann (2011) research has shown that users shared more information in Facebook than other social networking sites because they typically viewed Facebook as more trustworthy.

The Table 2 indicates also that the respondents spend between 15 to 30 minutes in browsing their favorite social networking sites with 35.5% and the respondents access on the internet at home about once per week and less than once per month with 20% and at school and in internet café about once per week with 29.5% and 39% respectively. It implies that most of the respondents rendered an average hour in accessing favorite networking site and not less than once a week in browsing.

It is nearly close to the report that Philippines enjoy the greatest amount of freedom on the internet. Filipinos use the internet two (2) to three (3) times a week. Close to two (2) out of five (5) Filipinos spend one (1) hour to less than three (3) exposed on the internet.

Table 2. Level of students’ frequency of exposure on social networking sites Social Networking Sites
Frequency N=200
Percentage
a. Facebook
b. Tagged
c. Myspace
d. Twitter
e. LinkedIn
188
4
1
20
2
94
2
0.5
10
1
Time Spend in browsing

a. 15 minutes or less
b. Between 15 and 30 minutes
c. Close to an hour
d. Over an hour
48
71
28
43
24
35.5
14
21.5
Access on the internet

1. At home
a. Multiple time per day
b. About once per day
c. 2-6 times per week
d. About once per week
e. More than once per month
f. Less than once per month
2. At school
a. Multiple time per day
b. About once per day
c. 2-6 times per week
d. About once per week
e. More than once per month
f. Less than once per month
3. At internet café
a. Multiple time per day
b. About once per day
c. 2-6 times per week
d. About once per week
e. More than once per month
f. Less than once per month

18
21
31
40
20
40

11
29
20
59
23
39

10
26
34
78
23
17

9
10.5
15.5
20
10
20

5.5
14.5
10
29.5
11.5
19.5

5
13
17
39
11.5
8.5

Level of Perceived Communication Skills
Table 3 reveals that the respondents agree that social network is useful as an effective communication application, it helps in their studies and their grades were not affected as they engage in social networking. It implies that the respondents believe that social networking engagement helps them to improve their communication skills and social networking activities and have no negative effect on their academic performance. It is in contradict of the findings of the study of Kirschner, et. al., (2010) that social networking sites, Facebok in particular, states that users spend fewer hours per week in studying their lesson in results of having low grades than those who claimed nonusers of the social networking site. Table 3 Level of students’ perceived communication skills on social networking exposure. Statement

Mean
Descriptive Scale
1. The usage of social networking is useful because they are effective communication application. 4
Agree
2. Group discussions can be arranged with my classmates using social networking. 3.3
Neutral
3. Social networking is helpful in my studies because I can receive an announcement from lecturer and faculty. 3
Neutral
4. Social networking helps me to discuss my assignment with my friends. 3
Neutral
5. Using social networking improves my interaction with my friends and instructors. 3.3
Neutral
6. I use social networking to facilitate academic activities and coordinate
with my friends. 3
Neutral
7. Social networking influences my academic performance because it helps me in my studies. 4
Agree
8. Social networking requires money and this cannot affect my academic performance. 3
Neutral
9. Addiction to social networking is not a problem to my studies. 3.1
Neutral
10. I can still focus in studying my lesson though I’m usually engaged on SNS. 3
Neutral
11. My grades before were not affected when I engaged myself in social networking. 3.5
Agree
12. Social networking became an avenue that enhances my academic performance. 3.38
Neutral
13. Facebook as the newest social networking sites is not a threat to my studies. 3.44
Neutral
Grand Mean
3.31
Neutral
ScaleMeanDescription
54.50-5.00Strongly Agree
43.50-4.49 Agree
32.50-3.49Neutral
21.50-2.49Disagree
11.49- belowStrongly Disagree
Relationship of Social Networking Sites Exposure and Perceived Communication Skills
Table 4 shows the significant relationship of social networking sites exposure and communication skills of the respondents. The study reveals that there is positive significant relationship in the access of internet at home with 5% significant in improving communication skills. However, there is no significant relationship on the favourite social networking site; time spent in browsing and access of internet at school and internet cafe on the perceived communication skills of freshmen college students. It implies that access on internet at home can greatly help the students in developing their communication skills, for they have freedom to browse any social networking sites without thinking the cost of the time they spend in every browse, free from disturbance of noise and at ease than staying in school and internet café. Table 4. Significant Relationship of Social Networking Sites Exposure and Perceived Communication Skills of the Freshmen College Students. Variable

Mean
SD
R
Probability
FSNS
3.8
0.593
-0.021
0.387
TSB
2.35
1.091
0.059
0.208
AH
2.6
1.028
0.165*
0.012
AS
2.64
1.023
0.096
0.093
AIC
2.89
0.816
0.047
0.258
Significant at 5% level
Acronyms:
FSNS – Favorite of Social Networking Sites
TSB – Time Spend in Browsing
AH – Access at Home
AS – Access at School
AIC – Access at Internet Café

Influence of Exposure on Social Network to Perceived Communication Skills
Table 5 shows the influence of exposure on social networks to perceive communication skills among freshmen college students. The study reveals that there is positive significant relationship in the access of internet at home with 5% level of significance in improving communication skills. However, there is no significant relationship on the favourite social networking site, time spend in browse and access of internet at school and internet cafe on the perceived communication skills of freshmen college students. It implies that access on internet at home can greatly help the students in developing their communication skills, for they have freedom to browse any social networking sites without thinking the cost of the time they spend in every browse, free from disturbance of noise and more at ease than staying in school and internet café. The findings reveal that communication skills of the freshmen college students are not significantly influenced by the social network exposure. The findings were supported by Abell (2009 and Bartlett studies that 79% of internet users assert that spending time on social network sites does not interfere with their communication skills and studies. Table 5. Significant influence of exposure on SNS to perceived communication skills of freshmen college students Exposure on SNS

Communication Skills

Β
StdD
t-value
Probability

Constant
3.153
0.253
12.479
0.000

Favorite SNS
-0.0504
0.0151
-0.082
0.935

Time Spent on SNS
-0.022
0.027
0.814
0.417

Access to internet at home
0.061
0.033
1.862
0.064

Access to internet at school
0.011
0.034
0.339
0.735

Access to internet at internet cafe
0.006
0.039
-0.157
0.875

R2 = 0.031
t – 1.188ns
Probability = 0.317

Chapter 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter deals with summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study Summary
This study was conducted to determine social network exposure and communication skills of freshmen college students for school year 2012-2013. It answered the following problem: To determine the demographic profile of CFCST freshmen college students; to determine the level of social network exposure of freshmen college students and to determine the level of perceived communication skills in social networking sites of the respondents; to determine the significant relationship of social networking sites exposure on the communication skills of the freshmen college students; to determine the significant influence of social networking sites on the perceived communication skills of the respondents.

This study was conducted at Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology main campus.
The respondents of the study were 200 freshmen college students of Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology officially enrolled for school year 2012-2013.
In interpreting the data gathered, frequency distribution and percentage were used to determine the demographic profile of the respondents. Mean was for the level of social network exposure and perceived communication skills of freshmen college students. Pearson regression analysis measured the significant relationship and influence of social networking sites exposure and perceived communication skills of the respondents in the level of social network exposure and the significant influence of exposure on social networks and communication skills of freshmen college student.

The result of the study revealed that majority of the respondents are female freshmen college students and majority of them were minors with age of 17 below. It revealed that most of the respondents exposed on Facebook, spend an average of 15 to 30minutes of usage and not less than once a week in browsing at home and internet cafe. The respondents believe that social networking engagement helps them to improve their communication skills and social networking activities have no negative effect on their academic performance. Access on internet at home can greatly help the students in developing their communication skills.

Conclusion

Based on the statistical findings and considering the limitation of the scope, extent and nature of the study the following conclusions were framed: 1. Majority of the respondents are female freshmen college students and majority of them were minors with age of 17 below. 2. Most of the respondents were exposed on Facebook, spent an average of 15 to 30 minutes of usage and not less than once a week in browsing at home and internet cafe. 3. The respondents believe that social networking engagement helps them to improve their communication skills and social networking activities and have no negative effect on their academic performance. 4. Access on internet at home can greatly help the students in developing their communication skills. 5. The communication skills of the freshmen college students were not significantly influenced by the social network exposure.

Recommendations
It was recommended that students who are engaged in Social Networking Sites (SNS) must be responsible in using it. Students must know the other advantages of SNS aside from chatting and playing games. Further, study related to social networking sites is also recommended for more information pertaining the impact of engaging on social networking sites to the academic
life of the students specially to the CFCSTians.

Cite this Social networking exposure

Social networking exposure. (2016, Jul 24). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/social-networking-exposure/

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