Somatic and Autonomic nervous system

both somatic and autonomic nervous systems include sensory and motor neurons, true or false?
True
Sympathetic neurons arise from cranial nerves and spinal nerves in the sacral region, true or false?
false
When the sympathetic nervous system is active, the parasympathetic system shuts down; when the parasympathetic nervous system is active, the sympathetic nervous system shuts down. True or False?
False it works like a seesaw
Parasympathetic postganglionic fibres are characterised as
being short in length and unmyelinated
Under which circumstances would the decrease in heart rate be the greatest?
increased parasympathetic stimulation
The autonomic nervous system is
“Self governing”
The somatic nervous system controls
Voluntary movement and sensation, somatic muscles are basically those of the musculo-skeletal system
what is the motor neuron pathway of the somatic nervous system?
One-neuron pathways: Somatic motor neurons extending from the CNS synapse directly with effector muscle
what is the motor neuron pathway of the autonomic nervous system?
two neuron pathway: Pre-ganglionic neurons extending from CNS synapse with postganglionic neurons in an autonomic ganglion, and postganglionic neurons extending from ganglion synapse with a visceral effector.

what are the effectors of the somatic nervous system?
Skeletal muscle
What are the effectors of the autonomic nervous system?
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
What are the neurotransmitters and hormones involved in SNS?
all somatic motor neurons release ACh
What are the neurotransmitters and hormones involved in ANS?
pre-ganglionic axons: ACh
Post-ganglionic axons: ACh or NE
What are the typical responses of the SNS?
Contraction of skeletal muscle (usually excitatory)
What are the typical responses of the ANS?
either excitatory or inhibitory.
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cardiac muscle – increased or decreased rate and force of contraction.

what is the sensory input for the ANS?
Mainly from interoceptors, some from special/somatic senses.
What is the control of motor output for the SNS
voluntary control (cerebral cortex); input from basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord.
Responses in the sympathetic division of the Autonomic nervous system are associated with
exercise
emotion
excitement
responses in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system are associated with
repletion
rest
relaxation
Parasympathetic nerves arise from which cranial nerves?
glossopharyngeal
facial
vagus
the sympathetic division is a chain of ganglia alongside vertebral column which synapse with what?
spinal nerves
internal organs
skin
blood
Parasympathetic system innervates which organs?
pupils, lungs, heart, digestive tract, and reproductive organs.
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