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Software and Media Piracy

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    English 102 25 June 2010 Annotated Bibliography: Software and Media Piracy Bender, Mark T. , and Yonhsheng Wang. “The Impact of Digital Piracy on Music Sales. A Cross-Country Analysis. ” International Social Science Review 84. 3/4 (2009): 157-170. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web 24 June 2010. In the article the authors discuss the impact of digital music piracy on music sales world wide. Their claim is that the advancement of technology has allowed the possibility for the music industry to see its last few years if actions are not taken.

    They back their claim up by providing from the RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) estimates that six percent of the GDP in the U. S. Is generated from the music industry and from that six percent, a one percent increase in music piracy can cause an additional . 6 decrease in the GDP is it’s sector. They also include examples of programs that have caused the height in piracy such as ,”Napster”, “Kazaa”, and “Morpheus” (157). They emphasize the importance of piracy and need to focus efforts to prevent it from furthermore hurting our economy.

    The authors continue to support their claims by providing even more examples of ways pirates are hurting our economy. The article follows an APA format as seen because of the Social Science review that it is in. Also the end-notes section towards the latter of the article is a key giveaway to the style the authors are trying to use. They want to inform the reader and provide empirical data of the ongoing problem of piracy. Their credibility to the subject can be seen in the amount of data provided. The authors show they have taken the time to properly research the topic.

    The paper primary uses ethos because throughout the paper the author provides many examples of how piracy is affecting the music industry. These examples coupled with the closing sentence, where they emphasis that it will be necessary for businesses to reevaluate their models as associated with the recording industry, show the authors perspective on the topic. In this sense it also appeals to logos providing the audience with visual examples like charts from page 164. These two styles allow for the writers to onvey a forceful and informative message to their intended reader. Bishop, Jack. “Who are the Pirates? The Politics of Piracy, Poverty, and Greed in a Globalized Music Market. ” Popular Music & Society 27. 1 (2004): 101-106. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 24 June 2010. Bishops article discusses in detail the politics of piracy, poverty, and greed in global music market. He compares the cost differences caused by the price between pirated music versus original. The article points out efforts to push anti-piracy laws, enticed successfully by the sound recording industry.

    He continues to use many sources as pointed out in the works cited section, making it more towards his credibility and claim of the downward effects piracy is having on the media industry.. The article has a very good organization. Throughout the paper you can see use of headings, footings, and support of evidence for research as pointed out by citing a case study from the IFPI (105). In the study, the percentage of price of CD’s is compared to the amount paid for by copied CD’s. The of over 65% is an estimate that at the time could be more accurate, but in today’s world the number seems like it should be way higher.

    Bishop pushes his article to an audience of, entrepreneurs in the music market industry including the BIG FIVE (BMG, Warner, Universal, Sony, EMI) (101), investment agency’s, and the general public who fall witness one of the most powerful industries just decades ago, to now becoming on the verge of take over by P2P sites. The author can be credible in his evidence because his is pursuing a PHD at ULCA (106), and also because his source information came from an industry standard analysis (IFPI), and not third party corporations.

    He used citations throughout the article as well to prove that extensive research had been done on the topic. I feel that thru the authors use of sources and background research, ethos can be seen throughout the paper. A good example of this can be seen on page 102, where he describes intellectual property rights as a “battle” or “Flag” that can all be affiliated to “stamp out” music piracy across the globe. (102). The most overwhelming use of ethos can be seen in the “final thoughts section”, where he concludes many of the finding of research to be outrageous as pointed out by use of many exclamation points.

    After this he uses a bit of pathos to play on the readers views and belief’s as seen in examples on page 103. Ding, Cherng G. , and N-Ting Liu. “Productivity changes of Asian economies by taking into account software piracy. ” Economic Inquiry 47. 1 (2009): 135-145. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 June 2010. For the past two decades, the fast growing Asian economy has emerged as on of the most important economic regions in the world today however it’s growth has been accompanied with severe piracy. The paper analyzes the productivity changes of some Asian economies by taking into account software piracy.

    Ding claims ,”that when included, the results indicate that productivity growth in Asian developing economies regresses, the productivity in non-Asian industrialized economies improves. ” (34). Her claim mainly describes how the ever growing topic of piracy is causing an inverse affect to economies around the world. More productivity in developing means less industry progression in established countries. The paper supports her claims by providing various economic studies from accredited sources that show, piracy has an effective on the progressions countries economies.

    It places emphasis on various topics and charts making the style sway more towards APA. The use of these charts in the text can point assist in pointing out this style, along with the use of a reference page. The use of sources throughout the paper can be another tale of the style of writing. The author uses a logos appeal by pointing out references and correlations between piracy and economic downturn as can be seen in the quote, “Past research suggests that bribery and other forms of corruption reduce investment and economic growth. ” (144).

    Corruption and growth are used as an inverted example providing the reader with the necessary background information used to adequately understand the topic of economic software piracy. The APA form is another key indicator of logos, concluding that scientific research is more fact than persuasion or personal appeal. Janssens, Jelle, Stijn Vandaele, and Tom Vander Beken. “The Music Industry on (the) Line? Surviving Music Piracy in a Digital Era. ” European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice 17. 2 (2009): 77-96. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO.

    Web. 10 June 2010. The article from the European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice begins with an analysis of the prevalence of piracy in music trade. The analysis extends to cover the affects on global sales of CDs and the expansion of businesses in the future. It points out how such technological developments such as MP3 players, Ipod’s, and CDRs have increased music piracy. The most common forms of music piracy as summarized by the article are internet and CD piracy. It discusses the association between music piracy and organized crime.

    The profits driven from piracy are used fund such activities like drug smuggling, or human trafficking. The article touches and explores the vulnerabilities of the music industry to include the nature of the product, price, and degree of law enforcement. It suggests that it is necessary for music companies to look for new alternatives to their business models. With the music industry at risk, the article supports its claim to explore new business possibilities, stating, “the music industry CD sales have been falling continuously from 2. billion in 2000 to 1. 8 billion in 2006” (6). The reasons can be numerous and unrealistic, but true. In the second part, the future of the music industry and organized music pirates in the digital era is examined. The ideas and findings presented in this article apply only to those countries and regions where Internet pervasiveness is high. If there is no internet access there is no piracy. One appeal that the article uses in its writing that is a unsurprising is pathos. Piracy is illegal. Things that are illegal place tolls on our moral beliefs.

    Thru the article many facts about piracy are discussed and presented to the reader in a way that pulls on their moral beliefs. It tries to convince the wrong doings of piracy by showing the effects and destruction it is having on a once booming industry. The example, “legal risks will shift and customers are thus pushed towards organized crime groups. ” (95) shows how the connection and emotional pervasiveness to combat piracy. Ingram, Jason R. , and Sameer Hinduja. “Neutralizing Music Piracy: An Empirical Examination. “Deviant Behavior 29. 4 (2008): 334-366. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 24 June 2010.

    This article by Jason Ingram, describes in detail thru research the viability of employing techniques to neutralize online music piracy. Using data collected from undergraduates from a large Midwestern university, Ingram tries to support his claim that piracy depends on the acceptance of the user. Looking at the title of the article, conclusions can be made that the article is going to be full of equations and calculations proving Ingram’s neutralization theory. This might not be as helpful to writing a research paper but provides excellent background information as seen in the subtitle “Background and Prior Research” (336).

    The article was published by the Taylor and French Group, showing that it has professional ties. Increasing the credibility of article. Ingram uses organization to help his scientific language wrote paper flow more easily. It is scrambled with many technical words that have no real meaning to the topic. These heading and subheadings in each paragraphs make it easier to use the article to your advantage. The article’s purpose is to inform readers of the ongoing problem of music piracy and to offer possible solutions to the problem.

    Ingram projects his paper to an audience of scientists and researchers due to the excessive use of charts and scientific research to support his claim. His style of APA, allows for his large references page to be utilized thoroughly throughout the article. Examples of this can be seen by the use of citations where the author’s last name and publication date are used. The article can be used as a reliable source because it shows extensive research and effort put in with collaboration of research references to make a compelling paper to support Ingram’s claims.

    Use of the article should be to point out unusual facts on the topic, found thru the charts of the article. This article has various argumentative appeals throughout, but the majority of the paper is logos and ethos. Logos appeal can be seen with the use of logic researchers to draw conclusions as seen by Ingram concluding, “Peer/family or work/school norms participated in higher levels of piracy” (358). In this statement, Ingram is comparing his research to the outcome from prior research done by others. His point is to show that piracy is consistent thru age groups, regardless of the research done.

    He uses ethos to furthermore support this point and his credibility as an author by placing various subtopic’s of his research on neutralization. He uses past research to support his claims from scientists such as “Maruna” and “Copes”, both scholarly acclaimed researchers (341). Morton, Neil A. , and Xenophon Koufteros. “Intention to Commit Online Music Piracy and Its Antecedents: An Empirical Investigation. “Structural Equation Modeling 15. 3 (2008): 491-512. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 24 June 2010.

    Authors Morton and Koufteron wrote the article to show a research model that with show consumer’s “attitude”, “norms”, and “perception” towards media piracy (492). Their claim is that online piracy of copyrighted digital music has become rampant as internet technologies and businesses have advanced. They are suffering and will keep suffering from piracy unless steps and actions are taken to combat it. They support their claim with research done with a random question-air of 216 respondents hoping to find out what makes us as consumers to commit online music crime (493). The paper is very organized and flows very well.

    The authors make use of APA style due to extensive references and research citations in the paper which adds ease of use versus an MLA style document. Their article is full of a lot of facts and numbers. APA makes the flow much easier. The work claims to cover many different view points as can be seen in the long list of references. It shows they put the time and effort to make a good and credible paper. Using that scope, they project the article to other scholarly professionals in the industry hoping their research with provoke the possible change to copyrighting laws (496).

    It can also be pushed to the general public with the intention to better understand the problems caused by electronic piracy. It draws its subject material and properly cites them throughout the paper making reliability of the text increase. Futher credibility can be drawn from “Acknowledgment” section, where the articles credentials are stated. I feel that the authors used both ethos along with pathos mostly in the article. An example ethos can be drawn from a literary review done by Terrel and Douglas. In the review the authors describe undergraduates as “willing” or “motivated” to pay for music to avoid prosecution (492).

    His point shows that credible research had been done to show a very volatile topic such as music piracy, coming face to face in today’s society with evermore progression of of the internet to possibly becoming an online epidemic. In turn, they use pathos to play on the audience’s belief that stealing is wrong, whether online or not. Use of this can seen by the consistent labeling of piracy as a “illicit”, “selfish”, and “unfair” practice (495). He wants the audience to know that piracy is wrong and persuade their primitive beliefs of stealing to help combat the problem. “PC Software piracy poses challenges to cyber security. Computer Security Update 10. 6 (2009): 3-7. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 June 2010. The article focuses on the issues concerning increasing software piracy. Piracy poses very high challenges to security in the U. S. , making efforts of the government to battle the massive enterprise very pricy and difficult. It further states that despite the effort of the U. S. government in battling piracy, its negative impact has gone beyond the software industry as well as in the information technology sector. Piracy now affects everything from CD to Software sales around the world.

    The article shows how economies are effected behind the scenes by stating, “for every $1 of software sold in a country, there is another $3 to $4 of revenues for local IT service and distribution firms. ” (4). The authors connection is from the loss of revenues to piracy, countless number of jobs and positions are lost. As the article continues, the claim to global and economic downturn becomes more real with an estimate that if piracy dropped 10 points, 600,000 information technology jobs could be created. The article fails to follow a specific outline but favors MLA.

    The writing style can be similar in ways due to citations but lacks all proper punctuation. With backgrounds from many sources the paper presents its self an accredited piece of text. The paper uses a more logos appeal along with a bit of pathos. Logos can be drawn by the author continuously referring to many facts and assumptions associated with piracy, but aids its self to appeal to that of pathos by playing on the emotional appeal of the reader. It portrays to the reader the seriousness of piracy and its effect on legitimate businesses, trying to show the bad effects and hope to future prevent piracy.

    An example pathos, he describes piracy as a “Drug” or “infection” that is hindering good nature d consumers from the accessibility they have of their software material (5). It tries to persuade the reader on their belief that stealing is bad. Spring, Tom. “E-Book Piracy: Is Your Download Legitimate?. ” PC World 28. 3 (2010): 23-25. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 June 2010. The article discusses the increasing problems caused and associated with e-book piracy. Springs claim is that with the ever changing technologies, the challenges faced with protecting our publishers work, many consumers with fall victim to counterfeit e-books.

    He backs his claims by providing quotes from experts such as Ed McCoyd of the Association of American Publishers, a trade organization representing major U. S. Book publishers. McCoyd states that, “year-to-year increase in illicitly available e-book titles is unknown”, showing that since a such new technological advancement as the Kindle even books are now being copied online. He continues his support in showing knowledge in the field with examples of industry advancements such as the, “Amazon Kindle”, “Sony Reader”, and “Barnes & Noble’s Nook” (23).

    These products are very new to the market increasing the demand for piracy of their material due to high product cost. E-Book piracy is not in the same realm as music piracy, but an increasingly prevalent topic to keep an eye on. The article tends to follow up with no noticeable style because of being an editorial but tends to lend more towards MLA due to the more informative approach. Overall the paper leans towards the pathos and ethos appeal. Throughout pathos is used to inform and persuade the reader into believing that E-book piracy is an issue.

    A good example can be drawn from the quote, “You might, for example, earn some quick Farm-ville cash by answering a brief survey……… ” (24). In this quote the author draws a conclusion from the impulsiveness for users to follow online surveys for an illicit e-book. He is trying to persuade the user away from this temptation. Ethos is also found throughout the paper with the writer putting emphasis on the subject as if he once fell victim to illicit e-books. Conclusions can be made from the background research and knowledge on the topic.

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