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Sociology and A. Primary Group

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Introduction to Sociology
Test II
Multiple Choice: Choose the Best Possible Answer (.75 point each) 1. Which of the following is an example of interactional vandalism? a. Groups attack storeowners following a false arrest of a local resident. b. Police repeatedly hit a driver whose car had a broken taillight. c. Students vandalize campus or community property following a victorious football game. d. A student shouts out, “Hey teach’, lookin’ good today!” e. all of the above

2. Wearing a new suit to an interview is an example of:
a. controlled alertness
b. social status
c. impression management
d. social interaction
e. conformity
3. If a man stares at a woman, his attitude is likely perceived as innocent; if a woman stares at a man, she is likely seen as inviting. This difference in meaning is: a. a social gender rule
b. one way in which gender inequality is reinforced
c. one way in which gender equality is reinforced
d. a form of social control
e. a shared understanding
4. Studying what appears to be trivial everyday social behavior is: a. microsociology
c. functionalism
b. macrosociology
d. conflict theory
5. Introductory sociology classes tend to have fairly large enrollments, perhaps over 100 students. On the other hand, graduate seminars have small enrollments, usually fewer than fifteen students. How does this difference in enrollment (Hint: Think Size) influence the dynamics of the different classes?

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a. Students in the introductory classes are less likely to skip class because they want to spend time with all of their friends.
b. It is more acceptable, and less noticeable, to skip a graduate seminar because graduate students have many other responsibilities.
c. If a student skips the introductory class, it will have little or no effect on the class, whereas if a student skips the seminar, it will influence the class more. d. In the larger class, the professor makes a point to learn the students’ names because attendance is more important for freshmen than for graduate students. e. None of the above; enrollments do not influence classroom dynamics; only the professor can have such an impact.

1

6. Identify any two factors that play a role in group dynamics? a. Size and top-group affiliation
b. Leadership and group pressure
c. Networks and compliance
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
7. Milgram’s study demonstrated that even in extraordinary situations ordinary people will: a. conform to the directives of transformative leaders
b. resist authority
c. obey those in positions of power
d. exclude others
e. conform to the directives of transactional leaders
8. Social interaction is the:
a) process by which we act and react to those around us
b) process of socialization beginning at birth
c) expected behavior of a person occupying a particular social position d) social identity one has in a society
9. What term do sociologists use to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a common purpose?
a. primary group
b. secondary group
c. in-group
d. out-group
e. organization
10. Robert Michels saw that in large-scale organizations, and in societies dominated by such organizations, power is inevitably concentrated at the top. He called this the a. clan model.
b. iron law of oligarchy.
c. Panopticon.
d. surveillance society.
e. insane asylum.
11. Communicating through plain, everyday language requires: a. knowing the people involved in the conversation
b. knowing and paying attention to the formal rules of grammar c. an array of complex, shared background understandings
d. simply stating what you think
12. How do Japanese corporations differ from the Weberian model followed by most business organizations in the West?
a. Japanese corporations use a collaborative model.
b. Employees in Japanese corporations specialize more.
c. There is less job security in Japan.
d. Japanese employees are more individualistic than their Western counterparts. e. The Japanese maintain a strict separation between work and their private lives.

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13. Which of the following is not one of the four principles of the McDonaldization of society? A. Calculability
B. Control
C. Creativity
D. Predictability
E. Efficiency
14. Most Americans are aware of the importance of personal space. Edward T. Hall, however, contends that there are actually four kinds or zones of personal space. Which zone is most acceptable during an encounter with most of your friends?

a. Touching distance
b. Public distance
c. Social distance
d. Personal distance
e. Intimate distance
15. Janice is studying abroad in Ghana for a semester. She gets on a bus and discovers that there are no seats. In addition, people are sitting three on top of each other. She finds a place to sit, then a woman with a large bundle and an infant hands her baby to Janice. Janice refuses to take the child until she feels the crowd pressuring her. What is going on? a) In Ghana, child abduction rates are extremely low so there is no fear of a stranger near a child.

b) In Ghana, personal space requirements are very different than in the United States. c) The woman does not want her child.
d) The woman is testing Janice to see if she is prejudiced.
16. Which of the following are characterized by long-term, intimate, face-to-face relationships? a. primary group
b. social aggregate
c. secondary group
d. social category
17. A woman hears the expression “laundering money.” She goes to the Laundromat, puts detergent and money in the washing machine. She:
a. Is interpreting the phrase literally.
b. May be from another culture.
c. Does not know the shared understanding of the phrase.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above
18. Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and the Satan’s Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic toward the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered:

A) reference groups
B) social networks
C) secondary groups
D) out-groups
E) bureaucratic

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19. According to Erving Goffman:
a. every human being possesses a self that is forever fragile and vulnerable to embarrassment
b. people want to save face
c. people collaborate with others to help them save face
d. all of the above
20. When you go to a club on Saturday nights, and you meet someone and engage in a conversation with her/him, you are involved in
a) Unfocused interaction.
b) Response cries.
c) Slips of the tongue.
d) Deviant behavior.
e) Focused interaction.
21. Jacob gets drunk and passes out at a party. His frat brothers take pictures of him and post them on the Internet. Jacob applies to law school and his application is rejected. He finds out the reason he was rejected was because the admissions committee saw the pictures on the Internet. Sociologically, this is an example of:

a. Audience segregation failure.
b. Poor judgment on Jacob’s part.
c. The generalized other.
d. Status inconsistency.
22. John graduates from college with a degree in business administration and gets a job with a large firm that audits small businesses that have contracts with the city. While working there, he becomes friends with Dave, who invites him to attend a weekly poker game that becomes a meaningful part of John’s life. Some weeks the game is the only thing John looks forward to. What does this illustrate?

a. the absolute distinction between primary and secondary groups b. the goal-oriented nature of primary groups
c. the way that primary groups can lead to membership in secondary groups d. the way that secondary-group ties can lead to the close personal ties of primary groups 23. The Solomon Asch experiment in which a group of subjects were asked to compare the length of lines demonstrated that:

a. an authoritarian leader can strongly influence group members b. groups have great power to induce conformity
c. the larger the group, the less each member has a sense of individual responsibility d. when people are given a relatively simple task, they are unlikely to conform to a larger group
e. None of the above

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24. Which of the following best describes the relationship between group size, intimacy, and stability?
a. Larger groups, such as families with more than three children, are more
intimate than small families—with one child—because everyone must look after everyone else. b. Larger groups, such as fraternities, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group.

c. Dyads are the most stable and enduring of all social groups. d. Triads are more intimate than dyads because members are working to keep the group together.
e. Larger groups are more fragile and less stable than groups of two. 25. There is a line between civil inattention and rude or evasive behavior. In which of the following has civil inattention crossed over to rudeness?

a) You are walking in a shopping mall and avoid eye contact with people walking in the other direction.
b) When you speak to your teacher, you glance away from her and stare at a friend. c) As you sit in your assigned seat on an airplane, you smile at the person next to you and then read a book during the entire flight.

d) While sitting in the library, you occasionally look up at other students, but most of the time you are dutifully reading your books.
e) None of the above; civil inattention is a sociology phrase for rudeness. 26. Formal organizations:
a. are irrationally designed to achieve their objectives
b. often employ explicit rules, regulations, and procedures
c. are atypical in modern societies
d. never involve legalities and formal procedures
e. b and c
27. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the nature of bureaucracies? a. They have come to dominate modern social life, as predicted by Max Weber. b. They are organized in a way that breaks down hierarchies of management so that all members feel a sense of equality with one another.

c. They can be so bound by red tape that their rules impede the purpose of the organization. d. They can be technically effective and efficient.
28. Why would a person want to be part of a secondary group? a. to accomplish a specific goal, such as graduating from college b. to have a sense of
closeness and camaraderie
c. to associate with people who care about you and your future

d. to appreciate the importance of sacrificing individual needs for the group’s goals e. none of the above
29. Michel Foucault’s term for the supervision of activities in organizations is: a. power
b. bureaucracy
c. democracy
d. surveillance
e. the clan model

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FALL 2013

30. When people attend high school class reunions, they often compare their own personal and professional successes and failures to those of their former classmates. This means that classmates are a(n):

a. Reference group
b. Out-group
c. secondary group
d. Professional group
31. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks by terrorists, government officials were quick to endorse measures that contradicted several rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Opposition to these measures was seen by many as “unpatriotic.” This is an example of ________. A) propaganda

B) group polarization
C) brainwashing
D) groupthink
E) patriotism
32. In “Clique Dynamics” Patricia and Peter Adler posit that __________ is a technique of inclusion and __________ is a technique of exclusion in clique groups. a. Application, compliance
b. In-group subjugation, out-group subjugation
c. Friendship realignment and recruitment
d. All of the above
33. At Vishal’s workplace every Friday at 2:00 P.M., all employees, including the president, clean the office space. Once a month, executives throw a pizza party, and employees get a three-hour lunch. Vishal and his fellow workers all look forward to the annual award banquet held at the local movie theater, where they put on a skit and award prizes. This is an example of: a. social capital

b. bureaucracy
c. organic organization
d. formal organization
e. corporate culture
34. Deviance
a. is not the same as crime.
b. can change from time to time.
c. can be different in different cultures.
d. is illustrated by an absence of conformity.
e. all of the above
35. What sociological question is most important to keep in mind when considering deviance? a. Who are the deviants and who are the conformists?
b. Why is the deviant so strange?
c. Whose rules are being broken?
d. Why am I not a deviant?
e. How can we eliminate deviance?

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FALL 2013

True / False: Choose “A” for True or “B” for False (.75 point each) 36. Social capital is what we gain in knowledge, networks, and status through participation

and membership in groups and organizations.
37. In American society social capital is relatively equal given our democratic tradition. 38. The authors of “Engagement Proposal as Performance” argue that women have little to no role in the back stage element of the proposal.

39. Secondary groups are smaller, less formal, and more personal than primary groups. 40. Gestures and other forms of body language are universal methods of communication understood by virtually everyone.

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Sociology and A. Primary Group. (2017, Jan 31). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/sociology-and-a-primary-group/

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