Society reading for sociology

Theory
A statement of how and why specific facts are related
Sociological theory
To explain social behavior in the real world
States that show high rates of isolation contribute to having
Higher suicide rate
Theoretical approach
A basic image of society that guides thinking and research. There are three main types
The three main types of the theoretical approach
Structural-functional approach

Social-conflict approach

And

Symbolic- interaction approach

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Structural- function approach
A framework for building the theory that society is a complex system made up of parts that work together to create stability
Structural functional approach focuses on social structure
Social structure is any relatively stable pattern for the operation of society as a whole
Structural functional approach also focuses on social functions
Social functions are the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
All social patterns
Tie a community together and keep society going
Auguste Comte
Relates. To the structural function approach because he pointed out that society needs to maintain unified as traditions are breaking down
Emile Durkheim worked with
The structural functional approach also by helping est sociology in French universitys
Herbert spencer focused on
The structural functional approach who related it to the parts of the human body which together function to manta in a well working human
Manifest function vs latent function
A manifest function is an intended consequence of a social pattern

A latent function is an uninteresting consequence

For example a manifest function of college is to educate a latent function is to allow students to meet their future spouses

Social dysfunction
A social pattern that may disrupt the function of society
Robert k Merton said that social structure has many functions such as
The manifest and latent function
The social conflict approach
The framework for building a theory that sees society is an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
The social conflict approaches perspective
Looks at a groups misfortune compared to another groups good fortune

For example the economy is controlled by the rich elite while the poverty stricken population is suffering

The rich compared to the poor

The white compared to the colored

Feminism approach as a part of the social conflict approach
The outlook of equality for men and women
Gender conflict approach as a part of the social conflict approach
A point of view that focuses on the inequality and conflict between men and women
Harriet martineau
First woman sociologist who translated August Comte a writing from French to English. Stood up for factory workers slaves and women won a noble peace prize
The race conflict approach related to the social conflict approach
A point of view that focuses on the inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
Ida wells Barnett
Born to slave parents but became a teacher then a journalist and news paper editor. Stood up for racial inequality to get rid of lynching
Will Edward burghardt du bois
First black man to graduate from Harvard. Earned his degree in sociology and founded the Atlanta sociological lab he also spoke out about racial inequality and the political system
The symbolic interaction approach
The framework for building a theory that sees society as a product of the everyday interactions of individuals
Macro level orientation
A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole

Includes social conflict approach and the structural functional approach

Micro level orientation
A close up focus on social Interaction in specific situations
An example of micro and macro
Macro level orientation is seeing that highways help people move from place to place

Micro sees how traveling in the city occurs at street level where you can see how pedestrians treat the homeless

What level is the symbolic interaction approach
Micro
The founder of the symbolic Interaction approach
Max weber a German sociologist who emphasized focusing on a persons point of view
Positivist sociology
The study of society based on scientific observation of social behavior
Science
A logical system that develops knowledge from direct systematic formation
Empirical evidence
Information we can verify with our senses
Positivist sociologists use
Empirical evidence or evidence we can prove with our senses
Concept
A mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form

Scientists use concepts to label aspects of social life for example a family or social class

A variable
A concept whose value changes from case to case

Example height upper class or lower class

The use of a variable depended on the Measurement
A procedure for determine the value of a specific case
Statistic
Sociologists use statistics to find the mean or average the mode the score that occurs most often and the median which is the halfway poont
Reliability
The consistency of an experiment
Validity
Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
Correlation
Means a relationship in which two or more variables change together

The science ideal is to determine the cause and affect Which is a relation where variables change together

The cause being the independent variable and the affect being the dependent variable

Objectivity
Having a beau real perspective so that bias does not interfere with the work or research
A sociologist must be
Value free
Interpretive sociology
The study of a society that focuses on discovering the meaning people attach to their social world

Max weber is a pioneer for this framework

Critical sociology
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change

Founded my Carl Marx

Critical sociology has an activist approach in that
It has a position to support and wants to lead to a social change or reform
Gender blindness
Failure to consider gender at all
Double standards
Be careful not to judge men and women by different standards
Over generalizing
Don’t take data from men and portray that your information says something about all people
Gender
Personal traits and acoustic positions that members of a society attach to being male and frma
Androcentricity
Focus on the male or male perspective and ignore women
Interference
When a study of a subject reacts to the sex of the researcher for example if a sociologist is not given the rights of a researched by her interviewee because she is a woman
Research method
A systematic plan for doing research
Experiment
A research method got investigating a cause and effect under highly controlled regulations
Survey
A research method where subject respond to questions in a questionnaire or interview
Participant observation
A research method where investigators systematically observe people while joining ten in their routine activities such as mass
Four research methods
Surveys, participant observation, experiments and existing sources
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