Strategic human resource management toolkit The purpose of the toolkit is to provide the basis for conducting a strategic review of human resource management practices in order to develop and implement strategic human resource management. The individual tools can serve as checklists to analyse different aspects of HR strategy. They can also be used to involve people in the formulation of strategy by prompting discussions in workshops and focus groups.
The kit consists of the following tools: l l l l l l l l l l l l l Tool 1: Tool 2: Tool 3: Tool 4: Tool 5: Tool 6: Tool 7: Tool 8: Tool 9: Tool 10: Tool 11: Tool 12: Tool 13: Overall business analysis and HR implications; Analysis of competitive strategy and its implications; Analysis of business strategies and their implications; Analysis of fit between type of organization and HR strategy; ‘Best-practice’ analysis; Overall analysis of HR strategic goals; Overall strategic HRM gap analysis; Integration of business and HR strategies; Bundling of HR activities; Analysis of high-performance goals; High-performance work system gap analysis; Analysis of engagement and commitment levels – survey; Analysis of employee engagement goals; 206 l The strategic HR toolkit l l l l l l l l l l l Tool 14: Tool 15: Tool 16: Tool 17: Tool 18: Tool 19: Tool 20: Tool 21: Tool 22: Tool 23: Tool 24: Employee engagement gap analysis; Analysis of resourcing goals; Resourcing gap analysis; Analysis of talent management goals; Talent management gap analysis; Analysis of learning and development goals; Gap analysis of learning and development activities; Analysis of reward management goals; Gap analysis of reward management activities; Analysis of employee relations goals; Gap analysis of employee relations activities. Tool 1
Overall business analysis and HR implications Human Resource Implications What sort of people do we need in the business? Business Matters What business are we in? Where are we going? What sort of organization do we need to get there? To what extent are these strengths and weaknesses related to our HR capability? What opportunities have we got to develop and engage our people? What are the threats with regard to skills shortages and retention of key people? What are our strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats? What are the main strategic issues facing the business? What are the drivers of performance in the business? To what extent do these issues involve HR considerations?
What contribution should our people make to drive performance? Strategic human resource management toolkit l 207 Tool 2 Strategy Analysis of competitive strategy and its implications HR Area Possible Actions Recruit and retain high-quality people with innovative skills and a good track record in innovation. Develop strategic capability and provide encouragement and facilities for enhancing innovative skills and enhancing the intellectual capital of the organization. Provide financial incentives and rewards and recognition for successful innovations. Use sophisticated selection procedures to recruit people who are likely to deliver quality and high levels of customer service.
Encourage the development of a learning organization, develop and implement knowledge management processes, and support total quality and customer care initiatives with focused training. Link rewards to quality performance and the achievement of high standards of customer service. Proposed Actions Achieve Resourcing competitive advantage through Learning and innovation development Reward Achieve Resourcing competitive advantage through quality Learning and development Reward Achieve Resourcing competitive advantage through cost leadership Learning and development Develop core and periphery employment structures; recruit people who are likely to add value; if unavoidable, plan and manage downsizing humanely.
Provide training designed to improve productivity; inaugurate just-in-time training that is closely linked to immediate business needs and can generate measurable improvements in cost-effectiveness. Develop performance management processes that enable both financial and non-financial rewards to be related to competence and skills; ensure that pay levels are competitive. Reward 208 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 3 Analysis of business strategies and their implications HR Implications Performance Resourcing Learning and Development Reward Business Strategy Market Development Product Development New Technology Diversification Merger, Acquisition
Strategic human resource management toolkit l 209 Tool 4 Analysis of fit between type of organization and HR strategy Implications for HR Strategy Performance Resourcing Learning and Development Reward Miles and Snow Classification Prospectors, which operate in an environment characterized by rapid and unpredictable changes. Defenders, which operate in a more stable and predictable environment than prospectors and engage in more longterm planning. Analysers, which are a combination of the prospector and defender types. They operate in stable environments like defenders and also in markets where new products are constantly required like prospectors.
Reactors, which are unstable organizations existing in what they believe to be an unpredictable environment. They lack consistent, wellarticulated strategies and do not undertake long-range planning. 210 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 5 ‘Best-practice’ analysis ‘Best Practice’ Adopted by Similar Organizations Extent to which ‘Best Practice’ Exists in Own Organization Extent to which ‘Best Practice’ Should or Can Be Adopted in Context of Own Organization Pfeffer’s List of Seven ‘Best Practices’ 1. Employment security 2. Selective hiring 3. Self-managed teams 4. High compensation contingent on performance 5. Training to provide a skilled and motivated workforce 6. Reduction of status differentials 7. Sharing information
Strategic human resource management toolkit l 211 Tool 6 Overall analysis of HR strategic goals Importance* Effectiveness* Possible HR Strategic Goals Support the achievement of the organization’s goals Meet needs of employees Develop a high-performance culture Create a powerful employee value proposition Ensure that the organization is seen as a ‘great place to work’ Increase engagement Recruit and retain talented people Reward people according to their contribution Provide employees with a voice Improve communications Provide a good working environment * Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low Tool 7 Overall strategic HRM gap analysis What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap
Strategic HRM Area Performance Engagement Organization Development Resourcing Talent Management Learning and Development Reward Management Employee Relations Working Environment 212 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 8 Integration of business and HR strategies Integrated HR Strategy Business Strategy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tool 9 Bundling of HR activities Extent to which Any Bundling Has Taken Place Any Further Action Required Possible Areas in which Bundling (ie Linking HR Activities) Could Take Place High-performance work system Performance management Use of competency framework Development of joined-up talent management processes Development of blended learning processes Development of career grade and pay structures Strategic human resource management toolkit l 213 Tool 10
Analysis of high-performance goals Importance* Effectiveness* Characteristics of the Culture People know what’s expected of them – they understand their goals and accountabilities. People feel that their job is worth doing, and there is a strong fit between the job and their capabilities. Management defines what it requires in the shape of performance improvements, sets goals for success and monitors performance to ensure that the goals are achieved. There is strong leadership from the top that engenders a shared belief in the importance of continuing improvement. There is a focus on promoting positive attitudes that result in an engaged, committed and motivated workforce.
Performance management processes are aligned to business goals to ensure that people are engaged in achieving agreed objectives and standards. Capacities of people are developed through learning at all levels to support performance improvement and are provided with opportunities to make full use of their skills and abilities. People are valued and rewarded according to their contribution. A pool of talent ensures a continuous supply of high performers in key roles. There is a climate of trust and teamwork, aimed at delivering a distinctive service to the customer. *Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low 214 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 11 High-performance work system gap analysis What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap
Strategic HPWS Area Performance drivers identified and govern development of HPWS practices. Corporate performance goals cascaded to all employees. Roles clarify and emphasize performance goals. Effective performance management system in place. Rewards related to performance and contribution. Learning and development activities focus on delivering performance improvements. Performance improvement recognized as key aspect of leadership. Strategic human resource management toolkit l 215 Tool 12 Analysis of engagement and commitment levels – survey Please circle the number that most closely matches your opinion. Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Engagement: 1. I am very satisfied with the work I do. . My job is interesting. 3. I know exactly what I am expected to do. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4. I am prepared to put myself out to do my work. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5. My job is not very challenging. 6. I am given plenty of freedom to decide how to do my work. 7. I get plenty of opportunities to learn in this job. 8. The facilities/equipment/tools provided are excellent. 9. I do not get adequate support from my boss. 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 1 2 3 4 10. My contribution is fully recognized. 11. The experience I am getting now will be a great help in advancing my future career. 12. I find it difficult to keep up with the demands of my job. 13.
I have no problems in achieving a balance between my work and my private life. 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 14. I like working for my boss. 15. I get on well with my work colleagues. Commitment: 16. I think this organization is a great place in which to work. 17. I believe I have a good future in this organization. 18. I intend to go on working for this organization. 19. I am not happy about the values of this organization – the ways in which it conducts its business. 20. I believe that the products/services provided by this organization are excellent. 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 216 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 13 Analysis of employee engagement goals Importance* Effectiveness*
Engagement Goals – Enhance Engagement by: Providing interesting and challenging work, responsibility (feeling that the work is important and having control over one’s own resources), autonomy (freedom to act), scope to use and develop skills and abilities, the availability of the resources required to carry out the work, and opportunities for advancement. Establishing an enabling, supportive and inspirational work environment. Ensuring that leaders increase engagement through the ways in which they design jobs, allocate work, delegate and provide autonomy. Providing people with opportunities to grow and develop. Enabling people to feed their ideas and views upwards and feel they are making a contribution. * Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low Tool 14 Employee engagement gap analysis What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap Engagement Activity Job Design Performance Management Total Reward System Leadership Development Skills and Career Development Opportunities
Strategic human resource management toolkit l 217 Tool 15 Analysis of resourcing goals Importance* Effectiveness* Resourcing Goals Match people resources to business requirements. Avoid unexpected deficits or surpluses of staff. Achieve human capital advantage by employing higher-quality people than competitors. Attract and recruit high-quality candidates. Minimize recruitment costs. Maximize ‘recruitment intensity’, ie high numbers of applicants per vacancy. Increase predictive validity, ie the extent to which predictions of performance and overall suitability made when recruiting people are achieved. Increase retention rates. Reduce cost of labour turnover.
Achieve the required degree of flexibility in the use of people. * Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low 218 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 16 Resourcing gap analysis What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap Resourcing Activity Workforce planning based on thorough analysis of demand and supply forecasts. Take action to align resourcing plans to strategic business plans. Attractive employment brand developed to obtain good candidates. Speedy action taken to deal with forecast surpluses or deficits of staff. Use of a variety of potentially valuable sources of candidates. Role analysis uses competency framework and forms basis for structured interviews.
Line managers trained in interviewing techniques. Interviews supplemented by batteries of valid and reliable tests. Causes of labour turnover analysed and action taken to reduce losses. Costs of labour turnover known and used to deliver message on the need to improve retention rates. Risk analysis carried out to identify potential losses and take preventative action. Effectiveness of resourcing activities regularly reviewed and corrective action taken as necessary. Strategic human resource management toolkit l 219 Tool 17 Analysis of talent management goals Importance* Effectiveness* Talent Management Goals Define what is meant by talent in terms of competencies and potential.
Ensure that talent is treated as a key corporate resource. Develop a pool of talent that will provide a guaranteed supply of highquality people to meet future requirements. Provide for management succession. Rely primarily on growth from within while recognizing the need to bring in fresh blood from time to time. Identify those with talent and potential. Institute programmes to develop talent. Create a compelling ‘employee value proposition’. Develop the organization as ‘an employer of choice’. * Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low 220 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 18 Talent management gap analysis What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap
Talent Management Activity Define organization’s talent requirements. Conduct talent audits to identify talent. Identify sources of talent from within and outside the organization. Provide talented people with opportunities for career development and growth. Design jobs that provide talented people with the opportunity to develop their skills and potential. Define career paths and career ‘aiming points’ or ‘destination jobs’. Apply systematic policies to improve retention rates. Create management succession plans. Recognize those with talent through the reward system. Strategic human resource management toolkit l 221 Tool 19 Analysis of learning and development goals Importance* Effectiveness*
Learning and Development Goals Create human capital advantage by ensuring that the organization has more skilled and competent people than its competitors. Improve individual, team and organizational performance. Attract and retain high-quality people by offering them learning and development opportunities. Extend the skills base of the organization. Improve organizational flexibility by multiskilling. Provide additional non-financial rewards to people in the form of growth and career opportunities. Reduce the length of learning curves and thus minimize learning costs. Ensure that talented people are developed to achieve their maximum potential. Provide line managers with the skills required to lead and develop their people. Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low 222 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 20 Gap analysis of learning and development activities What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap Learning and Development Activity Encourage organizational learning. Develop the business as a learning organization. Identify learning needs. Introduce blended learning and development programmes to meet identified needs. Make good use of e-learning. Introduce systematic coaching. Develop a mentoring programme. Evaluate the outcome of learning and development programmes. Strategic human resource management toolkit l 223 Tool 21 Analysis of reward management goals
Importance* Effectiveness* Reward Management Goals Reinforce the achievement of organizational goals. Recruit and retain staff of the required calibre. Facilitate staff mobility. Achieve strong relationship between pay and performance. Reinforce organizational values. Engage and motivate employees. Cost-effective. Well communicated and understood by employees. Managed effectively in practice by line managers. * Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low 224 l The strategic HR toolkit Tool 22 Gap analysis of reward management activities What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap Reward Management Activity Develop total reward processes.
Use systematic processes for valuing roles and achieving internal equity. Regularly survey market rates to ensure pay levels are competitive. Develop and maintain grade and pay structures that provide a good framework for managing gradings and pay progression. Reward people for their contribution. Develop recognition programmes. Introduce flexible benefits. Manage general and individual pay reviews. Strategic human resource management toolkit l 225 Tool 23 Analysis of employee relations goals Importance* Effectiveness* Employee Relations Goals Build stable and cooperative relationships with employees and their trade unions. Operate on a partnership basis with trade unions.
Achieve engagement through employee involvement and communication processes. Minimize conflict with employees and their unions. Adopt a high-commitment approach that develops mutuality. Maintain bargaining structures and negotiating procedures that enable agreements to be reached smoothly. * Scale: 10 = high; 0 = low Tool 24 Gap analysis of employee relations activities What We Are Doing What We Should Be Doing How We Should Fill the Gap Employee Relations Activity Recognize unions. Develop partnership agreements. Maintain effective industrial relations procedures. Resolve disputes. Negotiate terms and conditions. Communicate. Provide employees with a voice (involvement and participation).