Attitudes are usually defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, and situation). It is a personal view of something or an opinion or general feeling about something Attitudes encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. It is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual’s degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event– this is often referred to as the attitude object.
People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, that is they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behaviour, and cognition). The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an individual’s degree of preference for an entity. The behavioural intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioural tendency of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual’s beliefs about the object.
Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment Values Values are those things that really matter to each of us.. the ideas and beliefs we hold as special. They are expressed in terms of attitudes which in turn provide direction to one’s responses. For example Caring for others, is a value; so is the freedom to express our opinions Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members.
The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behaviour in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviours at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family.
Different cultures reflect different values. “Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. ” Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of college students. Similarity 1. Attitude and Values continue to develop and evolve over a time. 2. Values generally influence attitudes and behavior. 3. Values lay foundation for understanding of the people’s attitudes
Dissimilarity 1.Values make up the paradigm through which we see the world, whereas Attitudes are a way of responding either favourably or unfavourably to objects, persons, concepts etc. They are evaluative statements. They reflect how one feels about something. 2. Values are relatively stable and enduring. This is because, the way in which they are originally learned . Attitudes are less stable than values. 3. One is not born with attitudes but acquires them through life experiences, whereas values are inbuilt. 4. Attitudes have three evaluative components: Cognitive component of an attitude is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude.
For example : “my pay is low” Affective component is the emotion or feeling segment of an attitude. For example : “I am angry over how little I am paid ” Behavioral component is the intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something. ”I am going to look for another job that pays better” According to Rokeach Value Survey values can be divided into two broad categoies: Terminal values and instrumental values. Terminal values relate to ends to be achieved . They reflect what a person is ultimately striving to achieve, and are the end-state we hope to achieve in life.
For example : comfortable life, family security, self-respect, freedom, Happiness ,inner harmony ,happiness , an exciting life, Self-respect ,Social recognition, True friendship ,Wisdom and sense of accomplishment. Instrumental values relate to means for achieving desired ends, they reflect how the person get there and are means of achieving these terminal values. For example : ambition, courage, honesty, clean, capable , cheerful , forgiving , helpful, broad minded , responsible , self controlled , polite and imagination. 5. Values are relatively stable and enduring.
This is because, the way in which they are originally learned. Attitudes are less stable than values. There doesn’t seem to be a great deal of difference between the two – it would seem that ‘values’ could imply ‘morals’ and therefore ‘attitudes’ could be how we apply (or otherwise) those moral values. Managers should be interested in their employees’s attitudes because attitudes give warnings to potential problems and because they influence behaviour . Satisfied and committed employees for instance , have lower rate of turnover ,absenteeism , and withdrawl behaviours . They also perform better on the job .
Given that managers want to keep resignations , and absences down – especially among their most productive employees – they ’ll want to do things that generate positive job attitudes. As one review put in “A sound measurement of overall job attitude is one of the most useful pieces of the information an organisation can have about its employees ” Thus we can say that it is important to know an individual’s values as values often underlie and explain attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions. Employees performance and the satisfaction are likely to be higher if their values fit well with the organisation . or example the person who places great importance on imagination , independence , and freedom is likely to be poor matched with the organisation that seeks conformity from its employees . Managers are more likely to appreciate , evaluate positively , allocate rewards to employees who “fit in ” and employees are more likely to be satisfied if they perceive that they do fit in . This argues for management to strive during selection of new employees to find job candidates who have not only the ability , experience , and motivation to perform but also a value system that is compatible with the organisation’s.