Sociology Mid Term Review

The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was
C. Wright Mills
The first goal of each scientific discipline is to
explain why something happens
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was
August Comte
What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists?
the scientific method
The term “survival of the fittest,” which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by
Herbert Spencer

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Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is
class conflict
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe
culture
Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of
material culture
Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This is referred to as
language
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a
subculture
Of the five interrelated core values emerging in American society, the one that is reflected in the “human potential” movement that focuses on “self help, relating and personal development” is
self fulfillment
The emerging tools and the skills needed to use them, which have a significant impact on social life, are called
new technology
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to
cultural diffusion
In Professor Jones’ social problems course, the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as ” Dr. J’s class,” and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. Which concept best describes Dr. Jones’ class?
a group
What are the two characteristics a people must share to qualify as a society?
the same culture and the same territory.
Which society was the first to develop permanent settlements?
the horticulture society
A society that is based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels is called an
industrial society
What is the key feature of postindustrial societies as it relates to the work force?
transmission and use of information services dominating the work force
Which group plays the most significant role in the development of the self?
Social networks
Jane, Mark, Courtney, and Kelly are enrolled in the 8:00 a.m. sociology course at their college. After studying together for the first test, they started sitting together in class and chose to work together on group projects. During spring break, they decided to go on a rip as a group. These four students would be considered members of a
clique
With respect to group dynamics, what is the defining characteristic of a small group?
all members of the group can interact directly with one another
A(n) ______ leadership style has the tendency to encourage either aggressive or apathetic behavior among group members with aggressive members growing increasingly hostile towards their leader.
authoritarian
Which group is most notable for its lack of achievement and effectiveness in decision making?
Laissez-faire
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six stooges and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?
Soloman Asch
Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
the families involved with a history of crime
Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?
Control theory
Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie’s decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called
inner control
The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2008 was
car theft
Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
the conflict perspective
What are the two most significant “anchoring devices that insulate a person from a life of crime and imprisonment?
marriage and education
The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as
recidivism
How a society treats its deviants is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of prisons and mental hospitals in the United States suggest regarding this standard?
They are both used as warehouses for the unwanted
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
wealth, power, prestige
The top _____ of Americans earn nearly half the income.
20%
One’s ________ is the greatest influence in determining social prestige
occupation
What is the background profile of most United States presidents?
Millionaire white men from old money families
Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?
they will experience anomie
Which of the family names would be members of the “nouveau riche”?
the Gates family, who founded Microsoft
Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous “Amens” and “Praise Jesus” outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. Ken is most likely a member of the _______
lower class
Politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the
working class
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
the south
_____ are the most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.
children
What is another term for power relations wherever they exist?
Politics
Why is every group considered as being political?
there is a power struggle of some sort in every group
For a government to be stable, what quality must exist?
The source of the power must be perceived as legitimate
What is armed resistance with the intention of overthrowing a government called?
a revolution
What did Joan of Arc, Adolph Hitler, and Jesus Christ all have in common?
They were all charismatic leaders
In the United States, we elected candidates whom we believe will best represent our interests in state capitals and in Washington, D.C. This is an example of a(n)
representative deomocracy
Carl lives in a small New England town where he and other residents attend monthly town meetings. At these meetings, they publicly vote on issues concerning the town. These monthly town meetings are an example of
direct democracy
What is the specific gift the U.S. gave to the world that addressed a person’s rights based by birth and residence?
Universal citizenship
in Kolondahar, a small group of high ranking military officers make the decisions that determine national policy. This form of government describes
oligarchy
Another term used for pre-elections in which voters decide which candidates will represent their parties is
the primaries
What do Ross Perot and Theodore Roosevelt have in common?
They were the most successful third party candidates to ever run for president of the United States
What transpires in a proportional representation electoral system when the largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties to make national decisions?
Coalition government
People who influence legislation on behalf of their clients are referred to as
lobbyists
What is the three branch system which is designed to ensure that power remains distributed in U.S. government so that no one branch dominates?
checks and balances
Who were the two Americans who proposed universal schooling as a means to create a uniform national culture?
Thomas Jefferson and Noah Webster
What event created the belief that formal education was essential to the well-being of society?
the industrialization of society
Who was the educator from Massachusetts, who, in 1837 proposed the “common school” to be supported through tax dollars and established throughout the state?
Horace Mann
When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a
credential society
Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as
gate keeping
Schools determining which people will enter what occupation based on their capabilities is referred to as
social placement
You are taking an IQ test which will be used to determine your intelligence level. The first question asks you to identify all of the equipment you will need to play the game of shoe ball. The second question asks the rules of the game. Finally, the third question asks you to explain how shoe ball is scored and the number of points you need to win the game. Based on this question, what does the test demonstrate?
It has cultural bias in measuring intelligence
IQ measure not only intelligence but also
acquired knowledge
What is the correspondence principle?
the social structure of schools reflects their society
How are public schools primarily funded?
local property tax
The most significant predictor of whether a student will attend college is his/her
family background
using exceptionally simple questions on an exam and “dummying down” grading scales so everyone passes are examples of growing problem in education called
mediocrity
To qualify as distance learning, what needs to be in effect?
students are not physically present with the instructor
Why is religion classified as a universal social institution?
It meets basic human needs.
What are the three elements of religion based on the writing of Emile Durkheim?
beliefs, practices, moral community
What are the two dysfunctions of religion addressed in the textbook?
religion as justification for persecution, and war and terrorism
Next week, Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew’s bar mitzvah is an example of a religious
ritual
Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believe in one God who, as creator of the universe is concerned about our actions and will hold us accountable for them. In this sense, Jews, Christians, and Muslims all share the same
cosmology
What is the term that refers to a sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God?
Religious experience
Pietro, a wealthy businessman, has been a devout Catholic his entire life. But a few months ago he received a vision from God to wage a campaign to change the policy of the church to accept women as priests and to accept a pro-choice philosophy. Based on this the Vatican has stripped Pietro of his membership in the church. Which phrase describes what has happened to Pietro?
He was excommunicated
What was the fundamental difference between Judaism and all other religions that preceded it?
Judaism was based on monotheism
What is the world’s largest religion, with around 2 billion members?
Christianity
What is a government based on the principle that God is king?
Theocracy
Shi’ites refer to their religious leader as the ______ and it is his duty to interpret the holy book called the _____
shaman, Qur’an
Muslims and Jews alike trace their ancestry to
Abraham
Rani is Hindu and believes in the three gods: Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu. Rani would be considered to be a(n)
polytheist
What do Hindus call the cycle of life, death, and rebirth?
reincarnation
In Hinduism, one of the central beliefs is karma, which means
spiritual progress
What is demography?
the study of size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations
What is the Malthus Theorem?
the idea that population grows geometrically and the food supply only increases arithmetically
From the beginning of time, how long did it take the world’s population to reach its first billion people?
1800 AD
The process by which a country’s population becomes smaller because its birth rate and net migration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate is called
population shrinkage
What variables are most often included on a population pyramid?
Percentage of population, sex, and age
What term do demographers use to refer to the number of children an average woman bears?
fertility
The world’s average fertility rate is
2.7
To determine a country’s growth rate, what three variables would a demographer use?
Fertility, morality, migration
The primary factor that affects the growth rate of most countries today is the
rate of industrialization in a country
What was the key factor in the development of cities?
the development of more efficient agriculture
What is infrastructure?
the essential factor in which a city depends, such a rapid transportation and communication
A central city that is surrounded by smaller cities and suburbs is referred to as a
metropolis
To qualify as megacity, a city’s population must exceed
10 million
With a population of over 37 million, the largest city in the world today is
Tokyo
Jim and Milly are one of ten couples who have decided to buy and restore an older house in a deteriorated urban neighborhood. Jim and Milly are part of a movement referred to as
gentrification
What term describes clusters of buildings and services near the intersection of major highways where shopping malls, hotels, office parks, and apartment complexes are found?
Edge cities
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