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Special Issues in Agriculture in the Philippines

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Special Issues in Agriculture Special Issues in Agriculture Edited by Eliseo R. Ponce PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH Copyright 2004 by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) and the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) Printed in the Philippines. All rights reserved. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organzation. Please address all inquiries to:

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES NEDA sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo Street Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel.

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: (63-2) 8935705/8924059 Fax: (63-2) 8939589/8161091 E-mail: [email protected] gov. ph URL: http://www. pids. gov. ph ISBN 971-564-074-5 RP 11-04-300 T ABLE ABLE Foreword Preface OF OF ONTENTS C ONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………. xi ……………………………………………………………………………. xiii

C H A P T E R ON E Research Program Planning for Agricultural Resource Management: A Background Analysis by Agnes C. Rola Introduction …………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Status of the Agricultural Resource Base in the Philippines ……………………………………………………… 2 Soil Degradation in Lowland Agriculture: The Role of Nutrient Management …………………………………….

4 Imperatives for Soil Conservation in the Uplands ……………………… 1 Water and Agriculture …………………………………………………………….. 14 Proposed Research Program for NRM: Focus on Agricultural Resource Management …………………… 19 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………… 22 References ……………………………………………………………………………… 22 C HAPTER T WO Literature Review of the Agricultural Distribution Services Sector: Performance, Efficiency and Research Issues by Ponciano S. Intal Jr. nd Luis Osman Ranit Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… 29 The Philippine Agricultural Distribution System ……………………….. 32 Marketing Margins and Distribution Services ……………………………. 69 Other Research Concerns: Price Policy, Multimarket Analysis and Export Marketing …………………….. 80 Conclusion: Research Gaps and Suggestions for Research on Agricultural Distribution and Development ………………………………………………………………….. 3 Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………… 87 References ……………………………………………………………………………… 97 v C HAPTER T HREE Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in the Philippines: The Need for a Strategic Approach by Saturnina C. Halos Introduction …………………………………………………………………………. 101 Scope of Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture ………………… 02 Trends and Issues ………………………………………………………………….. 110 Philippine Agricultural Biotechnology R&D ……………………………. 128 The Proposed National Biotechnology Research and Development Program for Agriculture, Forestry and Environment (PCARRD) ……………………………………………….. 133 Conclusion: Integrating Biotechnology into the Agricultural Research Agenda ………………………………….. 149 References ……………………………………………………………………………. 51 C HAPTER FOUR Property Rights Reform in Philippine Agriculture: Framework for Analysis of Recent Experiences by Roehlano M. Briones Introduction …………………………………………………………………………. 157 Analytical Framework for Land Rights ……………………………………. 158 The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program ………………………. 168 Property Rights Reforms in Fishery and Forestry …………………….. 186 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………. 95 Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………. 197 References ……………………………………………………………………………. 199 About the Authors ………………………………………………………………………. 206 vi ST L II S T OF OF T ABLES ABLES Chapter One Table 1. Problem soils of the Philippines (1991) …………………………. 3 Table 2. Land use in the Philippine uplands (hectares) ………………. 3 Table 3.

Estimated total soil loss for land uses and slopes (tons/year) ……………………………………………….. 4 Table 4. Technology options for soil management ………………………. 6 Table 5. Potential of nitrogen-fixing green manure as multipurpose crop in an integrated farming system …………………………………………………………………. 7 Table 6. Available water technologies in the Philippines (1999) ………………………………………………………….. 16 Chapter Two Table 1.

Number of agriculture-related wholesale and retail establishment …………………………………… 48 Table 2a. Employment, gross sales and value added of agriculture-related wholesale and retail establishment (1988) ………………………… 51 Table 2b. Employment, gross sales and value added of agriculture-related wholesale and retail establishments (1994) ………………………. 53 Table 3. Labor productivity in agriculture-related wholesale and retail industries …………………………………………. 57 Table 4.

Summary statistics for agriculturerelated small wholesale establishment (1988) …………………… 58 Table 5. Summary statistics for agriculturerelated small wholesale establishment (1995) …………………… 60 Table 6. Gross margin to sales ratio of small and large agriculture-related establishments (1988 and1994) ………………………………………………………………. 72 Table 7. Marketing margin and cost: Two examples …………………… 76 Chapter Three Table 1. Traits of some transgenic crops commercialized and field tested …………………………………….. 11 vii Table 2. Benefits reported from the commercial production of transgenic crops ………………………………………. 113 Table 3. Product target and techniques used in Philippine biotechnology research (1979-1997) ………………. 130 Table 4. Fields of specialization of senior researchers in agricultural biotechnology (1977-1997) ………………………………………………………………….. 133 Table 5. Technologies developed at BIOTECH, UP Los Banos (1979-1998) …………………………………………….. 134 Table 6.

Technologies patented or patents applied for by BIOTECH, UP Los Banos (1979-1998) ………………….. 135 Table 7. Research resources for crop biotechnology ………………… 136 Table 8. Five steps in a conventional crop improvement program ………………………………………………….. 147 Chapter Four Table 1a. Accomplishments of land acquisition and distribution, by land type (1972-December 1999) ……………. 170 Table 1b. Accomplishments of land acquisition and distribution, by region: 1972-December 1999 ………………….. 71 Table 2. Accomplishments of CARP support services (1987-July 1999) ……………………………………………………………. 172 Table 3. Administrative costs of implementing CARP (1987-1999) ………………………………………………………… 173 Table 4. Distribution of respondents’ parcels by tenure by survey (in %) …………………………………………………. 174 Table 5. Distribution of respondents by availment of support services (in %, multiple responses) ………………… 175 Table 6.

Crop yields of respondents by type of crop by survey (in tons/ha) …………………………………………… 179 Table 7. Income, poverty, and income sources of respondents by survey ……………………………………………………. 180 Table 8. Borrowing sources of respondents (multiple responses) ……………………………………………………… 181 viii L II S T ST OF OF GURES F II G U R E S Chapter Two Figure 1a. Geographical flow of yellow corn from Cagayan Province, 1991 …………………………………………… 34 Figure 1b.

Geographical flow of yellow corn from Isabela Province, 1991 …………………………………………….. 35 Figure 2a. Marketing channels of Frenzi potatoes in Bukidnon, May-December 1994 …………………………………… 36 Figure 2b. Marketing channels of other potato varieties in Benguet, November 1993-January 1994 ………………………… 37 Figure 3a. Marketing channels of green mungbean in Pangasinan, December 1993-April 1994 ……………………….. 38 Figure 3b. Marketing channels of yellow mungbean in Pangasinan, December 1993-April 1994 ……………………….. 9 Figure 4. Marketing channels of roses ………………………………………. 40 Figure 5. Marketing channels of carabao mangoes in Cebu, March-May 1993 ………………………………………………… 41 Figure 6. Marketing channels of carabao mangoes in Batangas, March-May 1993 …………………………………………… 42 Chapter Three Figure 1. Traits of some selected transgenic crops, commercialized and for field test …………………………………… 114 ix OREWORD F OREWORD In the Philippines, about one-half of the labor force is engaged in agricultural activities.

Agriculture then plays a major role in the economy and if a stable national growth is to become a realization, a modern and competitive agricultural sector is a necessity. Thus, it is no surprise that the agricultural sector is one of the most studied areas in the country’s history. In spite of this, much is yet to be achieved to ensure food security and sustainable competitiveness. However, findings and recommendations from past researches have not been fully utilized and neither have current programs undergone regular analyses and intensive evaluation.

This book, Special Issues in Agriculture, focuses on concerns relating to resource management and sustainability that are critical to agricultural growth and development. It also gives premium to the institutional issues in the area of property rights: land, water, fishery, and forestry, including an evaluation of the CARP and other tenure-related government programs. Certainly, the four papers in this book present the strategies for the policy, regulatory and institutional framework crucial not only in promoting but in enforcing a more efficient, effective, equitable and sustainable agricultural growth for the country.

It is therefore hoped that this book will herald further researches geared for the analyses on the performance and development of the agricultural xi sector. It is also our desire that studies in this book will be catalysts for positive changes in the field of agriculture. Lastly, I thank the Bureau of Agricultural Resources (BAR) for giving the Philippine Institute for Development Studies the opportunity to work with the experts in the field of agricultural research. My deepest gratitude to all the authors included in this book for giving their time and sharing their knowledge and expertise in this favorable project.

Mario B. Lamberte, Ph. D. President, PIDS xii REFACE P REFACE It is the aim of the Department of Agriculture’s Bureau of Agriculture Research through the Social Science and Policy Network (SSPN) to develop a strong national program on social science and policy research as a dynamic component of the national research and development program in agriculture and fisheries. This is in line with the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) of 1997, which mandated that the growth of agriculture must be technology-based within the overall framework of the Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development.

This book, Special Issues in Agriculture, is part of SSPN’s contribution to the AFMA mandate. This book contains four chapters that look into four key issues that affect and remain outstanding in the agriculture sector, namely, agricultural distribution system, agricultural biotechnology, natural resource management and property rights reform. These chapters review related significant studies, the extent of technologies utilized and suggest further research in the agriculture and natural resources management. Resource management and sustainability, and institutional issues are the two focal points of the book.

The farmers’ and fishermen’s management practices as well as the cause and effect of natural resources degradation are given special attention. The availability of appropriate regulatory and market-based instruments crucial to agricultural sustainability is also xiii emphasized. Property rights, on the other hand, is discussed as an integral resource allocation mechanism. The first chapter on research program planning for agricultural resource management highlights the significance of including natural resource management in regional research programs to attain the sustainable use of soil and water resources.

Although numerous efforts have been undertaken on the subject, degradation still prevails. Inclusion of natural resource management in the regional research program, therefore, will help shed light in the ways resources are used by farmers. The second chapter is a literature review of the agricultural distribution services sector and research issues. It shows that a competitive agriculture sector requires not only productive farms but also an efficient distribution system. One way to attain this is to have regular analyses and thorough assessments of the competitiveness of the agricultural distribution system.

The third chapter on agricultural biotechnology details the numerous written research works that promote biotechnology’s positive effect on the agricultural sector, specifically in food security. Its application, however, emphasizes safety and reliability as well as opportunities to increase farm productivity. The fourth chapter is on property rights reform and discusses how much—or less—of the recommendations from various research works are yet to be employed in the natural and agricultural resource sector.

Despite having experienced widespread property rights reforms, the sector has not been receptive to the utilization of research findings to address sectoral issues. In conclusion, publishing this book is just one of the avenues identified by SSPN in realizing its goal of a modern and sustainable agricultural sector. Cristina C. David, Ph. D. Eliseo R. Ponce, Ph. D. Project Leaders, PIDS–BAR Project xiv I Research program planning for agricultural resource management: a background analysis by Agnes C. Rola Introduction Conventionally, agricultural resource management per se is not a popular area of research.

Previous agricultural production research studies aimed at optimizing fertilizer recommendations to maximize yields, or identifying cropping patterns that will maximize output and profits. Soil was considered a fixed input. Soil productivity was not considered an issue. Neither was water productivity. It was during the 1980s that researchers began experiments that focused on sustainable agricultural resource management. Farmer participation got a foothold with the onfarm trial programs of the farming systems research institutes in several state universities and colleges (SUCs).

These onfarm trials studied not just the productivity effects but the environmental effects of the alternative cropping systems as well. To date, however, there is no systematic way of determining the adoption of these technologies or the impact of these studies on soil and water quality. 1 This paper synthesizes and analyzes the results of studies on soil and water management conducted from the 1980s to the 1990s and provides background information for research program planning for Natural Resource Management (NRM) in agriculture.

The analyses focus on three points. First, production losses as a result of nonsustainable resource use. 1 Agricultural resources are also influenced by the wider environmental quality such as the state of the watershed health. The literature on watershed management as it affects sustainable agriculture is reviewed in Rola (2000). 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Monocropping and intensive cultivation of steep slopes are examples of these nonsustainable practices.

Second, there are available research products that could have minimized these losses; e. g. , new technologies/ knowledge on crop/resource management. Third, the evidence of continuous degradation of the agricultural resource base points to the serious constraints to adoption of these sustainable technologies/ management options. Future NRM research programs then will need to highlight activities that relax these constraints. Data were sourced from different agricultural research institutions, graduate students’ theses and technical reports (see Rola 2000 for details).

The paper is divided into five parts. The first part establishes the current state of agricultural resources in the Philippines. The second part summarizes the research efforts on soil nutrient management (onsite effects). Upland soil conservation technologies and their adoption constraints are discussed in the third section. Research has produced a number of new location-specific and cropping system-specific techniques for soil conservation. Still, the big question is, why is adoption not satisfactory? The answers to this will be reviewed in this section.

The fourth part deals with water management/technologies/ alternative delivery systems to increase water productivity and water use efficiency in agriculture. The last section lays out the discussion points that can be used for research program planning for natural resource management (NRM) in agriculture. Status of the agricultural resource base in the Philippines Soil resources The total land area of the Philippines is only 30 million hectares (ha. ), 8. 2 million ha. of which are arable and permanent croplands. About 25. 1 percent of the total area is constraint-free while the remaining 74. percent consists of areas with various kinds of problem soils. The Bureau of Soil and Water Management (BSWM) recognizes and classifies several categories of problem soils in the Philippines and their corresponding extent in Table 1. About 16 million ha. (71. 2%) of land with various forms of problem soils are further marginalized by various degrees of soil acidity. More disturbing statistics includes the current estimates of soil loss in the Philippine uplands. Land use statistics in the fragile Philippine uplands shows dominance of rice and corn over other crops (Table 2).

Estimated total soil loss for various land uses and slopes reveal that corn production in the uplands could be contributing about 90 percent of the total soil loss (Table 3). Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 Table 1. Problem soils of the Philippines (1991) Problem Soils Steep slopes Poor drainage Coarse textured soils Heavy cracking clays Severe fertility limitations Saline soils Acid sulfate soils Peat lands Mine tailings & polluted lands Source: BSWM 1991 % of Total Area 29. 7 0. 3 1. 6 2. 5 39. 2 1. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. Extent (ha) 8,900,000 91,000 360,000 766,000 12,000,000 400,000 27,000 16,000 22,000 Table 2. Land use in the Philippine uplands (hectares) Slope Category (%) Land Use Rice Corn Fallow Other Agriculture Nonagricultural (Forest) All Uses Source: Coxhead and Shively 1998 18-30 315,000 375,000 3,970,000 592,000 30+ 52,500 61,250 1,540,000 96,250 Total 367,500 436,250 5,510,000 688,250 7,900,000 14,902,000 On the other hand, the gross wetland rice soil resource base of the Philippines is estimated at 4. 2 million ha. Its gross area of highly suitable and moderately suitable lands amount to 2. million ha. Thus, some 1. 9 million ha. of rice lands are marginal and unsuitable for wetlands rice production. 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 3. Estimated total soil loss for land uses and slopes (tons/year) Slope Category (%) Land Use Rice Corn with Fallow Other Agriculture Nonagricultural (Forest) All Uses Source: Coxhead and Shively 1998 18-30 15,750,000 217,250,000 14,800,000 30+ 5,250,000 240,190,000 4,812,500 Total 21,000,000 457,340,000 19,612,500 7,900,000 505,852,500 Irrigation water resources

As documented by existing literature, the productivity of soil resource is “intimately tied up” to the status of the host watershed areas. Among others, watershed health also influences the supply of irrigation water, occurrence of floods and encroachment of salinity in marine coastal and estuarine areas. However, many of these watersheds are in varying state of degradation (PCARRD et al. 1999). The report by David (1999) cites an alarming indication of decreasing efficiency in the planning and implementation of National Irrigation Systems (NIS) and Communal Irrigation Systems (CIS).

It also reports that the area actually irrigated by these systems during the dry season is only about 75 percent of their designed serviced area. The estimate of potentially irrigable agricultural lands in the Philippines is 4. 7 million ha of which an estimated 0. 65 million ha. , 0. 44 million ha. and 0. 5 million ha. are irrigated by national, communal and minor irrigation systems, respectively (David 1999). The NIS and CIS utilize surface water. Because of watershed degradation, this resource is becoming limited. On the other hand, the country has abundant shallow groundwater resources, with an estimated 5. million ha. shallow well area. Soil degradation in lowland agriculture: The role of nutrient management The degradation story in the lowland rice systems and other crops In the early 1990s, evidence showed that the rice yields in irrigated areas leveled off and that there was a danger of future declines in the yield growth (Pingali, Moya and Velasco 1990). There also was a growing evidence that Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 unintended environmental effects from land intensification led to the decline in productivity growth.

This was illustrated by Cassman and Pingali (1995) among others, via an analysis of yield trends from long-term trials conducted at the experiment stations of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Research at IRRI also showed that the decline in nitrogen productivity was due to the reduction in the nitrogen-supplying capacity of intensively cultivated wetland soils. There was likewise an increased incidence of phosphorus and potassium deficiency brought by the lack of nutrient balance in the applied fertilizers (De Datta, Gomez and Descalsota 1988).

The imbalanced fertilization resulted in a decline in the efficiency of fertilizer use over time (Desai and Gandhi 1989; Stone 1986; Ahmed 1985). Such is the case with bananas. In 1990, a survey was conducted in several plantations in Davao del Norte to identify soil properties that influence land productivity and to establish a soil fertility management technology to achieve sustained crop productivity (Sadasa et al. 1991). The study revealed that despite the maximum use of inorganic fertilizers, yields of banana declined steadily over time after reaching a peak during the first few years.

The yield decline was associated with the alteration of the nutrient ratios—i. e. , the application of some nutrients to some and none for others. The study recommended that nutrient ratios be carefully managed to sustain soil productivity even after long years of continuous cropping. These limited data show that intensive and continuous cultivation using pure inorganic fertilizers for longer periods is not sustainable in the long run. Technological options for improving soil quality Because inorganic fertilizer use practiced in intensive agriculture is not sustainable, technological options are needed.

In the existing literature, there are at least three techniques for improving soil quality, and hence, improving/sustaining soil productivity. These are: (1) the use of organic fertilizer; (2) the integrated nutrient management or the combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers; and (3) diversified farming. These are described in Table 4. Use of organic fertilizer Green manure was thought to have an advantage over other organic manures because the latter can be grown right in the field and incorporated during regular land preparation or weeding operations.

However, this never 6 Table 4. Technology options for soil management Options 1. Organic fertilizer 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description This consists of organic manures from living organisms such as azolla and green manure; and decayed organisms including animal manure and compost. Recommendation for a 50% inorganic and 50% organic fertilizers. This was disseminated in a national program on rapid composting.

This involved coming up with location-specific recommendations, where both the micronutrients and macronutrients were taken into account. This made use of the previously packaged diagnostics such as the soil test kit and the chlorometer at IRRI. This recommends to gor for diverse crops rather than monocrop that intensely uses inorganic fertilizer. 2. Integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers Balanced fertilization 3. Diversified cropping became popular due to several constraints (Table 5). The most serious constraint is the labor intensity of the process.

With increasing commercialization of agriculture and higher wages, this constraint poses great limitation. There is sufficient evidence in the literature concerning the benefits in terms of grain yield increases from green manure. However, little is known about its long-term effects. The paper by Ventura and Ladha (1996) reports that the long-term biofertilizer experiment at IRRI showed an increase in the total nitrogen in soil after 10 years of green manuring. There is no such benefit from the urea fertilization.

It is suggested that long-term field experiments be conducted to provide a better understanding of the nutrient constraints and management problems of soil. Integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers for nutrient management Integrated use of organic manures and mineral fertilizers has been found to be promising in maintaining stability in crop production on certain soils. Studies however show that while organic fertilizers improved soil fertility, it alone cannot sustain the high yield during the later years of production. An integrated fertilizer management is found to be more sustainable.

Agnes C. Rola Table 5. Potential of nitrogen-fixing green manure as multipurpose crop in an integrated farming system Green Manure Azolla N2 Fixing Potential High 45-120 kg/ha. in 45 days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 Actual Adoption by Potential to Farmers Overcome Constraints Low Technological and socio-economic constraints (inoculum, labor, water, pests) restrict adoption Low Socio-economic constraints (seed, labor, opportunity costs) restrict adoption) Medium Fast growth; can be used also as animal feed (poultry, hog, fish)

Semi-aquatic legumes (Sesbania Aeschynomene) High 45-120 kg N/ha. in 60 d Medium to High With wide range of suitable species; can be grown under a wide range of soil and moisture conditions and used as feeds for ruminants (or the stem can be used as firewood) Medium to High Resistant to drought; adopted in the Ilocos provinces as a green manure; commonly intercropped with annual upland crops Medium to High Low cultural management requirement; leaves used also as feeds for ruminants, sterm as firewood; serves as windbreak and catch crop for excess NO3

Indigo High 60 to 250 kg N/ha. in 60 d Low Usage in the Philippines is limited in the Ilocos region. Socio-economic constraints (seed, labor) Low Technological and socioeconomic constraints (pests, competes with main crop for light, water and nutrients, labor, opportunity costs). Leguminous trees (Gliricidia, Leucaena) High 40 to 120 kg N/ha. per pruning Source: Ventura and Ladha 1996 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The rice farm sector was first introduced to the Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) through the program using the Compost Fungus Activator (CFA). This recommended a combined use of one-half organic and one-half dose of inorganic fertilizer (Cuevas 1989). This technology improved crop yields by as much as 20 percent. Labor input cost in compost preparation and field application was expected to be offset by the gains in yield increase. Later studies show that this is true only if wages in the community are low and nonfarm incomes are not available (Rola et al. 996). One downside of this program was that the recommendation was generalized for the whole country. Aside from other administrative setbacks of the rice program (i. e. , delay in supply of the compost, inadequate knowledge of both the technicians and the farmers on the use of compost), this technology did not quite prosper due to technical constraints. Only users who have a priori knowledge of the soil characteristics were able to capture the benefits (in terms of lower inorganic fertilizer use and stable yields) of this program.

A natural sequel to the blanket recommendation on the rapid compost is the balanced fertilization program launched in 1998. Balanced fertilization is defined as the optimum use of organic and inorganic fertilizers with the proper grades and amounts that supply the correct ratio of plant nutrients and ensure soils will sustain high crop yields over long cropping season. The Gintong Ani Balanced Fertilization Program was the central strategy for sustainable agricultural development. For this purpose, the BSWM classified the various soils devoted to rice and corn into five soil fertilizer groups.

In the balanced fertilization, the recommendations were location- and season- specific as well as dynamic. That is, the recommended mix of fertilizer this year is different from that for next year and the year thereafter. This technology is very knowledge intensive. Farmers need to know the base nutrient content of their soil, what amounts of organic and inorganic fertilizers have been applied and the crop grown in the current year. Thereafter, a corresponding adjustment in the proportion of organic and inorganic fertilizer will be applied the following year.

Several research studies had backed up the balanced fertilization program. One is the characterization of the soil at the local level to get local recommendations. The others would be the use of the diagnostics such as the soil test kit and the leaf color chart. Agnes C. Rola 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Diversified cropping: the role of farming systems research The farming systems research of the 1980s was meant to develop technologies that would increase small farmer incomes while promoting environmental sustainability.

In the early period of this paradigm, the research activities focused on developing through onfarm research, cropping patterns that will increase farm incomes. It was only of late that data to support the sustainability of the resource base corresponding to the introduced cropping systems were generated. Hence, the merit of soil amelioration from diversified cropping vis-a-vis the monocrop was the highlight of some of these trials. Studies such as that of Oren in Iloilo (1992) had the kakawati as part of the cropping system and was a potential source of compost.

Farming systems research had several stages: technology development, verification, adaptation and dissemination. With the current trend of participatory research, these stages may be modified, where one starts with the farmer technology and build components from there. This is in contrast to the previous method where farmers’ indigenous practice was one of the technologies verified and pitted against the researchers’ technology. Farming systems research was primarily done in resource-poor environments. Hence, the upland systems were a popular subject of research.

Water scarce areas in the lowland were likewise given some attention. For instance, to find a way to go around the water scarcity in the lowland’s irrigated areas as well as to minimize the intensive and continuous rice cultivation, the adaptability of traditionally upland crops was studied in the lowland areas at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos (UPLB) and in Bulacan. Results showed that all the upland crops evaluated in this study can be grown after lowland rice under UPLB condition, while mungbean did not perform well in Bulacan (Labios et al. 1995).

Yield performance differed for each crop and the combined use of bio-organic and inorganic fertilizers gave yields comparable to that of the inorganic fertilizer use only. Nutrient management in the highly acid upland soil was also studied via farming systems research. Other experiments in other soil types also indicate that time is a good neutralizer (Taburada 1994). Between relay cropping and monocropping systems, it was found that relay cropping is somehow environmentally and, in most cases, economically better than the monoculture scheme. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Constraints to adoption of soil management technologies Constraints to adoption of sustainable soil management technologies can be grouped into the following: technical, socioeconomic and institutional constraints. Technical constraints Meeting the nutrient needs of modern short-duration, high yielding crops by introducing organic manures alone poses several problems such as low organic contents of organic materials, and slow and irregular release of nutrients from manures.

This thus makes target fertilization impossible, among others (Schoning and Wickman 1990). Socioeconomic constraints Growing green manure means competing for land and water. Also, green manuring has not gained general acceptance for several reasons: (1) it gives no immediate income; (2) it has not fit into the farmer’s traditional mixed cropping systems; and (3) it requires labor that farmers consider unnecessary. The low demand for commercialized organic fertilizers may be because farmers do not understand how to use this.

Also, long-term effects are of course not immediately visible to the farmer, who always tends to have shortterm production plans. Diversified cropping system is dependent on output prices, and prices are dependent on policies and other government incentives. Institutional constraints It has to be recognized that sustainable technologies are knowledge intensive, long-term in benefits and very location specific. In this sense, a major institutional restructuring is needed to meet the aim of promoting such technologies.

The role of extension and the kind of extension strategies consistent with the nature of those technologies have to be investigated. Participatory approaches are warranted because one needs to know farmers’ level of awareness with respect to sustainability and resource management. Commercialization of products such as biofertilizer failed to take off, again due to severe institutional constraints. Among the business requirements that private marketing agents need to comply with are: a patent, a permit from the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority, and a mechanism for quality assurance of the product.

Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 Imperatives for soil conservation in the uplands Does upland agriculture create an environmental problem? Because of population pressure, agriculture now encroaches on unfavorable upland suited only for forestry or perennial crops. The question here is whether and to what extent upland agriculture creates an environmental problem. If this were so, what would be the solutions for a more sustainable agriculture in the uplands?

A recent investigation in the highlands of Lantapan, Bukidnon showed that expansion of sugar and corn cultivation at low altitudes, and of vegetables and corn at high altitudes, has occurred substantially at the expense of perennial crops, whether pasture/grassland, forest/bush fallow or coffee (Coxhead and Rola 1998). Field measurements and experiments with corn and vegetable crop cultivation under a range of management regimes in Lantapan confirm the existence of rapid soil erosion rates and depletion rates of soil nutrient and organic matter content in soils that are generally of poor initial quality (Midmore et al. 997). The unchecked expansion of agricultural production at the margins of the remaining forest systems poses a potential threat to the integrity of such systems. One of the consequences is the reduction in water retention capacity of the upper watershed, which thus changes the quantity and seasonal distribution of water flow in the springs and rivers (Deutsch et al. 1998). Another is the possible irreversible change in biodiversity. Other studies also showed severe land degradation as a result of upland farming (Navasero 1993) such as that shown in Lucban, Quezon.

A number of studies investigated the onsite and offsite effects of upland agriculture. These studies also show the same results. Understanding the policies and technologies plays a key role in countering environmental degradation. Most of the solutions center on the usefulness of soil conservation measures such as agroforestry and diversified cropping systems. Policy options, however, are not popular solutions to upland degradation. Technology options for upland soil conservation Contours and hedgerows In the Philippines and Southeast Asia, in general, hedgerow or alley cropping is the most popular form of soil conservation technology.

This technology is, however, indigenous in some parts of Asia. Farmers in Cebu, Philippines have used indigenously a contour hedgerow system of Leucaena leucocephala to cultivate steep slopes even before 1923, according to the research of Francisco (1998). 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Planting hedgerows of leguminous tree species along the contour of sloping fields was deemed to be a promising technology. This technology provides a vegetative barrier to soil erosion while contributing green leaf manure to the cereal crops (rice or corn) grown in the alleys.

By the early 1980s, hedgerow intercropping was advocated widely as a technology to better sustain permanent cereal cropping even with minimal or no fertilizer input (Garrity 1993). Agroforestry and diversified cropping in the uplands Like contour hedgerows, agroforestry is also an indigenous technology in the uplands. The study of the indigenous systems of the Hanunuo Mangyans revealed that they maintain three agroforestry systems: swidden/kaingin, multi-storey farming and home gardens (Gascon 1998). Swidden farms were cropped with rice or corn; multistorey farms, with cash crops such as bananas and mangoes.

The basic need is produced in the kaingin farms, which were found to be nonsustainable because farmers tend to cut more forest land for swidden farming. The best recommendation to discourage opening up of more areas for swidden farming is to give more security of tenure to forest occupants. The sloping agricultural land technology is another agroforestry scheme. In Laguna, this was studied in a modified form (from the one developed by the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center) (Calanog 1990). However, the recorded rate of adoption is also low (Garrity 1993).

An agroforestry farm assessment (AFA) was designed by Lasco and colleagues to assess the positive and negative impacts of any introduced agroforestry technology. This provides a continuous feedback mechanism for immediate technology refinement and improvement. Farmers and upland extension workers can use this. There are four defined criteria in this assessment: productivity, security, sustainability and adaptability. However, this has to be tested for practical use. There was no mention of how the sustainability criteria will be observed in the short term.

In a similar manner, Lawas and his colleagues also recommended the use of agroforestry land capability mapping schemes (ALCAMS) to plan agroforestry programs. This answers two key questions: adaptability of the given site to or better use for agroforestry; and appropriate systems, practices and components of the area. No application of this or the AFA is reported in literature. Other upland soil conservation measures Most studies conducted under the orchestration of the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) during the 1990s focused on the management

Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 of soils and upland rice crop. The projects included an examination of indigenous materials to be used as fertilizer, the timing of fertilizer applications that will maximize yields, the timing of planting to minimize the harsh effects of the different mulch media and tillage practices for upland rice. Different rates of rice straw compost and guano as supplementary fertilizer to upland rice were also studied.

Here, the exact or appropriate amount of supplemental fertilizer to be used was not established. All these studies are location specific. Almost all showed that the economic returns of the introduced practices are very high (probably because the family labor is not imputed as cost). Adoption studies were not available for these technologies. Policy options for upland soil conservation Policy options for soil conservation in the uplands have not been a popular area of study because of the common perception that technologies are the better option for subsistence upland farmers.

There is an intricate story behind why there is a need to look at policy options for soil conservation. Coxhead and Rola (1998) argue that prices outside the watershed influence both land use and soil conservation decisions of upland farmers. This assumes that planting of perennial crops is also a soil conservation measure. It is likewise argued that nonfarm incomes affect upland farmers labor use and hence, technology choices. Commodity and input prices, and other economic instruments are affected by economy-wide shocks, both at the global and local levels.

It is important to understand that intersectoral linkages can significantly influence environmental degradation caused by upland agriculture. Policies to promote soil conservation measures at the community level (i. e. through incentives or subsidies) may make economic sense. This is because the benefits derived will not only accrue to the individual farmers but to the community at large. There are instances where it had been difficult for individual farmers pay for soil conservation Technology (Francisco 1998). The appropriate subsidies and incentives are, however, still an issue that needs further research.

Factors influencing adoption of upland soil conservation practices Early on, one of the identified reasons for the low adoption of perennial crops was the lack of security of tenant tenure. This could occur in areas where a lot of migrants come to use the lands. Native residents have to also be taught of more sustainable technologies to keep them away from the kaingin system of farming. Government, thus, has put in place such programs 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 s the stewardship contract certificate where tillers in government lands of more than 18 percent slope have a long-term contract to till. Other programs, such as those on reforestation and agroforestry, encourage farmers to go back to perennial crops. Accessibility to markets also increases farmers’ incomes and help sustain their means of livelihood with agroforestry systems. Note that high discount rates and unsecured land tenure are the ones that reduced farmers’ value over sustained economic returns from hedgerow intercropping (Garcia et al. 1996).

The literature likewise cite the following as factors affecting adoption of soil conservation practices in the uplands (Villanueva et al. 1993): (1) Farmers’ perception of the extent of the soil erosion problem; (2) Family income, liquidity position and debt-asset ratio; and (3) farm size, land tenure, age of farmer, land productivity and slope of the land. Water and agriculture If water supply for agriculture is at all declining, what are the alternatives? What needs to be done in the water stressed agricultural areas in the lowlands? What are more efficient types of water delivery systems?

The review in this section will focus on the productivity of water, the available alternative water technologies and the constraints in the efficient delivery of water to the farmlands. Water productivity A recent investigation about irrigated rice farming in Iloilo showed that water was a major constraint to higher productivity. Water was the most significant source of yield loss and measured to be about 50 percent in one particular season (Rola et al. 1998). Such unavailability of water and incorrect water timing are due to the degraded watersheds and the poor maintenance of the CIS in the area.

This case study shows that any efforts to maintain and sustain lowland agriculture must take into account the source of water. There is a need to come up with alternative water sources and water delivery technologies that will lead to an efficient and more productive water input. The issue on water productivity was addressed in the paper of Guerra et al. (1998), where the authors reviewed the literature on irrigation efficiency and the potential for increasing water productivity in rice-based systems.

They argued that there is a need to measure the productivity of water at the farm, system and the basin levels, and to understand how the productivity at one level relates to the productivity at another. Information from these water balance studies can be used to identify the potential Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 economic benefits of alternative interventions and the most appropriate strategies for increasing water productivity in rice-based systems. Water technologies Table 6 summarizes the different technologies for water delivery in agriculture.

Experimental studies at the Philippine Rice Research Institute (Philrice) showed that intermittent irrigation can save about 40 percent of water without sacrificing yield in the dry season (De Dios et al. 1998). The results of the drip irrigation trials for cotton production as reported by Ganotisi et al. (1998) showed that drip irrigation was more economical than the conventional furrow irrigation methods. However, drip irrigation is quite expensive for small farmers, but affordable to medium- and largescale farmers as noted in a study in Cavite (Lamanilao 1990).

Worth mentioning are the farmer friendly indicators for drip and furrow irrigation scheduling in tomato that were studied by Tanguilig et al (1996). The leaf of the upland rice was used as an indicator and compared with other indicators. Irrigation was done whenever the upland rice’s leaves rolled slightly. Water application was stopped when the leaves of the indicator became fully unrolled. Using this indicator, irrigation frequency was reduced by 67 percent (in drip) and 60 percent (in furrow) when compared to the control.

Results of a study on the trickle irrigation system using a twin-wall emitter tubing showed that its seed cotton yielded 25 percent higher than that via the conventional irrigation method (Cruz and Agulto 1996). At the same time, 30 percent of water can also be saved. Furthermore, Baradas and Mina (1998) argued that natural rainwater management is a very efficient and cheap precursor, complement or even alternative in some cases, to the irrigation of currently rainfed areas. Floods and droughts are nature’s solutions to low food production.

To use this phenomenon to farmers’ advantage meant a thorough knowledge of weather trends and management of the water resource. In practice, these concepts boil down to sunshine harvesting, rainfall harvesting, and integrated flood, soil sediment and drought control. Onfarm reservoir (OFRs) technology is found more favorable for areas that have mild slopes to support gravity distribution of the stored water and where water loss by seepage and percolation is low. The economic analysis, assuming a 15-year life span of the reservoirs with a three-year maintenance schedule, shows a high benefit-cost ratio of 5. , or an internal rate of return of 177 percent. This was found to be viable in parts of Central Luzon (Moya 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 6. Available water technologies in the Philippines (1999) Technology Intermittent irrigation Description Used in rice, this consists of applying 5 cm. water every 14 days from 10 to 80 days after transplanting. This method provides water most efficiently by applying it at the right rate and practically only to the plant root area. This uses a twin-wall emitter tubing.

A weather-based decisionmaking for water management and crop production, this involves developing localized cropping patterns based on climatological probabilities of the occurrence of significant weather. Stores water for intermittent production. Socioeconomic and technical constraints impeded farmer adoption. These are equipped with centrifugal pumps that are driven by single cylinder diesel engines. Optimal placement of rice in the fields can sustain continuous water supply. This is popular in most areas of the country. Practical surface drainage method that is used to reduce interlogging through a simple ridging technology.

Just like shallow tubewell principle, but needs electricity. This is only feasible if electric lines are near the fields. Production is in a soil-less and waterless medium. Drip irrigation Designed trickle irrigation system Rainwater management Onfarm Reservoir Shallow tubewells for irrigation Drainage technology Small electric pumps Hydrophonics Note: For more information of constraints and advantages of some of these technologies, refer to David (1999) Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 et al. 998). The technology was also found to be indigenous in origin. An OFR optimization model (FROM) was later developed (Galang and Bhuiyan 1994; 1995) with the objective of maximizing returns from the use of the OFRs. However, the researchers found some difficulty with this method at the level of the extension agents. A nomograph2 was then developed, which allowed some practical use for the model. This nomograph was expected to help farmers as well as extension staff decide on the crops to plant and the area to cultivate for particular crops to maximize profits.

It is not known whether this tool was actually used by farmers or by extension agents. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) method was recommended in identifying the ideal location for OFRs (Galang et al. 1994). The spatial analysis systems (SPANS) were used but only at the macro level. Micro level surveys are still needed to determine whether OFRs should be developed in a given area and where they should be located. A 1994 evaluation of the OFR showed that additional benefits included being able to grow dry season rice crop and fish in the reservoirs.

On the other hand, some of farmers’ main complaints were insufficient capacity, high water loss and locations that required pumping (Fujisaka et al. 1994). Small farmer reservoir (SFR) is an upstream defense against soil erosion and flooding of the low lying areas. Undan et al. ‘s paper (1994) focused on the pilot SFRs set up in 10 towns of six provinces in Central Luzon. Since the SFR technology promotion efforts started in 1990, some 572 SFRs have already been established in 42 barangays within the 12 towns of the six provinces. It is not known at this time whether this system became sustainable.

The shallow groundwater potential for irrigation was studied by Sibayan and Undan (1994). In this technology, farmers either dig wells or drive 4-inch GI pipes into the ground to draw water from shallow wells. Results revealed that the individual pump systems have service areas ranging from 1. 3 ha. to 2 ha. for the nonrice crop and can increase to 1. 9 ha. to 3. 2 ha. for maximum pump efficiency. Small electric pumps were also introduced to Philippine farmers (Rotor et al. 1993). These were deemed to be a promising technology only if there are electric lines near the rice fields.

Based on the Iloilo data, the total costs of the supplemental irrigation 2 This is a chart representing numerical relationships. 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 from the electric pump is P1,406 or 564 kg/ha (Resurreccion and Salazar 1991). Spiral pumps were likewise designed as nonconventional means to harness available water (Naegell et al. 1990). One of the latest technologies for water as well as soil management is the hydrophonics (Dorado and Balimbing 1999).

This is production in a soil-less medium and will produce higher quality products free of pesticides and other chemicals. This is a very promising technology although it needs an ex-ante economic analysis. Constraints to effective water delivery and efficient water use Why is there a decline in the system performance of the irrigation structure? The possible reasons are two-fold: (1) the deterioration of the quality/ quantity of the irrigation water; and (2) the management of the system. When it comes to management of public irrigation systems, the poor performance of many governments is well documented (Easter 1993).

In this study, Easter (1993) uses a model that includes internal and external assurance, commitment and fairness to explain the performance of irrigation systems in the various Asian countries. Public investments in irrigation have tapered off due to lack of funds for systems operations and maintenance (Marciano et al. 1997). The resulting deterioration in the condition of some systems encouraged investments in privately owned irrigation facilities instead. The economics of the private system as analyzed by Gascon and Hossain (1995) showed that pump-irrigated farms improved land productivity and profitability.

This is due to the reliable and efficient water source. The irrigators’ association has an important role in increasing efficiency in water use. Llandelar (1995) showed that irrigators’ association can bring about more services (and better quality). Oliva (1995) also notes that the NIA’s support to the agrarian reform beneficiaries significantly affected the extent of the irrigation project in Legaspi, Albay. Nonetheless, a number of questions continue to plague the water delivery system. For instance, what has been the impact of the NIA policy to turn over the irrigation management to farmers’ coops?

What are the changes made in the NIA? What extent have farmers taken over the management of the irrigation and how did they perform? What are the productivity effects (Wijayaratne and Vermillion 1994)? What are the indicators for evaluating whether the farmer-managed system works? An earlier study in Iloilo by Alicante (1991) showed that irrigation systems that were economically and socially sustainable were those with larger farms and involving mostly farm owners and lessees. Other factors Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 affecting conflicts and performance among communal irrigation system members are kinship and political relationship (Poudel 1990). The political relationships and kinship had a significant negative impact on members’ time for repair and maintenance, while farmer-to-farmer reciprocal relationship and agricultural incomes had positive effects. The location of the members’ farm within the service area had no significant effect on any of their performance except their participation in repair and maintenance.

A recent analysis showed that the thrust in the development of new irrigation facilities should be on small scale, private sector-led, farmercontrolled, cost effective and efficient minor irrigation technologies (David 1999), instead of the traditional NIS/CIS systems. In other Asian countries, water markets are also getting to be popular in the farming communities. Such arrangement is especially convenient in cases where farmers’ plots are far apart from each other. The farmer can sell his water from the pump to his adjoining (neighboring) farmer and buys water from whoever is near his plot (Bhandari 1999).

Part of the efficient use of water for irrigation also requires a disciplined scheme for water distribution and rotation in the service areas. During the dry months, where water level is very low, a scheme of water rationing may have to be devised (PCARRD et al. 1999). Proposed research program for NRM: focus on agricultural resource management Soil management Several research areas can be defined for sustainable soil resource management in particular, and NRM in general. These are: 1. The characteristics of the soil and the dynamics of such features as a result of the farmer’s cropping patterns.

In the case of problem soils both in the upland and lowlands, studies may focus on whether subsidizing the treatment to bring the soil back to its fertile state may make economic sense. In such a case, the soil can also be treated as a common property resources. What is the economics of giving the information on sustainable soil management technologies to the community as a whole rather than expecting individual farmers to be optimal managers of the resource? What is the cost of agricultural sustainability? Who is going to shoulder this cost? Is it fair for farmers to bear this burden alone?

What policies can be formulated to share this cost to consumers and other beneficiaries? 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2. 3. 4. 5. The development of management information as the most important input in sustainable agriculture. How do farmers handle this information? How can government upgrade farmers’ management skills so the latter can perform better for sustainable agriculture? There is also a need to unravel the processes farmers decide in agricultural resource management.

What are farmers’ knowledge bases? What other information can increase that knowledge base for sustainable resource management? How can this knowledge-intensive technologies be extended? How do researchers scan farmer knowledge and determine the base by which intervention would be useful? One can also study farmers’ responsiveness to diagnostic kits as aids/tools in his soil management decisions. What are the roles of government laboratories as decision support to farmers? How can impact be measured in terms of improvement in soil quality?

Long-term farming systems research on the impact of alternative cropping patterns and soil management technologies on the resource base, and on farmer incomes. The Regional Integrated Agricultural Research Council (RIARC) can do this, but only on a long-term basis. The choice of crops and technologies should be attuned to the market demand in the area, and the feasibility and social acceptability of the technologies. Along this line, ex-ante technology assessment can use the data from these experiment stations. The commercialization of biofertilizers. What are the merits of biofertilizers’ use?

What would be the economics of purely subsidizing the use of biofertilizers? What would be the economics of having a package of fertilizers that contain both the organic and inorganic elements? Why does the private sector not respond to the knowledge that a combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer is more sustainable across all crops studied, and thus package the combination of such? What is the role of the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA) in the use and commercialization of biofertilizers? Sustainable soil management technologies in the context of the broader economic development objectives.

How does the country reconcile labor-intensive sustainable agricultural technologies and the Agnes C. Rola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 6. growing scarcity of labor in agriculture as a result of increases in nonfarm income opportunities? This condition is to be expected as the country shifts to a higher level of economic development. Contribution of the resource base, that is, soil productivity, in future productivity growth analyses. This area requires an interdisciplinary work between soil and social scientists in assessing soil productivity in the different production environments.

Water management The issue in water management is also about water productivity. This is, however, a function of water quantity, quality and water delivery efficiency. Agricultural decisionmakers should take active part in the management of the watershed as a significant source of surface water for irrigation. The shallow groundwater should be guarded from the environmental pollutants that could affect its utility in agriculture. The current debate by experts on the optimal combination of two sources of irrigation water, i. e. surface water and groundwater, should also be taken into consideration.

Finally, the most efficient mode of delivery should be studied. Research areas for water management in agriculture could fall under any of the following: 1. Good watershed management as a prerequisite for a sustainable source of irrigation water. How can the Department of Agriculture help in preventing future degradation of this water resource? What is the economics of water use in agriculture when compared to other competing uses? How can the roles of institutions and policies in the sustainable management of watersheds be highlighted? What are local initiatives for watershed evelopment and management? 2. Water quality and its use in agriculture. What are the causes of the water pollution? How can these be minimized? What are the impacts of polluted water on productivity? 3. Alternative delivery of water. Use of small water pumps and other private initiatives are getting popular. Water markets are developing in other countries. This is to make the most efficient use of water in particular locations. What are incentives for efficient water market to work? Public sector research on the optimal distancing, coverage and timing of water extraction is also needed.

The design development of irrigation machines may be left with the private 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Special Issues in Agriculture 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4. sector. However, institutional support in terms of credit for small farmers and subsidies in gasoline/diesel fuel has to be studied. The merits of the use and promotion of more knowledge-intensive water management (i. e. , rainwater harvesting) technologies. Optimal timing of irrigation in crops, use of diagnostics for the right timing of irrigation, farmers’ indicator of timing of water use, etc. ave been studied but n

Cite this Special Issues in Agriculture in the Philippines

Special Issues in Agriculture in the Philippines. (2018, Jan 25). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/special-issues-in-agriculture-in-the-philippines/

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