sociology chapter 10

The concept of gender refers to
a. the degree of inequality between men and women in a society.
b. the secondary sex characteristics of individuals.
c. the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.
d. patterns of sexual orientation.
c. the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
The chapter argues that gender is not just a matter of difference in behavior, but also of differences in
a. power, wealth, and privileges.
b. power only.
c. wealth only.
d. privileges only.
a. power wealth and privilages
Men and women
a. differ physically in some limited ways.
b. are different in that men are physically superior to women.
c. are different in that women are physically superior to men.
d. are physically equal.
a. differ physically in limited ways
On average, young men show greater ____ ability than young women; young women show greater _____ ability than young men.
a. intellectual; sensory
b. mathematical; verbal
c. verbal; mathematical
d. sensory; intellectual
b. mathematical; verbal
On average, do women or men live longer?
a. On average, men outlive women by about one year.
b. On average, women outlive men by about one year.
c. On average, men outlive women by about five years.
d. On average, women outlive men by about five years.
d. on average,, some outlive men by about 5 years

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Comparing the performances of female and male athletes over time shows
a. little or no change in female-male differences in performance.
b. male performances are improving faster than female performances.
c. women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances.
d. women now outperform men in most athletic events.
c. women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances
The point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzim is to show that
a. gender is rooted in biology.
b. women can dominate men.
c. cultures define gender in different ways.
d. boys and girls must be raised by biological parents.
c. cultures define gender in different ways
Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that
a. all societies define masculinity in much the same way.
b. all societies define femininity in much the same way.
c. patterns involving gender are rooted in biology.
d. traits that are defined as feminine in one society may be masculine in another.
d. traits that are defined as feminine in one society may be masculine in another
In his global study of how societies view gender, George Murdock found
a. little agreement as to feminine and masculine tasks.
b. more men than women were likely to be engaged in farming.
c. more women than men were likely to be engaged in farming.
d. many tasks that were considered masculine by some societies were viewed as feminine by others.
d. many tasks that were considered masculine by some societies were viewed as feminine by others
_______ refers to social organization in which males dominate females.
a. patriarchy
b. matriarchy
c. monarchy
d. oligarchy
a. patriarchy
What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?
a. patriarchy
b. matriarchy
c. monarchy
d. oligarchy
b. matriarchy
Based on the map and discussion in the text, in which continent do women have the lowest social standing?
a. Europe
b. North America
c. Africa
d. South America
c. africa
Throughout the life course, gender shapes
a. human feelings only.
b. human thoughts only.
c. human actions only.
d. human feelings, thoughts, and actions.
d. human feelings thoughts and actions
Which concept refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people of each sex?
a. primary sex characteristics
b. sexual orientation
c. gender roles
d. secondary sex characteristics
c. gender roles
According to Janet Lever’s observations of children at play,
a. gender has little effect on young children.
b. girls spend much more time at play than boys do.
c. boys favor games with clear winners and losers.
d. boys favor games that encourage communication and cooperation.
c. boys favor games with clear winners and losers
Today, women represent ______ of all students on college campuses across the United States.
a. 37 percent
b. 57 percent
c. 77 percent
d. 97 percent
b. 57%
The “beauty myth” refers to the idea that
a. women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance.
b. beautiful women can dominate men.
c. women prefer men who are physically attractive.
d. women today are as physically attractive as today’s men are.
a. women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appeareance
Approximately what percentage of U.S. women are working for income today?
a. 20 percent
b. 30 percent
c. 40 percent
d. 60 percent
d. 60%
Which factor has helped increase the share of women in the paid labor force over the course of the last century?
a. the increase in the number of people working on farms
b. a rising divorce rate
c. the increasing size of U.S. families
d. the fact that working women earn more than working men
b. a rising divorce rate
A majority of U.S. women in which of the following categories enter the labor force?
a. married women with no children
b. single women with no children
c. divorced women with no children
d. married, single, and divorced women with children.
d. married single and divorced women with children
In today’s U.S. work force,
a. men and women have the same types of jobs.
b. women and men receive the same pay.
c. women are concentrated in several categories of jobs.
d. a majority of working women hold “pink collar” jobs.
c. women are concentrated in several categories of jobs
The concept of “glass ceiling” refers to
a. the barrier that prevents women from reaching the top.
b. the fact that women’s dreams are easily broken.
c. the fact that cleaning the home is all most women do.
d. the barrier that keeps women in service work.
a. the barrier that prevents women from reaching the top
In which job categories are the workers mostly women?
a. physicians
b. corporate managers
c. college professors
d. elementary school teachers
d. elementary school children
An important exception to male domination of the U.S. workplace is that
a. women now own more than 8 million entrepreneurial businesses.
b. women hold 80 percent of pink-collar jobs.
c. most college and university faculty are women.
d. a majority of corporate executives are women.
a. women now own more than 8 million entreprenural businesses
The concept of “comparable worth” means that
a. women should hold political offices in proportion to their numbers in the population.
b. people should be paid according to the level of skill and responsibility involved in the work.
c. the market system should determine the pay for any job.
d. all jobs should be rewarded equally.
b. people should be paid according to the level of skill and responsibility involved in the work
In the United States in 2011, women in the labor force working full time earned _______ to every dollar men earned.
a. 97 cents
b. 87 cents
c. 77 cents
d. 57 cents
c. 77 cents
The factor which accounts for the greatest share of the difference in the earnings of working women and men in the United States is
a. differences in education.
b. differences in family responsibilities.
c. gender discrimination in the workplace.
d. the type of work men and women do.
d. the type of work men and women do
According to recent research, approximately what share of our country’s 400 richest people are women?
a. 71 percent
b. 51 percent
c. 31 percent
d. 11 percent
d. 11%
The category of the U.S. population in which women do most of the housework is
a. unemployed people.
b. unmarried people.
c. people with no children.
d. employed, married, people who have children.
d. employed married people who have children
When it comes to gender and schooling,
a. boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with a learning disability.
b. more girls than boys are placed in special education classes.
c. most disciplinary problems in schools involve girls.
d. disciplinary problems in schools involve boys and girls equally.
a. boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with a learning disability
Women earn what share of all associate’s and bachelor’s degrees in the United States?
a. 39 percent
b. 49 percent
c. 59 percent
d. 69 percent
c. 59%
As of 2011, women held about what share of seats in Congress?
a. 19 percent
b. 39 percent
c. 59 percent
d. 79 percent
a. 19 %
In which of the following nations does the political power of women come closest to that of men?
a. United States
b. Norway
c. China
d. Cuba
b. norway
Women have served in the U.S. armed forces
a. since World War II.
b. since the Vietnam War.
c. since the Persian Gulf War.
d. since colonial times.
d. since colonial times
What is at the heart of the controversy over women’s participation in the military?
a. Women score lower than men on military intelligence (IQ) tests.
b. Women cannot operate high-tech equipment as well as men.
c. Women have only recently joined the U.S. armed forces.
d. Women are seen as nurturers rather than people who kill.
d. women are seen as nurtures than people who kill
At every class level
a. women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do.
b. women and men have equal amounts of income, wealth, education, and power.
c. men outnumber women.
d. women see themselves as a minority.
a. women have less income wealth education and power than men do.
If you could end violence against women in one setting, doing so in which of setting would reduce this type of violence the most?
a. the workplace
b. the home
c. public places
d. college campuses
b. the home
In what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes on college campuses does the woman know her attacker?
a. 5-10 percent
b. 25-30 percent
c. 65-70 percent
d. 85-90 percent
d. 85-90
Sexual harassment became an issue in the United States in
a. the 1990s.
b. the 1960s.
c. the 1890s.
d. the 1780s.
a. 1990’s
Most cases of female genital mutilation occur in
a. Latin America.
b. the United States.
c. Africa.
d. Asia.
c. africa
Sexual harassment is an important social issue because
a. it actually targets men more often than women.
b. half of working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention.
c. it almost always involves blatant threats.
d. it almost always leads to violence.
b. half of working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention
Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization encourages
a. men to take control of the workplace.
b. growing gender equality.
c. women to have more children.
d. a breakdown of social stability.
b. growing gender equality
Talcott Parsons described gender in terms of
a. power differences.
b. complementarity.
c. violence.
d. the sexual objectification of women.
b. complementarity
Talcott Parsons explained that males tend to exhibit _____ behavior, while females are more _____.
a. instrumental; expressive
b. expressive; instrumental
c. egalitarian; hierarchical
d. rational; emotional
a. instrumental ; expressive
A main idea of multicultural feminism is that
a. people should seek the elimination of gender itself.
b. minority women are better off than non-minority men.
c. feminism finds little support among minority women.
d. while all women face disadvantages, the life experiences of women differ according to their race, ethnicity, and class position.
d.
Engels claimed that men’s desire to control their property brought about
a. educational reform.
b. widespread use of birth control.
c. monogamous marriage.
d. the rise of industry.
c. monogamous marriage
According to intersection theory, ___________ is a source of social disadvantage.
a. only gender
b. only race
c. only class
d. gender, race, and class
d. gender, race, and class
When did feminism begin as a social movement in the United States?
a. during the colonial era
b. in the 1840s
c. in the 1940s
d. in the 1980s
b. in the 1840’s
Feminists do not support
a. ending gender stratification.
b. ending sexual violence.
c. weakening the importance of gender in people’s lives.
d. limiting sexual freedom.
d. limiting sexual freedom
Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
a. liberal feminism
b. socialist feminism
c. radical feminism
d. structural-functional feminism
a. liberal feminism
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