Stonehenge Research Paper Stonehenge is surely Essay
Stonehenge Essay, Research Paper
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Stonehenge is certainly Britain & # 8217 ; s greatest national icon, typifying enigma,
power and endurance - Stonehenge Research Paper Stonehenge is surely Essay introduction. Its original intent is ill-defined to us, but some have
speculated that it was a temple made for the worship of ancient Earth divinities.
It has been called an astronomical observatory for taging important events on
the prehistoric calendar. Others claim that it was a sacred site for the entombment
of high-level citizens from the societies of long ago.
While we can & # 8217 ; Ts say with any grade of certainty what it was for, we can state
that it wasn & # 8217 ; t constructed for any insouciant intent. Merely something really of import
to the ancients would hold been worth the attempt and investing that it took to
The rocks we see today represent Stonehenge in ruin. Many of the original
rocks have fallen or been removed by old coevalss for place building
or route fix. There has been serious harm to some of the smaller bluestones
ensuing from close visitant contact and the prehistoric carvings on the larger
sarsen rocks show marks of important wear.
In its twenty-four hours, the building of Stonehenge was an impressive technology
effort, necessitating committedness, clip and huge sums of manual labour. In its first
stage, Stonehenge was a big earthwork ; a bank and ditch agreement called a
henge, constructed about 5,000 old ages ago. It is believed that the ditch
was dug with tools made from the antlers of ruddy cervid and, perchance, wood. The
underlying chalk was loosened with choices and shoveled with the shoulderblades of
cowss. It was so loaded into baskets and carried off. Modern experiments
hold shown that these tools were more than equal to the great undertaking of Earth
excavation and moving.
About 2,000 BC, the first rock circle ( which is now the interior circle ) ,
comprised of little bluestones, was set up, but abandoned before completion. The
rocks used in that first circle are believed to be from the Prescelly
Mountains, located approximately 240 stat mis off, at the southwesterly tip of Wales. The
bluestones weigh up to 4 dozenss each and about 80 rocks were used, in all. Given
the distance they had to go, this presented rather a transit job.
Modern theories speculate that the rocks were dragged by roller and sleigh
from the inland mountains to the headwaters of Milford Haven. There they were
loaded onto tonss, flatboats or boats and sailed along the south seashore of Wales,
so up the Rivers Avon and Frome to a point near contemporary Frome in Somerset.
From this point, so the theory goes, the rocks were hauled overland, once more, to
a topographic point near Warminster in Wiltshire, about 6 stat mis off. From at that place,
it & # 8217 ; s back into the pool for a slow float down the River Wylye to Salisbury, so
up the Salisbury Avon to West Amesbury, go forthing merely a short 2 mile retarding force from
West Amesbury to the Stonehenge site.
The elephantine sarsen rocks ( which form the outer circle ) , weigh every bit much as 50
dozenss each. To transport them from the Marlborough Downs, approximately 20 stat mis to the
North, is a job of even greater magnitude than that of traveling the
bluestones. Most of the manner, the traveling is comparatively easy, but at the steepest
portion of the path, at Redhorn Hill, modern work surveies estimate that at least
600 work forces would hold been needed merely to acquire each rock past this obstruction.
Once on site, a sarsen rock was prepared to suit rock headers along
its top surface. It was so dragged until the terminal was over the gap of the
hole. Great levers were inserted under the rock and it was raised until gravitation
made it skid into the hole. At this point, the rock stood on about a 30?
angle from the land. Ropes were attached to the top and squads of work forces pulled
from the other side to raise it into the full unsloped place. It was secured
by make fulling the hole at its base with little, circular wadding rocks. At this point,
the headers were lowered into topographic point and secured vertically by mortise and tenon
articulations and horizontally by lingua and channel articulations. Stonehenge was proba
eventually completed around 1500 BC.
The inquiry of who built Stonehenge is mostly unreciprocated, even today. The
memorial & # 8217 ; s building has been attributed to many antediluvian peoples throughout
the old ages, but the most bewitching and digesting ascription has been to the
Druids. This erroneous connexion was foremost made around 3 centuries ago by the
antiquary, John Aubrey. Julius Caesar and other Roman authors told of a Gaelic
priesthood who flourished around the clip of their first conquering ( 55 BC ) . By
this clip, though, the rocks had been standing for 2,000 old ages, and were,
possibly, already in a destroyed status. Besides, the Druids worshipped in wood
temples and had no demand for rock constructions.
The best conjecture seems to be that the Stonehenge site was begun by the people
of the late Neolithic period ( around 3000 BC ) and carried frontward by people from
a new economic system which was originating at this clip. These “ new ” people,
called Beaker Folk because of their usage of clayware imbibing vass, began to
usage metal implements and to populate in a more communal manner than their
ascendants. Some think that they may hold been immigrants from the continent, but
that contention is non supported by archeological grounds. It is likely that
they were autochthonal people making the same old things in new ways.
The fable of King Arthur provides another narrative of the building of
Stonehenge. It is told by the 12th century author, Geoffrey of Monmouth, in
his History of the Kings of Britain that Merlin brought the rocks to the
Salisbury Plain from Ireland. Sometime in the 5th century, there had been a
slaughter of 300 British Lords by the unreliable Saxon leader, Hengest.
Geoffrey tells us that the high male monarch, Aurelius Ambrosius, wanted to make a
suiting commemoration to the slain work forces. Merlin suggested an expedition to Ireland for
the intent of transfering the Giant & # 8217 ; s Ring rock circle to Britain. Harmonizing
to Geoffrey of Monmouth, the rocks of the Giant & # 8217 ; s Ring were originally brought
from Africa to Ireland by giants ( who else but giants could manage the occupation? ) .
The rocks were located on “ Mount Killaraus ” and were used as a site
for executing rites and for mending. Led by King Uther and Merlin, the
expedition arrived at the topographic point in Ireland. The Britons, none of whom were
giants, seemingly, were unsuccessful in their efforts to travel the great
rocks. At this point, Merlin realized that merely his thaumaturgy humanistic disciplines would turn the
fast one. So, they were dismantled and shipped back to Britain where they were set
up ( see illus. at right ) as they had been earlier, in a great circle, around the
mass grave of the murdered Lords. The narrative goes on to state that Aurelius,
Uther and Arthur & # 8217 ; s replacement, Constantine were besides buried at that place in their time* .
Situated in a huge field, surrounded by 100s of unit of ammunition barrows, or entombment
hills, the Stonehenge site is genuinely impressive, and all the more so, the closer
you approach. It is a topographic point where much human attempt was expended for a intent
we can merely think at. Some people see it as a topographic point steeped in thaumaturgy and
enigma, some as a topographic point where their imaginativenesss of the yesteryear can be fired and
others hold it to be a sacred topographic point. But whatever point of view is brought to it and
whatever its original intent was, it should be treated as the ancients treated
it, as a topographic point of award.
The modern age has non been wholly sort to Stonehenge, despite the lip
service it pays to the saving of heritage sites. There is a major main road
running no more than 100 paces off from the rocks, and a commercial circus has
sprung up around it, complete with parking tonss, gift stores and ice pick
bases. The organisation, English Heritage, is committed to compensating these
wrongs, and in the coming old ages, we may acquire to see Stonehenge in the scene for
which it was originally created. Despite all its decrepitude and the
invasion of the modern universe, Stonehenge, today, is an amazing sight,
and no travel itinerary around Britain should exclude it.