Human Resource Management Staffing the Organization Bryant Cozart University of Maryland University College Table of Contents Human Resource Management3 Staffing3 Job Analysis3 Questionnaires4 Interviews4 Observation4 Diary/Log5 Recruitment5 Internal Recruiting6 External Recruiting7 Web-based Recruiting8 Selection8 Interviewing9 Human Resource Management Staffing the Organization Human Resource Management is designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals (Mathis & Jackson, 2008).
To that end, Human Resource Management activities include strategic human resource management, equal employment opportunity, staffing, talent management, total rewards, risk management and worker protection, employee and labor relations. This paper will discuss human resource management staffing activities as it relates to job analysis, recruiting, and selection. External environmental factors such as political, social, legal, economic, and technological requirement affect staffing within organizations. The aim of staffing is to provide a sufficient supply of qualified individuals to ill jobs in an organization (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). Human resource managers determine job requirements by conducting job analysis and then formulating plans to fill these positions. Organizations need to have the right person, with the right capabilities, at the right time, and in the right place to accomplish its organizational mission. Job analysis is the first step in this process. It involves a systematic review of the organization’s requirement for human capital. Job analysis refers to the process of collecting and analyzing information about the tasks, responsibilities, and the content of jobs (Marchington & Wilkinson, 2005).
Human resource managers use varying methods to conduct job analysis. Some of the methods are questionnaires, interviews, observation, and logs or diaries. Questionnaires are a widely used method of gathering information on jobs. The questionnaire method offers a major advantage in that information on a large number of jobs can be collected inexpensively in a relatively short period of time (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). Normally a questionnaire will cover the duties and percentage of time spent on each, supervision that is given to others, any decisions that were made.
Questionnaires will also cover what you have with other people, any physical demands related to the job, and the knowledge, skills, and abilities associated with the position. There are drawbacks with using the questionnaire method. It assumes that an employee can accurately analyze and communicate information about their job. Interviewing is the next method used when conducting a job analysis. The interview method of gathering information may require a manager to visit each job site and talk with the employees performing each job (Mathis & Jackson, 2008).
The advantage of this method is that it allows the employee to describe tasks and duties that are not observable. A disadvantage of this method is that an employee may exaggerate or omit some tasks and duties. With the observation method, an employee performing their jobs enables the trained job analyst to obtain first-hand knowledge and information about the job being analyzed. The observation method of job analysis is suited for jobs in which the work behaviors are 1) observable involving some degree of movement on the part of the incumbent, or 2) job tasks are short in duration allowing for many observations to be made in a hort period of time or a significant part of the job can be observed in a short period of time, or 3) jobs in which the job analyst can learn information about the job through observation (personal communication, October 22, 2009). The advantage with this method is the trained manager can obtain first-hand knowledge and information about the job being analyzed. Conversely, the disadvantage of this method is that the presence of an observer may affect the employee causing them to alter their normal work behavior. The last method of conducting a job analysis is keeping a diary or log.
To determine the validity of this method, employees must keep a comprehensive record of their activities. This method sometimes generates useful information, but can be burdensome for employees. No matter what method is used to conduct a job analysis, its primary purpose is to capture a clear understanding of what is done on a job and what capabilities are needed to do it as designed (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). The next area of discussion of human resource management staffing is recruitment. Recruitment is the process of attracting people who might make a contribution to the organization.
It is often stimulated when an existing employee leaves an organization or when the organization is expanding. So recruiting can be defined as the process of generating a pool of qualified applicants for organizational jobs (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). It is important that human resource managers understand labor markets. Labor markets are the external supply pool from which employers attract employees. Within the labor market, the labor force population and applicant population are derived. The labor force population is made up of all the individuals that may be reached using different recruiting methods.
Recruiting methods include newspaper ads, jobs boards, college job fairs, and word of mouth. Each of these methods will reach a different segment of the labor force population. Applicant population is a subset of the labor force population that is available for selection using a particular recruiting approach (Mathis & Jackson, 2008). How the applicant pool is reached is predicated on the knowledge about a position within an organization. The applicant population is affected by recruiting method, recruiting message, applicant qualification, and administrative procedures. From the applicant population we get the applicant pool.
Persons in the applicant pool have been evaluated for selection by human resource managers. According to Mathis & Jackson (2008), many factors affect the size of the applicant pool, including the reputation of the organization and industry as a place to work, the screening efforts of the organization, the job specifications, and the information available. When an organization is attempting for fill vacant positions they have an option to use internal, external or web-based recruiting sources. Recruiting strategy will dictate where to recruit, whom to recruit, and method of recruiting.
When employers recruit candidates by searching organizational databases, job postings, promotions and transfers, current-employee referrals, and re-recruiting of former employees and applicants, they are conducting internal recruiting. This method has numerous advantages and disadvantages. Some advantages of this method are the morale of the employee that is promoted is usually high, the firm can better assess a candidate’s ability, recruiting cost are lower for some jobs, the process is a motivator for good performance, and the process causes a succession of promotions to name a few.
There are disadvantages with this method also. Inbreeding can result. Individuals not promoted may experience morale problems. Employees may engage in political infighting for promotions, and management may have to develop a development program. One note to make here is that employers routinely attempt to fill vacancies from internal sources before seeking external applicants. Because internal methods are often not sufficient to supply a suitable pool of applicants, most organizations will use external recruitment methods to attract potential employees.
Examples of external recruiting sources include college and university, high school or vocational school, labor unions, employment agencies and headhunters, job fairs and special events. Just like internal recruiting methods, external recruiting methods have their advantages and disadvantages also. The advantages of external recruiting can be looked at as; new blood in the organization brings new perspectives; training new hires is cheaper and faster because of prior external experience; the new hire has no group of “political supporters” in the organization; the new hire may bring new industry insights.
Conversely, the firm may not select someone who will fit the job or the organization, the process may cause morale problems for internal candidates not selected, and the new employee may require a longer adjustment or orientation time. Characteristics of the job and organization, how the recruiting is conducted, and whether the applicant sees a fit are important elements in successfully recruiting external candidates according to recent research (Cooper, 2003). Many organizations are now using the internet as their primary means to search for job candidates.
Employers use internet job boards, such as Monster, CareerBuilder, Yahoo, and Hot-jobs to post jobs or search for candidates. Other internet recruiting sites include professional/career websites and employer websites. According to Mathis & Jackson (2008), there are advantages and disadvantages with internet recruiting. One primary advantage of internet recruiting is that many employers have save money using internet recruiting versus other recruiting methods such as newspaper advertising, employment agencies, and search firms.
Another is the time save by human resource personnel looking for potential prospects. Applicants can respond quickly to job posting by sending emails, rather than using “snail mail”. Three disadvantages of internet recruiting are privacy issues, applicants having limited internet access, and internet recruiting creating additional workloads for human resource personnel. Since all recruitment methods have their advantages and disadvantages, the choice of a method has to be made in relation to the particular vacancy and the type of labor market in which the job fall.
Selection and placement are the final and probably the most vital step in the staffing process. Generally speaking, selection methods include interviews, psychological testing, and assessment. Human resource personnel use different types of interviews to determine a potential applicant’s fit within the organization. These selection interviews are biographical, behavioral, competency, situational, stress, and non-directive. Each has its advantage and disadvantage. The major advantages are related to the opportunity for interaction between interviewer and interviewee.
Interviewing skills should be developed through training. Interviewers should follow best practice guidelines when conducting interviews. Interviewers should plan the interview, control the interview, and use effective questioning techniques. At times problems exist when conducting interviews. Identified problems include interviewers making snap judgments, displaying negative emphasis, being blinded by the halo effect, being biased or stereotyping, and handling cultural noise. The results of an interview should be decided by the applicant’s haracteristics, background, knowledge, and experience. It can lead to invalidity and reliability of the selection results if subjective elements are taken into account. The recruitment process aims to solicit potential candidates to be employees while the selection process purpose is to select the best suitable candidate. Recruitment and selection can be viewed as a process by which an organization tries to match the individual to the job. Human resource management is critical to an organizations survival and development.
Human capital is the most important resource. Effective and efficient human resource management can lead to higher levels of productivity, lower employee turnover, and high profitability. High profitability is linked to job satisfaction and skills development. Reference Cooper, D. , (2003). Recruitment and selection: a framework for success. Thomas Learning. Marchington, M. & Wilkingson, A. (2005). Human resource management at work. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Mathis, R. L. & Jackson, J. H. (2008). Human resource management. Mason: South-Western