Statistics Paper

Statistics Paper 1

 

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The current research is a descriptive paper which aimed to investigate the manner in which people spent their time - Statistics Paper introduction. To carry this out, 341 survey questionnaires were deployed to residents of Maryland. The demographic profile questions included the following: gender, age, and level of education. Some psychographic characteristics were also inquired about, including registration for voting and political affiliation, number of children aged 18 who reside at home, number of years employed in current job, and change in careers within the last five years.

 

The next set of questions asked about how the respondents have spent their time, encompassing the following: cumber of hours spent watching television in a week, number of books read for pleasure, cumber of hours of exercise in a week, number of hours spent surfing the net in a week, number of hours of work spent in a week, number of hours spent on cell phone in a week, number of hours spent on hobbies in a week, movies seen in theaters in a year, vacations taken in the last two years, hours spent watching the news and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

 

The respondents of the study were selected using random sampling. The questionnaires were distributed and collated within a 2-week duration. Data were then tabulated and statistically analyzed by computing for descriptive statistics. These outcmes are presented in the succeeding portions of the paper.

 

Sources of error may included non-representativeness of the sample, because samples were selected randomly. It would have been better and more valid if the samples of the study were chosen through stratified random sampling. In addition, one other source of error may be the tendency of some respondents to answer in a socially desirable manner. There are also survey questionnaires which were not returned which may intoduce some bias into the results analyzed.

 

Table 1. Frequency and percentage distribution: Gender.

Gender
Frequency
Percentage
Male
124
36.36%
Female
216
63.34%
Non-response
1
0.29%
Total
341
100.00%

Table 1 shows that majority of the respondents are female, accounting for 68.34% of the sample (f=216), while the remainder represents male respondents at 36.36% (f=124).

 

 

 

Table 2. Frequency and percentage distribution: Age.

Age
Frequency
Percentage
Below 20
42
12.32%
21-30
167
48.97%
31-40
72
21.11%
41-50
37
10.85%
51-60
16
4.69%
61-70
4
1.17%
71-80
2
0.59%
81-90
1
0.29%
Total
341
100.00%
Table 2 shows that most of the respondents are between 21-30 years old at 48.97% (f=167); 21.11% (f=72) are between 31 to 40 years old; 12.32% (f=42) are below 20 years old; 10.85% (f=37) belong to the 41-50 years old age category; 4.69% (f=16) are between 51-60 years old; 1.17% (f=4) belong to the 61-70 years old category; .59% (f=2) fall in the 71-80 years old group; and .29% (f=1) represents the 81-90 years old bracket. These statistics suggest that almost 70% of the sample is composed of respondents below 40 years of age.

Table 3. Frequency and percentage distribution: Level of education.

Level of Education
Frequency
Percentage
Some High School
8
2.35%
High School Diploma or GED
45
13.20%
Some College
102
29.91%
Certificate or Associate’s Degree
34
9.97%
Bachelor’s or Master’s Degree
148
43.40%
PhD, MD or equivalent
4
1.17%
Total
341
100.00%
For the respondents’ level of education, Table 3 presents that majority of the respondents at 43.40% (f=148) have Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees; 29.91% (f=102) have had some college; 13.20% (f=45) have attained a high school diploma or GED; 9.97% (f=34) hold a certificate of associate’s degree; 2.35% (f=8) have some high school); and 1.17% (f=4) have a PHD or MD degree or equivalent. These outcomes imply that almost half of the sample chosen have reached college level, secured a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree.

 

 

 

Table 4. Frequency and percentage distribution: Registration for voting.

Registered to vote
Frequency
Percentage
No
87
25.51%
Yes, I am a Republican
42
12.32%
Yes, I am a Democrat
183
53.67%
Yes, I am an Independent
24
7.04%
Yes, I am registered in another party
5
1.47%
Total
341
100.00%
When asked whether of not they are registered for voting and their political affilication, majority of the respondents at 53.67% expressed that they have registered for voting and are Democrats; 25.51% (f=87) have not registered for voting; 12.32% (f=42) have registered and are Republicans; 7.04% (f=24) have registered and are Independents; and 1.47% (f=5) are registered and are affiliated with other political parties apart from those mentioned. More than half of the respondents were Democrats and were registered voters.

Table 5: Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of children aged 18 who reside at home.

# of children under 18 reside at home
Frequency
Percentage
0
189
55.43%
2
125
36.66%
3
20
5.87%
4
4
1.17%
5
2
0.59%
More
1
0.29%
Total
341
100.00%
The frequency and percentage distribution of the number of children under age 18 who reside at their home show that majority of the respondents at 55.43% (f=189) do not have children under age 18 who reside at home; 36.66% (f=125) have 2; 5.87% (f=20) have 3; 1.17% (f=4) have 4; .59% (f=2) have 5; and .29% (f=1) have more such children. These outcomes imply that more than half of the respondents did not have minors to take care of who reside in their homes.

Table 6: Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of years employed in current job.

# of years employed in current job
Frequency
Percentage
0
45
13.20%
1–5
215
63.05%
6–20
73
21.41%
21-30
6
1.76%
31-40
2
0.59%
Total
341
100.00%
For the number of years employed in their current job, majority of the respondents at 63.05% (f=215) expressed that they have stayed with their present employes for 1-5 years; 21.42% (f=73) have a tenure of 6-20 years; 13.20% (f=45) have not reached one year with their present employers; 1.76% (f=6) have a tenure of 21-30 years; and .59% (f=2) have been with their current employes for 31-40 years. Majority of the respondents have had less than 5 years of tenure with their employers.

 

 

 

 

Table 7. Frequency and percentage distribution: Change in careers within the last five years.

 

Change careers during last five years
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
136
40.00%
No
204
60.00%
Total
340
100.00%
When asked whether they have had a change in their careers within the last five years, majority of the respondents at 60.00% (f=204) expressed that they have not had such career change, while the remainder 40.00% (f=136) said that they have undergone a career change. Majority of the respondents have not had a change in career.

 

Table 8. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of hours spent watching television in a week.

Number of hours spent watching television in a week
Frequency
Percentage
0–10
192
56.30%
11–20
98
28.74%
21-30
42
12.32%
31-40
5
1.47%
41-50
3
0.88%
More
1
0.29%
Total
341
100.00%
Table 8 presents that majority of the respondents at 56.30% (f=192) watched TV for 0-10 hours; 28.74% (f=98) spent 11-20 hours on the activity; 12.32% (f=42) spent 21-30 hours; 1.47% (f=5) allotted 31-30 hours watching TV; .88% (f=3) spent 41-50 hours; and .29% (f=1) spent more than 50 hours watching TV. Nearly 80% of the respondents watch television from 0-20 hours.

Table 9. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of books read for pleasure.

Number of books read for pleasure in the last year
Frequency
Percentage
0-1
125
36.66%
2
40
11.73%
3–10
128
37.54%
11–20
27
7.92%
21-30
8
2.35%
31-40
6
1.76%
41-50
4
1.17%
More
3
0.88%
Total
341
100.00%
The next item dealt with the number of books read for pleasure, and the outcomes show that majority of the respondents at 37.54% (f=128) read 3-10 books in the last year; 36.66% (f=125) read 0-1 book; 11.73% (f=40) finished reading 2 books; 7.92% (f=27) read 11-20 books; 2.35% (f=8) finished reading 21-30 books; 1.76% (f=6) read 31-40 books; 1.17% (f=4) read 41-50 books; and .88% (f=3) finished reading more than 50 books. Majority of the respondents read between 3-10 books in a year.

 

Table 10. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of hours of exercise in a week.

Hours of exercise in a week
Frequency
Frequency
0-5
250
73.53%
6-10
71
20.88%
11-15
16
4.71%
16-20
3
0.88%
Total
340
100.00%
On the number of hours of exercise a week, Table 10 depicts that majority of the respondents at 73.53% (f=250) allot 0-5 hours for exercise on weekly basis; 20.88% (f=71) spend about 6-10 hours; 4.71% (f=16) allot 11-15 hours; while .88% (f=3) spend between 16 to 20 hours per week on this activity. More than 70% of the sample spend 0-5 hours on exercising.

 

Table 11. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of hours spent surfing the net in a week.

Hours spent  surfing the internet in a week
Frequency
Frequency
0-10
251
73.82%
11–20
63
18.53%
21-30
16
4.71%
31-40
7
2.06%
41-50
3
0.88%
Total
340
100.00%
The number of hours spent surfing on the net shows that majority of the respondents at 73.82% (f=251) spend 0-10 hours surfing on the net; 18.53% (f=63) allot 11-20 hours; 4.71% (f=16) expend 21-30 hours; 2.06% (f=7) at 31-40 hours; and .88% (f=3) allot about 41 to 50 hours on a weekly basis. More than 70% of the respondents spend from 0-10 hours on surfing.

 

Table 12. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of hours of work spent in a week.

Hours spent at work in a week
Frequency
Percentage
0-10
33
9.68%
11–20
30
8.80%
21-30
38
11.14%
31-40
147
43.11%
41-50
64
18.77%
51-60
17
4.99%
61-70
6
1.76%
71-80
3
0.88%
81- more
3
0.88%
Total
341
100.00%
On the number of hours of work spent in a week, majority of the respondents at 43.11% (f=147) spend 31-40 hours; 18.77% (f=64) allot 41-50 hours; 11.14% (f=38) spend 21-30 hours; 9.68% (f=33) spend 0-10 hours; 8.80% (f=30) spend 11-20 hours; 4.99% (f=17) allot 51-60 hours; 1.76% (f=6) expend 61-70 hours; .88% (f=3) spend 71-80 hours; and another .88% allot 81 hours or more on this activity.

 

Table 13. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of hours spent on a cell phone in a week.

Hours spent on cell phone in a week
Frequency
Percentage
15
292
85.63%
20
23
6.74%
25
4
1.17%
26 or More
22
6.45%
Total
341
100.00%
When asked about the number of hours spent on a cell phone in a week, majority of the respondents at 85.63% (f=292) said about 15 hours; 6.74% (f=23) expend 20 hours; 6.45% (f=22) spend 26 or more hours; and 1.17% (f=4) spend 25 hours on the cell phone.

Table 14. Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of hours spent on hobbies in a week.

Hours spent on hobbies in a week
Frequency
Percentage
0-10
319
93.55%
11–20
16
4.69%
21-30
4
1.17%
31-More
2
0.59%
Total
341
100.00%

Almost all of the respondents at 93.55% (f=319) said they spend from 0-10 hours on their hobbies on a weekly basis. 4.69% (f=16) spend a bit more time between 11-20 hours; 1.17% (f=4) allot 21-30 hours; and .59% (f=2) allot 31 or more hours on their hobbies.

 

 

Table 15. Frequency and percentage distribution: Movies seen in theaters in a year.

Movies seen in theaters in a year
Frequency
Percentage
0-10
289
84.75%
11–20
38
11.14%
21-30
6
1.76%
31-40
4
1.17%
41-50
1
0.29%
51 or More
3
0.88%
Total
341
100.00%
A large majority of the respondents at 84.75% (f=289) watch from 0-10 movies seen in theaters in a year; 11.14% (f=38) from 11-20 movies; 1.76% (f=6) from 21-30 movies; 1.17% (f=4) from 31-40 movies; .88% (f=3) from 51 or more movies; and .29% (f=1) from 41-50 movies.

 

Table 16. Frequency and percentage distribution: Vacations taken in the last two years.

Vacations taken in the last two years
Frequency
Percentage
0-3
263
77.13%
4-6
64
18.77%
7-9
4
1.17%
10-12
4
1.17%
12 or more
6
1.76%
Total
341
100.00%
More than 70% of the respondents (f=263) have taken 0-3 vacations within the last 2 years; 18.77% (f=64) from 4-6 vacations; 1.76% (f=6) from 12 or more; 1.17% for both categories of 7-9 and 10-12 vacations, respectively.

 

 

Table 17. Frequency and percentage distribution: Hours spent watching the news.

Hours spent watching the news
Frequency
Cumulative %
0
48
14.16%
1
162
61.95%
2
70
82.60%
3
24
89.68%
3 or More
35
100.00%
Total
339

For the number of hours spent watching news, more than half of the respondents at 61.95% have spent 0-1 hours watching the news. More than 80% spend 2 hours or less in the activity, while almost 90% spend 3 hours or less

 

Figure 17. Percentage distribution: Hours spent watching the news.

 

Table 18: Frequency and percentage distribution: Number of cigarettes smoked daily.

# of cigarettes smoke daily
Frequency
Cumulative %
0
257
75.37%
1 to 5
32
84.75%
6 to 10
24
91.79%
11 to 15
8
94.13%
16 to 20
17
99.12%
21 or more
3
100.00%
Total
341

For the number of cigarettes smoked daily, more than 75% of the respondents do not smoke. More than 80% smoke 5 sticks or less. In addition, more than 90% smoke 10 sticks or less. Almost 95% of the sample smoke 15 sticks or less. Almost all of the respondents smoked 20 sticks or less.

 

Conclusion

From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that majority of the respondents (at almost 70%) who have accomplished the survey questionnaire were female. Almost 70% of the sample were below 40 years of age, and were thus either young or middle aged. The Maryland sample were also highly educated, since it was found that almost half of the sample chosen have reached college level, secured a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree. More than half of the respondents were Democrats and were registered voters. More than half of the respondents did not have minors to take care of who reside in their homes. Majority of the respondents have had less than 5 years of tenure with their employers and have not had a change in career.

 

It may also be concluded that the respondents spend a substantial amount of time pursuing their hobbies and pastimes. For instance, nearly 80% of the respondents watch television from 0-20 hours;   majority read between 3-10 books in a year; more than 70% of the sample spend 0-5 hours on exercising; about the same percentage spend from 0-10 hours on surfing; majority of the respondents (at 43.11%) spend 31-40 hours at work; and more than 80% allot about 15 hours on their cell phone per week.  Almost all of the respondents at 93.55% said they spend from 0-10 hours on their hobbies on a weekly basis. A large majority of the respondents at 84.75% (f=289) watch from 0-10 movies seen in theaters in a year. More than 70% of the respondents (f=263) have taken 0-3 vacations within the last 2 years and more than 80% spend 2 hours or less in the activity, while almost 90% spend 3 hours or less watching the news. Finally, almost 95% of the sample smoke 15 sticks or less. Almost all of the respondents smoked 20 sticks or less.

 

At least for this sample, it may be said that the Maryland respondents strike an effective balance between their work and their family lives. There have been no indicators that suggest being overly stressed, nor of being excessively laid back.

 

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