The Bioecological Model of Human Pamela George Sociology 312 Professor: McAleer Date: 2/27/2012 The Ecological systems focus on interrelationships between humans and the environments. The environment in which a child is raised in can have a large impact on ones growth and developmental outcomes. Schools and teachers who provide a learning atmosphere. To develop intellectually, emotionally, socially, and morality includes interaction of family care, school, peer group, and community all working together to build a strong communication between them. There are four basic ystems in the The Bioecological Model of Human Development, they are the Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem. Microsystem is a pattern of activities, social roles and interpersonal relations experienced by the child in a given face-to-face setting with particular physical,social interactions with the immediate environment, the ones the child has direct contact with, such as family, peers, school or childcare environments and neighborhood. The parents may affect the child’s beliefs and behavior, but the child may also affects the behavior and beliefs of the parent. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional nfluences. These relationships and interactions in the Microsystem are the strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. Adults need to be good role models because children will observe their behavior and try to imitate it. If the adults promote positive healthy interactions it shows children an effective way to communicate in a self- confident manner. In a peer group ,children get a sense of who they are and what they can do by comparison with other. Sometimes children are unsupervised by adults, thereby gaining experience in independence. The Mesosystem is connections between the structures of the child’s
Microsystem. This refers to the relation of family and the school, or the family and the peer group . For example, if a child’s caregivers take an active role in a child’s school, such as going to parent-teacher conferences and watching their child’s soccer games, this will help ensure the child’s overall grow. In contrast, If the child’s two sets of caretakers, mother with step-father and father with stepmother, disagree how to best raise the child and give the child conflicting lesson when they see him, this will hinder the child’s growth in different channels. Another example would be children whose arents have rejected them may have difficulty developing positive relations with teachers. Where there is little linkage between home and school “in terms of values, experiences, objects, and behavioral style,” there also tends to be little academic achievement for the child (Bern 2010). The Mesosystems, provide support for activities going on in microsystems. When parents invite a child’s friends to their home, or encourage their child to join a club, team, or youth group, the socialization impact of the peer is enhanced through parental approval. The family is the closest, most intense ost durable, and influential part of the mesosystem. The influences of the family extend to all aspects of the child’s development; language, nutrition, security, health, and beliefs are all developed through the input and behavior related feedback within the family. The children that come to Headstart centers are largely a product of the family they are a part of. The teachers need to be able to deal with a great variety of family systems in understanding their children. In today’s society the family is less frequently the archetypical combination of stay- at- home mother, working father, and ibling children. Single parent families, and other non-traditional groupings are more common today than the traditional family. Another common force that has changed the family landscape in our society is divorce. Children of divorced parents often have a split family life.
Divorce is an excellent example of interaction between systems. The divorce arrangement can have a profound effect on the family and the development of the child. In turn, the divorced family affects the community and society because by the proliferation of divorce social attitudes change and the social perception of family is odified. The school is also affected by the changes in a divorced family. Society and the culture of both the family and the neighborhood have influence on the child’s perception of the family’s place in the community. The family can affect the community through it’s needs for services and it’s contribution as taxpayers and voters. The Exosystem level includes the other people and places the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large affect on her, such as parents, workplaces, extended family members, the neighborhood, etc. For example, if a child’s arents gets laid off from work, that may have negative affects on the child if her parents are unable to pay rent or to buy groceries; however, if her parent receives a promotion and a raise at work, this may have a postive affect on the child because her parents will be better able to give her her physical needs. The income of family can influence the child’s development greatly. Another example would be children from low-income families may score lower on standardized test than children from affluent families. Single parents families usually fall into this group because many have less resources than dual parent families.
They are unable to provide books, computers, or stimulating educational materials for their children that other families can. The lack of resources causes children to be unprepared for school, which means the children will have low social and cognitive skills and not be able to learn as well as other. The Macrosystem the society and sub-culture to which the developing person belongs,with particular reference to the belief systems,lifestyles, patterns of social interaction, and life changes. Children are affected by their culture through the communication of beliefs and customs parents receive from other structures in the esosystem and exosystem. Our culture dictates beliefs concerning religion , school, family, and community life. Generations pass on cultural values via these structures, and the developing child receives them in turn. For example, one culture in this country has the belief that parents are primarily responsible for their child’s up- bringing. To need help with the task of providing for one’s family is seen by the culture as negative. Because of this belief , our society has passed legislation that provide aid for families based on a deficit model. Another example can be seen in the cultural value of ndependence. Because of this value, people believe a necessary component of success in our society is individuality or separateness. This belief is responsible for fostering a competitive model in our educational and economic systems, rather than a cooperative one. Macrosystems are viewed as patterns, or sets of instructions for exosystems, mesosystems, and microsystems. Democratic ideology also affect school- family interaction, a mesosystem for example , school must inform parents of policies, and parents have the right to question those policies. Democratic ideology affects what s taught in schools, a microsystem, children must learn the principles upon which the United States was founded. A person who lives in the United States is influenced by that macrosystem, may also be part of other macrosystems, such as his or her ethnic group and culture. Macrosystem influences on mass media. As long as the broadcast media in the United States are designed to attract audiences to sell products , they will convey messages that are likely to influence attitudes and behavior(Perse 2001). Parents, must be cognizant of what is, and is not appropriate for their children to watch, listen, and interact with.