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Subject and Verbs

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Exercise 5( page 47) English has a suffix –en whose uses is illustrated in the following lists: List A: red blackmad soft hard sweet … List B: redden blackenmadden soften hardensweeten … A. The part of speech of the words in list A belongs to adjective category. The suffix “en” is attached to the words in list A. The other morphemes can be attached to the words in list A such as “er”, “est”, “ish” B and C. The words in list B are all the verbs E.

g. sharp – sharpen The derived verb form “sharpen” means “to make sharp something”.

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The suffix “en” introduces a new element of meaning, roughly means “make something X” where X is the meaning of the adjective. Exercise 6( page 48) English also has a prefix un-, whose use is illustrated in the following lists: List A: truelikelyacceptable wise real … List B: untrueunlikelyunacceptable unwise unreal … A. The words that prefix un- attaches to belong to the adjective category. B. When un- is prefixed to a word, the resultant new words also belong to the adjective category but with the opposite meaning.

C.

The prefix “un-“ known as derivational affix introduces a new element of meaning, roughly means “ the opposite of X” or “not X”, where X is the meaning of the adjective. ? Only one change is associated with this prefix, that is a semantic change (meaning change). D. The morpheme “un-“usually only attaches to the adjectives or the verbs. However, there are some exceptions like “uncola” or “uncar”, due to the fact that “cola” and “car” are nouns. In reality, some advertisers deliberately created these words to attract the consumers on purpose.

They can create these words because the morpheme “un-“ is a very productive morpheme and even in normal speech attaches to words that not adjectives or verbs. Exercise 7( page 49) Consider a new set of data: List A: tie wrap cover wind dress … List A: untie unwrap uncover unwind undress… A. It can be seen clearly that the prefix “un” illustrated here differ from the prefix “un-“ illustrated in the previous exercise due to the fact that the words that “un-“ is prefixed to here belongs to the verb categories. B.

The resultant new words also belong to the verb categories. C. It is the fact that the prefix “un-“ known as derivational affix introduces a new element of meaning, roughly means “ the reverse action of X” or “not X”, where X is the meaning of the action X. Therefore, it seems that only one semantic change occurs in this case. D. when the prefix ”un” in exercise 7 is added to the verb, it means that reserve or undo the result of a specified action. In another way, the prefix un- is added to the adjective in exercise 6 , it means that giving an opposite or negative force. Exercise 8 (page 49)

Based on the evidence in exercise 6&7 , we note that English has two prefixes un- with two different meanings. Take the word” unlockable” as an example – Firstly, when the prefix ”un” is added to the verb, it means that reserve or undo the result of a specified action. According to this rule, lock (khoa)( unlock( m? ) – However, on the other side, when the prefix un- is added to the adjective, it means that giving an opposite or negative force. Hence, in this situation “lockable” (can lock with a key )( unlockable ( can’t lock with a key) brings the negative meaning. Exercise 9(page 49)

List A: redorewriteresetrebuild…. List B: regorecryresleepredie…. A. It is said that phonological changes involves in the change of sound. But when attaching a pre re- in the word or a stem, there is no change of sound . It also means no change in phonological information. B. In this situation, the prefix re- attaches to the verbs. It can be seen that the verbs in list A are transitive verbs that occur with object noun phrases. In contract, in list B they are intransitive verbs that do not occur with objects. It seems to be that prefix re- can only attaches to transitive verbs in list A, not to intransitive verbs.

However , there are some exceptions when prefix r- can attach to intransitive verbs in list B such as resit, rego, relapse,… C. When re- is attached to a word or stem, the part of speech of the resulting word or stem still remains. For example: “do”: a verb( “redo” is also a verb. D. In general, adding the prefix re to a word or stem, the meaning changes indicate the repetition of action or with the meaning back or backward to indicate withdrawal or backward motion such as revert, regenerate,.. In the ideal ‘cases, that prefix “re-” brings the unpredicted meaning E.

Some word with “re” that have erractic or unexpected meanings such as rebel, rescue, remark, refer, receive, relay, replace, reverse, …. F. We can say “ reshoot a movie” because shoot is a verb. When we add pre re in this situation , it brings the general meaning that repeats the action “shoot” a movie. But we can’t say “ reshoot a terrorist” because after” shoot “ is a object about person. G. The prefix re- also brings itself some problematic aspects of morphological analysis. – First of all, as can be said above, the word information rule is that the prefix re- only attaches to the verbs.

However, there are some exceptions that the prefix re- is also attached to some adjectives such as refine, renew.. – Secondly, as we know that when we add the prefix re to a word or stem, the meaning changes often indicate the repetition of action or with the meaning back or backward to indicate withdrawal or backward motion. However, prefix re- doesn’t seem to have meaning repetition of action in some cases . For example : refuse, reflex, release.. Exercise 11(page 50) A. (The) hand: elyour(sing): in (the) house : evyour (plural): niz Plural: lerto: e My: imin: de Our: mizfrom: en B.

The order of the morphemes in the given Turkish data: Head Noun + Possessive pronoun+ plural + preposition C. From your(pl) house: evnizen To your house: evimize In my house : evimde CHAPTER 3 Exercise 2(page 85) a. voiceless bilabial stop: pf. voiced interdental fricative: m b. voiced alveolar stop: dg. voiceless alveopalatal affricate : c c. lax high front vowel: Ih. tense high back vowel: uw d. voiceless alveolar fricative: si. law low front vowel: ? e. lateral : lj. voiceless velar stop: k CHAPTER 5: Exercise 3 (page 185) Draw the tree diagrams for the following noun phrases a.

The weather in England NP Art N PP P N The weather in England b. John’s uncle in England NP NP PP Poss N P N N NP Affix John ‘s uncle in England c. John’s uncle in England’s company NP NP PP Poss N P NP NP Affix Poss N N NP Affix N John ‘s uncle in England ‘s company Exercise 4(page 185)

The sequence of words light, house, keeper is structurally ambiguous a. Make a noun phrase from the sequence of words: The light of the house and the keeper b. Groupings ? The light (of the house and the keeper): when the phrases of the house and the keeper are grouped together, the sentence is interpreted to mean that there are two things: the light of the house and the light of the keeper. ? (The light of the house) and the keeper: when the phrase of the house is grouped with the light, the sentence is interpreted to mean that there is one thing (the light of the house) and there is one person ( the keeper)

Exercise 5 (page 186) • Firstly, “so” is used as an intensifying adverb that modifies adjective E. g: That is so good. • But in American English, the word “so” can be used as an intensifier, or emphasize E. g: I will so pass the exam ( “so” is used to modify verbs and occurs before the verbs > “So” is used to modify verbs and occurs before the verbs |Original sentences |Sentences used the word “so” as intensifier/emphasizer |Goal of using “so” | |He is nice. |He is so nice. |modify adjective | |They took our money. |*They took so our money. It is rarely used because it sounds as| | | |if the speaker has an attitude | | | |modify verb | | |They did so take our money. | | |Mary is running in tomorrow’s race. |Mary is so running in tomorrow’s race. |modify verb | |I know the answer. |*I know so the answer. It is rarely used because it sounds as| | | |if the speaker has an attitude | | | |modify verb | | |I do so know the answer. | | |I will pass the test. |I will so pass the test. |modify verb | ? From this table, we can find out that the placement of “so” is before adjective, verb and after modal, auxiliary verb Other placement such as after verb is on restriction ? Some examples: E. g: I met some friends yesterday. ( I met so some friends yesterday ( it’s nonsense) ( Did you meet so some friends yesterday? (it’s nonsense) Exercise 6(page 186) A , B. Construct an appropriate tag a. That John arrived late annoyed Bill, didn’t it? b. There were three men in the park, weren’t there? c. It was Mary who solved the problem, wasn’t she? d. The car, truck, and train collided with each other, didn’t they? e. Thirty or forty bees have built a hive, haven’t they? f. That movie, the boys really like a lot, doesn’t they? C.

The subject of each sentence: a. That John arrived late b. There c. Maryd. The car, truck and train e. Thirty and forty beesf. The boys Exercise 7(page 187) A. According to (iii) the verb agrees in number with the noun immediately to its left. ? It is true in the sentences: – The boy likes that cake > the verbs take on a singular form (likes) because the preceding noun is singular (the boy) – The boys like that cake > the verbs take on a plural form (like) because the preceding noun is plural (the boys) ? However, it is inaccurate in some cases For example in this sentence” the boy and the girl likes that cake” .

From the rule (iii) the verb depends on the nearest noun on the left so the verb is “likes”. However, it is incorrect because the subject of this sentence is “the boy and the girl” that are two nouns combining by “ and” ? The rule (iii) is inaccurate B. According to (iv) the verb agrees in number with the noun phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence. a. That cake, the boy likes b. That cake, the boys like c. That cake, the boys likes. In these 3 sentences, the sentences (a) and (b) are correct, but (c) is incorrect. It is wrong because the noun phrase at the beginning of the sentence” that cake” is not its subject. The boys ” is the subject of this sentence which is the plural form, so the correct sentence is “That cake, the boys like”. ? The rule (iv) is inaccurate C. From these example above, it can be said that the verb of a sentence agrees with its subject in number . The proper way to state the verb agreement rule is that the number present in a noun must agree with the number shown in the conjugated form of the verb that is being used, and that the person of the noun must agree with the person of the conjugated form of the verb that you are using. Exercise 8(page 187) A. In Navajo , for sentence of the form NP1 NP2 yi + Verb

NP1 is interpreted as the subject and NP2 is interpreted as the object B. For the sentence of the form NP1 NP2 bi + Verb NP1 is interpreted as the object and NP2 is interpreted as the subject Exercise 9( page 188) A. Language ? 1:Navajo House: Liikicked: yiztal Mule: dzaaneezkissed: yiztoQs Boy : ashkiisaw: yo’i Girl: at’eed ? Basic word order: NP1 + NP2 + Verb ( NP1: Subject, NP2: object) B. Language ? 2: Lummi Man: ce-sw? y? q?? Women: s? -sleni? Bear: ce-sc? tx? n Boy: ce-swi? qi?? l Knows: xcits Saw: le? n? s ? Basic word order: Verb + NP1 +NP2 ( NP1: Subject, NP2: object)

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Subject and Verbs. (2016, Sep 18). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/subject-and-verbs/

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